[8a - 44 lines; 8b - 35 lines]

1)[line 1]המודר הנאה מחבירוHA'MUDAR HANA'AH ME'CHAVERO- a person (Reuven) whose friend (Shimon) made a vow that he (Reuven) may not derive any benefit from his friend (Shimon)

2)[line 2]דריסת הרגלDERISAS HA'REGEL- setting foot into his house

3)[line 6]ויתורVITUR- to forgo [the use of things that a person would normally let another person use without asking permission]

4)[line 7]נדרים לנדבותNEDARIM/NEDAVOS

(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37), or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).

(b)When a person states, "I pledge an Olah" ("Harei Alai Olah"), without singling out a specific animal, his pledge is called a Neder. When he sets aside an animal with which to fulfill his pledge, and the animal gets lost or dies, he must bring another in its place. If he states, "This animal is an Olah" ("Harei Zo Olah"), his pledge is called a Nedavah. If the animal gets lost or dies, he has no obligation to bring another in its place.

5)[line 19]כמאן דטעין אכתפיה דמיK'MAN D'TA'IN A'KASFEI DAMI- it is as if he is carrying it on his shoulder

6)[line 20]זבZAV

(a)A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Shabbos 84:1), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.

(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If the discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. Some examples of Ones are: 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. jumping; 4. being sick; etc. (see Zavim 2:2).

(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).

(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

7)[line 21]משכב ומושבMISHKAV U'MOSHAV

(a)A Zav (see previous entry), as well as a Zavah, Nidah, or Yoledes, can cause objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the Tachton of a Zav). An object (other than earthenware objects, or Klei Cheres) that is under a Zav or a Zavah becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.

(b)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.

(c)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav.

8b----------------------------------------8b

8)[line 1]שומרת יום כנגד יוםSHOMERES YOM K'NEGED YOM (ZAVAH)

(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.

(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.

(c)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

9)[line 12]מצורע מוסגר למצורע מוחלטMETZORA MUSGAR/METZORA MUCHLAT

(a)When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen tentatively pronounces him Tamei for one or two weeks, making him a Metzora Musgar. The Kohen returns after a week to see what changes, if any, occurred to the mark. If the Kohen confirms the Tum'ah of the Metzora due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away.

(b)The names and colors of four types of marks that make a person a Metzora are 1. Baheres, which is the color of snow; 2. Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool; 3. Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; 4. Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg

(c)For a description of the purification process of a Metzora, see below, entry #11.

10)[line 13]פריעה ופרימהPERI'AH/PERIMAH

A Metzora, like a mourner, must let his hair grow (Peri'ah) and make a tear (Perimah) of at least a Tefach in the upper part of his clothes as is learned from the verse in Vayikra (13:45).

11)[line 14]תגלחת וצפריםTIGLACHAS V'TZIPORIM (TAHARAS METZORA)

(a)On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.

(b)The Metzora next washes his clothes, shaves all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, then once more washes his clothes, shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Pesachim 90:11).

(c)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his Taharah. The animal Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two turtledoves or two common doves as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as his Asham.

(d)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves the live Korban Asham with the Log of oil resting upon it (Tenufah). After the Asham is slaughtered, some of the blood is placed on the body of the Metzora: on the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, on his right thumb and on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (TY #18; the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for the man who donated the brass doors of the gate; see Yoma 38a). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah had the Kedushah of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor only had the Kedushah of Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that the Metzora could stick his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the awning of the gate.

(e)After all of the Korbanos were offered, a Kohen pours some of the oil in his left hand and sprinkles it seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. He must dip his right finger in the oil each time. Oil is also put on the body of the Metzora, on the places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed on the Metzora's head. The rest of the Log which was not poured into the Kohen's hand was given to the Kohanim, and must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (it is one of the Kodshei Kodashim). (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3)

12)[line 18]בהיסטHESET

A Zav (see above, entry #6), Zavah (see above, entry #8), Nidah (see Background to Rosh Hashanah 10:1) or Yoledes can cause Tum'ah through Heset, when they move (or outweigh on a balance scale) a person or object that is Tahor, whether they touch them or not. In all other types of Tum'ah besides Zav, Zavah, Nidah and Yoledes, the Tamei who moves (without touching) a person or object that is Tahor does not Metamei the person or object. Only a Zav, etc., can Metamei people or objects, including earthenware utensils, in this way.

13)[line 19]מלטמא בביאהMI'LETAMEI B'VI'AH

(a)When a person is a Metzora, he is Metamei the objects in the house that he is in. Similarly, a house that is declared a Bayis ha'Menuga is Metamei all the objects that are in it. If the stones of this house are brought into another house, they are Metamei the objects in the second house.

(b)Regarding a person who enters a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora in it, there are two Pesukim:

"veha'Ba El ha'Bayis Kol Yemei Hisgir Oso, Yitma Ad ha'Erev" (Vayikra 14:46)

"veha'Shochev ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav, veha'Ochel ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav" (ibid. 14:47)

(c)From the first verse we learn that any person (or thing) that comes into the house becomes Tamei. The clothes that he is wearing, however, do not become Tamei. From the second verse we learn that if someone lingers in the house for the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras (half of a loaf of wheat bread) dipped in relish, while he is reclining, then even the clothes that he is wearing become Tamei.

(d)The RASH (Kelim 1:4) lists four differences between the Tum'ah of the Ohel of a Mes and the Tum'ah of a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora in it.

(e)A person becomes Tamei in an Ohel ha'Mes even if only a bit of his body enters. Even when entering backwards, a person becomes Tamei when only a bit of his body enters. A Mechitzah (partition) only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. The house or room is Tamei whether the Mes is placed there or is just passing through.

(f)A person becomes Tamei in a Bayis Menuga or Metzora if most of his body enters. Also, when entering backwards, a person becomes Tamei only when he enters entirely. A Mechitzah of ten Tefachim is enough to prevent the spread of Tum'ah. The house or room is Metamei only if the Metzora stops there, and is not just passing through.

14)[line 20]צרעתו תלויה בגופוSHE'TZARA'ATO TELUYUAH V'GUFO- that his Tzara'as is dependent upon a physical change on his body; see Insights

15)[line 31]לתופרן בגידיןL'TOFRAN B'GIDIN- to require them to be sewn only with sinews

16a)[line 33]וכתב עבריKESAV IVRI- the ancient Hebrew script which is not in use today

b)[last line]אשוריתASHURIS- in "Assyrian" script (the script of our Sifrei Torah)

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