[9a - 43 lines; 9b - 51 lines]

1)[line 1]בגופן שלנוB'GOFEN SHELANU- our script, characters (this word is in the singular, and refers to the curvature or shape of the letters. The Girsa of the Aruch is B'GIFEN SHELANU)

2)[line 12]"ויקרא לו לבן יגר שהדותא ויעקב קרא לו גלעד""VA'YIKRA LO LAVAN YEGAR SAHADUSA, V'YA'AKOV KARA LO GAL'ED." - "And Lavan called it (the pile of stones that Yakov and his sons had erected), 'Yegar Sahadusa,' but Yakov called it 'Gal'ed.'" (Bereishis 31:47) (ARAMAIC IN THE TORAH)

(a)The Seforno explains that Yakov did not want to change his language. Targum Yonasan explains that he specifically gave it a name in Lashon ha'Kodesh.

(b)Despite the similarity between Lashon ha'Kodesh and Aramaic, the fact remains that the one is "Kodesh" and the other is not. It is the language that HaSh-m used to create the world, with which He spoke to the Avos and with which He wrote the Torah. It is understandable, then, that Yakov Avinu remained unimpressed by Lavan's precedent and insisted on calling the pile by its Lashon ha'Kodesh name.

3)[line 16]פתגםPISGAM- decree

4)[line 16]"ונשמע פתגם המלך אשר יעשה בכל מלכותו כי רבה היא וכל הנשים יתנו יקר לבעליהן למגדול ועד קטן""V'NISHMA PISGAM HA'MELECH ASHER YA'ASEH B'CHOL MALCHUSO KI RABAH HI V'CHOL HA'NASHIM YITNU YEKAR L'VA'ALEIHEN LEMI'GADOL V'AD KATAN."- "And the edict of the king that he will carry out will be heard throughout his kingdom, because it is great and all the wives will show respect to their husbands, great and small alike." (Esther 1:20) - The word "Yakar" is Aramaic for "Kavod."

5)[line 17]יקרYEKAR- honor, respect

6)[line 26]דתלמי המלךTALMAI HA'MELECH- King Ptolemy II ("Philadelphus"), king of Egypt (285 - 246 BCE)

7)[line 32]"בראשית ברא אלקים את השמים ואת הארץ""BEREISHIS BARA ELOKIM ES HA'SHAMAYIM V'ES HA'ARETZ." - "In the beginning, G-d created the heaven and the earth." (Bereishis 1:1) (THE FIRST WORD IN THE TORAH)

(a)Rashi explains that the Chachamim found it necessary to invert, in their translation for Ptolemy, the order of the first three words ("Elokim Bara Bereishis") in order to avoid the false conclusion that Talmai would have otherwise drawn, that "Bereishis" is the name of a god that created Elokim (Chas v'Shalom).

(b)Tosfos asks that "Bereishis" undeniably means "in the beginning" and has no connotations of a divine name. Moreover, they also translated that word into Greek.

(c)Rashi clearly maintains that Talmai's mistake would have been based on the fact that the Greeks took for granted that the Torah would open with a divine name (as the Torah Temimah explains). In any case, now that "Elokim" appears only as the third word, the Greeks would extrapolate that another god created Him. (Their mistake would conform with Greek mythological belief, which subscribes to the concept of many gods, all human in behavior, and some more human than others.) Also, Ptolemy was looking for "flaws" in the Torah to substantiate his false theories, as the Torah Temimah points out a number of times regarding this Gemara.

8)[line 33]"ויאמר אלקים נעשה אדם בצלמנו כדמותנו וירדו בדגת הים ובעוף השמים ובבהמה ובכל הארץ ובכל הרמש על הארץ""VA'YOMER ELOKIM, 'NA'ASEH ADAM B'TZALMENU KI'DEMUSENU V'YIRDU VI'DEGAS HA'YAM UV'OF HA'SHAMAYIM UVA'BEHEMAH UV'CHOL HA'ARETZ UV'CHOL HA'ROMES AL HA'ARETZ." - "And HaSh-m said, 'Let us make man in our image, like our form. They shall rule over the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, and over the animal, the whole earth, and every creeping thing that creeps on the earth." (Bereishis 1:26) (LET US MAKE MAN)

(a)The Chachamim changed this to "E'eseh Adam" ("I will make man..."), because they were afraid that King Ptolemy would extrapolate from here that there are two gods (Chas v'Shalom).

(b)Why, then, does the Torah itself write, "Let us make man"? Rashi explains that the Torah is teaching us that one should always consult with others before making major decisions, even if it means consulting one's inferiors. As far as the Resha'im are concerned (who will extrapolate from here that there are two gods), that is a result of their misuse of their logic and free choice, as the Navi writes in Hoshe'a (14:10), "For the ways of HaSh-m are straight; Tzadikim will walk in them, while Resha'im will stumble in them."

(c)The Gemara in Sanhedrin (35b) comments that when an ambiguous verse appears which may be basis for the Tzedukim (i.e. the Resha'im) to go astray, the answer is always written nearby. In the case of the verse, "Let us make man in our image," the Torah writes immediately afterwards, "And HaSh-m created man in His image."

9)[line 33]"ויכל אלקים ביום השביעי מלאכתו אשר עשה וישבת ביום השביעי מכל מלאכתו אשר עשה""VA'YECHAL ELOKIM BA'YOM HA'SHEVI'I MELACHTO ASHER ASAH, VA'YISHBOS BA'YOM HA'SHEVI'I MI'KOL MELACHTO ASHER ASAH." - "And HaSh-m finished on the seventh day the work which He did, and He rested on the seventh day from all the work which He did." (Bereishis 2:2) (HASH-M RESTED ON SHABBOS)

(a)The Chachamim, in their translation for Ptolemy, changed the verse to read, "And HaSh-m finished on the sixth day the work which He did, and He rested on the seventh day." Had they not made that change, Ptolemy would have had grounds to claim that HaSh-m worked during part of the first Shabbos of the Creation.

(b)The truth is that either HaSh-m finished the creation simultaneously with the advent of Shabbos (or, as the Torah Temimah explains, the work was finished as Shabbos came in), or He concluded the Creation on Shabbos by desisting from work. The Chachamim knew, however, that Ptolemy would not accept this explanation.

10)[line 34]"זכר ונקבה בראם ויברך אתם ויקרא את שמם אדם ביום הבראם""ZACHAR U'NEKEIVAH BERA'AM VA'YEVARECH OSAM VA'YIKRA ES SHEMAM ADAM B'YOM HIBAR'AM."- "He created them male and female, and He called their name 'Adam' on the day that He created them." (Bereishis 5:2) (ADAM: ONE PERSON, TWO BODIES)

(a)Had the Chachamim translated the verse accurately, Ptolemy would have thought that Adam and Chavah were created as two individuals. The Chachamim therefore changed the translation to read, "Zachar u'Nekeivah Bera'o" - "He created him male and female."

(b)The Torah writes "Zachar u'Nekeivah Bera'am" because HaSh-m's initial intention was to create them as separate entities. Another verse states, "Ki b'Tzelem Elokim Asah Es ha'Adam" (Bereishis 9:6), clearly indicating that He actually created them as one being.

(c)Why did HaSh-m initially intend to create Adam and Chavah separately, and why did He decide to create them as one entity before dividing them into two? See Insights to Berachos 61:1.

11)[line 35]"הבה נרדה ונבלה שם שפתם אשר לא ישמעו איש שפת רעהו""HAVAH NERDAH V'NAVLAH SHAM SEFASAM ASHER LO YISHM'U ISH SEFAS RE'EHU." - "Come let us descend and mix up their language that they should not understand one another's language." (Bereishis 11:7) (HASH-M SPEAKS IN THE PLURAL VOICE)

(a)The Chachamim were afraid that the use of the plural would give Ptolemy grounds to conclude that there is more than one G-d (Chas v'Shalom).

(b)The Gemara in Sanhedrin (35b) comments that when an ambiguous verse appears which may be basis for the Tzedukim (i.e. the Resha'im) to go astray, the answer is always written nearby. In the case of this verse, the Torah writes (in verse 5), "And HaSh-m descended to see the city.... "

(c)The Torah Temimah adds that it is normal for a King to use plural terminology when referring to Himself.

12)[line 36]"ותצחק שרה בקרבה לאמר אחרי בלתי היתה לי עדנה ואדני זקן""VA'TITZCHAK SARAH B'KIRBAH LEIMOR, ACHAREI VELOSI HAISAH LI EDNAH VA'DONI ZAKEN." - "And Sarah laughed inside her, saying, 'After I am withered will I regain my youthfulness, and my husband is old.'" (Bereishis 18:12)

(SARAH LAUGHED)

(a) Rashi explains that Ptolemy would not have understood why HaSh-m took Sarah to task for laughing when she heard that she would have a son, and not Avraham. He also would not have believed that Avraham laughed out of happiness at the good news, while Sarah's laugh was based on skepticism (as Targum Onkelus explains, as cited by the Maharsha). Hence, the Chachamim translated "b'Kirbah" to mean "b'Kerovosehah," she laughed "amidst her relatives," so that it appeared as though she was scolded for doing what she did in public.

(b) The Torah Temimah, however, explains that they changed "b'Kirbah" to "b'Kerovosehah" because Ptolemy would not have understood how Avraham knew that Sarah had laughed, and he would not have accepted the answer that Avraham had Ru'ach ha'Kodesh. The Chachamim avoided the problem by writing that Sarah spoke to her relatives.

13)[line 37]אבוסEVUS- a feeding trough

14)[line 38]"בסדם אל תבא נפשי בקהלם אל תחד כבדי כי באפם הרגו איש וברצנם עקרו שור""B'SODAM AL TAVO NAFSHI, BI'KEHALAM AL TECHAD KEVODI, KI VE'APAM HARGU ISH, UVI'RETZONAM IKRU SHOR." - "Into their conspiracy may my soul not enter! With their congregation, do not join, O my honor, because in their anger they killed a man and they willfully uprooted a feeding-trough." (Bereishis 49:6) (THE DEED OF SHIMON AND LEVI)

Ptolemy, who would take any opportunity to disparage the Torah, would have been thrilled to have discovered that Yakov called two of his sons murderers. He would not have accepted the fact that all of the men of the town of Shechem were Chayav Misah, either because they failed to judge their leader, Shechem, or because they were all idolaters (Ramban). Yakov used such strong terminology in his rebuke, not because of what they did, but because of the way they did it, and because in the process they endangered their own family, as he explicitly stated.

15)[line 38]"ויקח משה את אשתו ואת בניו וירכבם על החמר וישב ארצה מצרים ויקח משה את מטה האלקים בידו""VA'YIKACH MOSHE ES ISHTO V'ES BANAV VA'YARKIVEM AL HA'CHAMOR VA'YASHAV ARTZAH MITZRAYIM VA'YIKACH MOSHE ES MATEH HA'ELOKIM B'YADO" - " And Moshe took his wife and his sons and he rode them on a donkey and returned to the land of Egypt, and Moshe took the staff of G-d in his hand." (Shemos 4:20) (MOSHE'S RETURN TO MITZRAYIM)

(a)The Chachamim changed in their translation the word "donkey" to "on an animal on which people ride" (implying also a camel, which is more becoming for a leader of Yisrael to ride). They did not specify a camel, since that would have been false, and they sought to avoid falsehoods wherever possible (Maharsha).

(b)The question arises, why did Moshe himself not have his family ride on a camel, which would have been far more dignified. Apart from the obvious answer that his actions conform with the prophecy that Mashi'ach will arrive "poor, riding on a donkey" (and Moshe, after all, was the Mashi'ach of Yisrael in Egypt), Rashi explains that "ha'Chamor," the donkey mentioned in this verse, is the same donkey on which Avraham Avinu rode to the Akeidah. Accordingly, Moshe Rabeinu indeed was acting with great dignity when he had his family ride the donkey back to Egypt. Ptolemy, however, would not have accepted such an explanation.

16)[line 39]"ומושב בני ישראל אשר ישבו במצרים שלשים שנה וארבע מאות שנה""U'MOSHAV BNEI YISRAEL ASHER YASHVU B'MITZRAYIM SHELOSHIM SHANAH V'ARBA ME'OS SHANAH." - "And the time that Yisrael lived in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years." (Shemos 12:40) (THE NUMBER OF YEARS OF THE SOJOURN IN MITZRAYIM)

(a)When the Chachamim translated the verse as, "And the time that Yisrael lived in Egypt and in other lands was four hundred years," they made two changes: 1. They reduced the total number of years by thirty (in order so that this verse would not contradict the verse in Lech Lecha, which specifically specifies four hundred years (see Maharsha). 2. They added "and in other lands," because we know that they spent only two hundred and ten years in Egypt.

(b)Ptolemy would not have accepted the explanation that the four hundred years began from the birth of Yitzchak, and the extra thirty years began earlier, at the Bris Bein ha'Besarim. He also would not have accepted that when the Torah states "Egypt," it means "Egypt and in other lands."

(c)Similarly, Ptolemy would not have accepted the explanation that although they spent only two hundred and ten years in Egypt, the hard work and harsh conditions were counted as four hundred years.

17)[line 41]זאטוטיZA'ATUTEI- dignitaries (RASHI, TOSFOS) (with a veiled connotation of lowliness - TOSFOS)

18)[line 41]"וישלח את נערי בני ישראל ויעלו עלת ויזבחו זבחים שלמים לה' פרים... ואל אצילי בני ישראל לא שלח ידו ויחזו את האלקים ויאכלו וישתו""VA'YISHLACH ES NA'AREI BNEI YISRAEL VA'YA'ALU OLOS VA'YIZBECHU ZEVACHIM SHELAMIM LA'HASH-M PARIM… V'EL ATZILEI BNEI YISRAEL LO SHALACH YADO VA'YECHEZU ES HA'ELOKIM VA'YOCHLU VA'YISHTU" - "And he sent the youngsters of Bnei Yisrael and they brought burnt-offerings and they slaughtered bulls to HaSh-m as feast peace offerings to HaSh-m… And He did not stretch out His hand to [punish] the princes of Bnei Yisrael, because they saw Elokim after eating and drinking." (Shemos 24:5, 11)

(THE YOUNGSTERS WHO GREETED THE SHECHINAH)

(a)Rashi on the Torah explains that "Na'arei" refers to the Bechoros (firstborn sons) and "Atzilei" to Nadav, Avihu, and the Elders. Here, however, Rashi seems to explain that both refer to Nadav and Avihu, to whom the Torah initially refers as "Na'arei," which has the connotation of servitude (as the verse says with regard to Yehoshua, in Shemos 33:11).

(b)Had Ptolemy seen the word "Na'arei," he would have wondered how Moshe could have sent such unworthy emissaries to greet the Shechinah. The Chachamim therefore translated the word to one which has connotations of greatness. Since the changed "Na'arei," they also changed "Atzilei" as well. (See Tosfos and Maharshal.)

(c)Ptolemy would not have accepted the explanation that "Na'arei" is a most fitting term in this context, because it connotes humility (as when it is used to describe Yehoshua), and there is no one greater in the eyes of HaSh-m than a humble person.

(d)Our translation of the verse follows the Tanchuma, cited by Rashi. Rashi himself, however, adds that Onkelus translates the verse differently. Onkelus translates the verse in accordance with the Gemara in Berachos (17a), "And they saw the glory of HaSh-m, and they rejoiced with their Korbanos as if they had eaten and drunk." (The Gemara there derives from this verse that the Tzadikim in Olam ha'Ba will neither eat nor drink, "but rather they will sit with their crowns on their heads and bask in glory of the Shechinah." (See Rambam and Ra'avad in Hilchos Teshuvah 8:2, and Torah Temimah.)

9b----------------------------------------9b

19)[line 1]"ויחר למשה מאד ויאמר אל ה' אל תפן אל מנחתם לא חמור אחד מהם נשאתי ולא הרעתי את אחד מהם""VA'YICHAR L'MOSHE ME'OD VA'YOMER EL HASH-M AL TEFEN EL MINCHASAM, LO CHAMOR ECHAD MEHEM NASASI V'LO HA'RE'OSI ES ECHAD MEHEM." - "This distressed Moshe greatly, and he said to HaSh-m, 'Do not turn to their gift offering! Not one donkey did I take from them as tax, nor did I wrong even one of them." (Bamidbar 16:15). (MOSHE TOOK NOTHING FROM THE PEOPLE)

(a)Ptolemy would not have been able to comprehend that a national leader would serve his people and give of himself without receiving anything in return. Had he read in the Torah that Moshe exclaimed that he did not take a single donkey from the people, he would have inferred that Moshe must have taken other things. Accordingly, in their translation of the Torah, the Chachamim changed the word "Chamor" to "Chemed" ("any desirable object")

(b)In truth, Moshe was referring to when he took his wife and children to Egypt from Midyan, when he rode them on a donkey. Although his journey was on behalf of Klal Yisrael, Moshe paid all the expenses himself and demanded nothing from the people.

20)[line 1]"ופן תשא עיניך השמימה וראית את השמש ואת הירח ואת הכוכבים כל צבא השמים ונדחת והשתחוית להם ועבדתם אשר חלק ה' אלקיך אתם לכל העמים תחת כל השמים... וילך ויעבד אלקים אחרים וישתחו להם ולשמש או לירח או לכל צבא השמים אשר לא צויתי""U'FEN TISA EINECHA HA'SHAMAIMAH V'RA'ISA ES HA'SHEMESH V'ES HA'YARE'ACH V'ES HA'KOCHAVIM KOL TZEVA HA'SHAMAYIM V'NIDACHTA V'HISHTACHAVISA LA'HEM V'AVADTAM... ASHER CHALAK HASH-M ELOKECHA L'CHOL HA'AMIM TACHAS HA'SHAMAYIM.... VA'YELECH VA'YA'AVOD ELOHIM ACHERIM VA'YISHTACHU LAHEM VELA'SHEMESH O LA'YARE'ACH O L'CHOL TZEVA HA'SHAMAYIM ASHER LO TZIVISI." - "And lest you raise your eyes heavenwards and you see the sun, the moon, and the stars, the entire legion of the heavens, and you be drawn astray and bow to them and worship them, which HaSh-m your G-d has apportioned to all the peoples under the entire heaven.… And he goes and worships other gods and prostrates himself to them, or to the sun or to the moon or to all the hosts of the heavens which I did not command." (Devarim 4:19, 17:3) (THE NATIONS THAT GO ASTRAY AFTER IDOLS)

(a)HaSh-m placed the Nochrim under the jurisdiction of the heavenly bodies, and Yisrael under His personal, direct jurisdiction (Ramban). (Accordingly, Chazal tell us that Eretz Yisrael is governed directly by Him, and that Yisrael is not subject to the influences of the Mazalos.)

(b)Both of these verses contain heretical implications. The first implies that HaSh-m gives permission to Bnei Noach to worship the heavenly bodies (doing so is, in fact, prohibited by the seven laws of Bnei Noach). The second is that these same bodies came into being against HaSh-m's wishes, Chas v'Shalom. Ptolemy certainly would have interpreted the verses to mean that idolatry is permitted to Bnei Noach, and that HaSh-m's power is limited (Chas v'Shalom).

(c)Therefore, in their translation of the Torah, the Chachamim changed the first verse to read, "... which HaSh-m gave to the lot of all the nations under the heavens to illuminate the world," and the second they changed to, "... which I did not command to worship," both of which express the correct interpretation of the verse.

(d)Ptolemy certainly would not have accepted Rashi's second explanation of the original text of the verse, that HaSh-m set the luminaries in the sky not to illuminate the earth but to enable the Nochrim to worship them and thus be driven from the world on account of their sin.

21)[line 4]צעירת הרגליםTZE'IRAS HA'REGALIM- the animal with the young feet (the front feet are shorter than the hind feet and appear to be not fully grown)

22)[line 5]הארנבתARNEVES- hare; the angora rabbit, prized for its wool. It is considered a ruminant by the Torah (Vayikra 11:6, Devarim 14:7). According to some, this is because of its unique practice of excreting soft food pellets in the early morning hours and then consuming them (scientifically termed "coprophagy") in order to process the large amounts of cellulose that it eats. (Because it is written in the female gender in the Torah, the Chachamim were afraid that Ptolemy would take it as an insult directed at his wife, whom he called "Bunny" (PORAS YOSEF).) Alternatively, they were afraid that Ptolemy would feel that his

23)[line 10]"יפת""YAFT..."- "May HaSh-m give beauty to Yefes, and he will dwell in the tents of Shem..." (Bereishis 9:27)

24)[line 15]למרובה בגדיםMERUBEH BEGADIM (Kohen Gadol)

(a)A Kohen who becomes the Kohen Gadol must wear the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol and do the Avodah for seven consecutive days to indicate his consecration, as stated in Shemos 29:30, "Shiv'as Yamim..." (RAMBAM Hilchos Klei ha'Mikdash 4:13).

(b)The eight vestments are: 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3. Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6. Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).

(c)The vestments of the ordinary Kohanim are 1. Kutones (long shirt), 2. Michnasayim (breeches), 3. Avnet (belt), 4. Migba'as (hat).

(d)The Kohen Gadol is also known as the Kohen Mashi'ach since he was anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah, the oil made by Moshe Rabeinu for anointing the Mishkan and its vessels, the Kohanim Gedolim, and the kings of the Davidic dynasty.

(e)Before the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash, King Yoshiyahu ordered the Aron to be hidden to prevent its capture (Divrei ha'Yamim II 35:3). The jar of Manna (Shemos 16:32-34), Aharon's staff (Bamidbar 16:16-26), and the Shemen ha'Mishchah (Shemos 30:22-33) were also hidden together with the Aron (Yoma 52b). As a result, there was no Shemen ha'Mishchah with which to anoint the Kohanim Gedolim during the final years of the first Beis ha'Mikdash and all of the years of the second Beis ha'Mikdash. The Kohanim Gedolim at the time of the second Beis ha'Mikdash are called Merubeh Begadim because they were consecrated solely by wearing the Bigdei Kehunah for seven days.

25)[line 16]פר הבא על כל המצותPAR HA'BA AL KOL HA'MITZVOS (PAR KOHEN MASHI'ACH)

(a)The Par Kohen Mashi'ach is the young bull brought as a Korban Chatas by a Kohen Gadol who transgresses an Isur Kares thinking that the Torah did not prohibit such an act. (The bull is brought by a Kohen Gadol for the same sins that a Par He'elem Davar is brought when the people commit transgressions upon being misled by Beis Din in a Halachic matter.)

(b)The blood of the bull is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.

(c)The meat of the bull, together with the other parts that are not sacrificed, is burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-12). Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim. (According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the meat are Metamei Begadim.)

26)[line 17]פר יום הכפוריםPAR YOM HA'KIPURIM

(a)In Parshas Acharei Mos (Vayikra 16:3-6), Aharon is commanded to offer on Yom ha'Kipurim a bull as a Chatas and a ram as an Olah from his own money. From the money of the Tzibur, he is commanded to offer two goats as Korbenos Chatas (one goat was sacrificed and one was sent to Azazel) and one ram as an Olah. The offering of these Korbanos form the major part of the Yom ha'Kipurim service that the Kohen Gadol must perform every year.

(b)The Kohen Gadol sprinkles the blood of the bull in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:14), on the Paroches (ibid. 16:16) and on the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores (ibid. 16:18). Its flesh is entirely burned in the place outside of Yerushalayim where the ashes from the Mizbe'ach are deposited. The remainder of its blood is poured on the western Yesod of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, but omitting this last procedure does not prevent atonement, because during the rest of the year pouring the blood on the Yesod is not a requirement for atonement.

27)[line 18]ועשירית האיפהASIRIS HA'EIFAH (CHAVITEI KOHEN GADOL)

The Kohen Gadol offers a Minchah every day that consists of 1/10 of an Eifah of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They are fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked. Half of the rolls are offered in the morning and half towards evening. They are completely burned on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 6:12-15). The Chavitin must be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he does not actually have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach.

28)[line 38]מעלין בקודש ולא מורידיןMA'ALIN BA'KODESH V'LO MORIDIN

When a person or object receives a higher status of holiness, we do not lower its status at a later time. We may only raise it to a higher level.

29)[line 42]במה גדולה / במה קטנהBAMAH GEDOLAH/BAMAH KETANAH

(a)A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built (when the Mishkan was not in use), there were times when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on public altars (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and private altars (Bamas Yachid). (See Insights to Pesachim 91:2)

(b)BAMAS TZIBUR: Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At various times in our history, the Bamah Tzibur was in Gilgal (where the Mishkan was kept before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved to Shiloh), Nov and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed, see Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a Bamas Tzibur. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamas Tzibur or only the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time. (Zevachim 117a)

(c)BAMAS YACHID: Any man, even if he was not a Kohen could build a Bamas Yachid anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices. Only voluntary sacrifices were allowed to be offered on a Bamas Yachid.

30)[line 49]שילהSHILOH- the city in the portion of Efrayim where the Mishkan was built after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael. The Mishkan stood there for 369 years (Seder Olam Rabah 11).

31)[line 50, 51]קדשים קלים / קדשי קדשיםKODSHIM KALIM/KODSHEI KODASHIM

(a)The term Kodshim Kalim refers to the Korbenos Shelamim, Todah, Ma'asar Behemah, Pesach and Bechor, which have a lesser degree of sanctity. They may be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part) and may be eaten in the entire city of Yerushalayim by men or women.

(b)The term Kodshei Kodashim refers to the Korbenos Olah, Chatas and Asham (and Menachos), which have a greater degree of sanctity. They may only be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah and may only be eaten in the Azarah by Kohanim.

32)[line 50]בכל הרואה... לפנים מן החומהB'CHOL HA'RO'EH... LIFNIM MIN HA'CHOMAH

(a)When the Mishkan was in Shiloh, Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni were eaten in any place from where Shiloh could be seen.

(b)At the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash, Kodshim Kalim and Ma'aser Sheni could only be eaten within the walls of Yerushalayim.

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