TO WHOM WE GIVE MATANOS
Rejection (Beraisa - R. Shimon): If a Kohen denies that Hash-m commanded about the Avodah, he gets no share in Kodshim - "ha'Makriv... Lo Tihyeh... l'Manah."
Question: This teaches only that he must admit to Holachah (bringing the blood to the Mizbe'ach). What is the source that he must admit to the other 15 Avodos, i.e.:
(Regarding a Minchah) putting on oil, mixing (the oil and the flour), breaking it into fine pieces, salting, Tenufah (waving), bringing close to the Mizbe'ach, taking a Kometz;
Haktarah (burning on the Mizbe'ach), Melikah (cutting a bird's Simanim with the fingernail), Kabalah (receiving blood of Shechitah), sprinkling blood;
Giving a Sotah to drink, beheading Eglah Arufah, Taharas Metzora, and giving Birkas Kohanim in and outside the Mikdash?
Answer: "Mi'Bnei Aharon" includes all the Avodos of Kohanim.
Inference: A Kohen who admits to all the Avodos has a share of Kodshim, even if he is not fluent in them.
(R. Aba): One may not eat the veins in the jaw (because they are full of blood). If a Kohen does not know to remove them, we do not give to him the jaw.
Rejection: We give to him. He will not eat forbidden blood!
If he roasts the jaw, the blood will flow out;
If he cooks it, the blood will come out when he cuts the veins and salts the meat!
KOHANIM SHOULD NOT GRAB MATANOS
Question (Rav Yosef): Is it proper to grab Matanos (from children bringing them to Kohanim) to show appreciation of the Mitzvah, or is this a disgrace?
Answer (Rava): It is wrong. "V'Nasan" (teaches that Yisre'elim give to him) - he should not take by himself.
Abaye (who was a Kohen): I used to take by myself. After I heard the above teaching, I stopped taking, but I would ask for Matanos.
(Beraisa - R. Meir): "Va'Yitu Acharei ha'Botza" - Shmuel's sons would ask for Ma'aser (and the verse denounces this)!
(Abaye): After I heard this, I stopped asking, but I would take if people gave to me.
(Beraisa): The modest Kohanim would refrain from taking (Lechem ha'Panim. When the Berachah in the Lechem ha'Panim ceased, there was not enough for all the Kohanim. The gluttonous Kohanim would grab it.)
(Abaye): After I heard this, I stopped taking. I take only on Erev Yom Kipur, so people will know that I am a Kohen.
Question: Giving Birkas Kohanim would suffice to publicize that he is a Kohen!
Answer: Abaye could not give Birkas Kohanim. (Rashi - he was busy teaching, and could not go to the Beis ha'Keneses at that time. Aruch - digestive problems prevented him.)
(Rav Yosef): If a Kohen knows a poor Chacham, he may authorize the Chacham to receive (and eat) Matanos on his behalf.
If the Kohen is popular and many people give to him, the Matanos may be given directly to the Chacham.
Rava and Rav Safra visited Mar Yuchna. He slaughtered a choice calf for them. Rava asked his (Rashi - Mar Yuchna's; Magen Avraham - Rava's) attendant, who was a Kohen "let us take the jaw on your behalf, so we can eat it with mustard." (Rashi - Rava was a Kohen, but he held (like Abaye) that a Kohen should not request Matanos. Tosfos - Rava was not a Kohen.)
The servant agreed. Rava ate, but Rav Safra did not. Rav Safra was shown in a dream "worn out clothing on a cold day... v'Shar ba'Shirim Al Lev Ra" (it does not help to teach people who do not understand).
Rav Safra (to Rav Yosef): Was I shown this because I did not follow your teaching?
Rav Yosef: No. I said only that a Kohen may choose to give to a Chacham, but surely this servant was afraid to refuse!
Also, I permit only a poor Chacham. That was not the case here!
Rav Safra: If so, why was I shown this verse?
Rav Yosef: It was to rebuke Rava.
Question: Why didn't Rava have the dream?
Answer: He was estranged from Heaven (due to what he did).
Question (Abaye): What is the simple meaning of the verse?
Answer (Rav Dimi): It does not help to teach an improper Talmid;
(Rav Yehudah): One who teaches an improper Talmid falls to Gehinom. It says "...Te'achlehu Esh... Yera Sarid b'Ahalo";
"Sarid" refers to Chachamim.
(Rav Yehudah): Teaching an improper Talmid is like throwing a rock at the idol Markulis. (He intends to destroy it. He does not realize that through this, he serves it!) "Like tying a rock in a slingshot (something that will not last), so is Nosen li'Chesil Kavod (giving honor, i.e. Torah, to a fool)."
A SIMAN THAT MATANOS NEED NOT BE GIVEN
(Mishnah): If a Yisrael is a partner with a Kohen or Nochri in an animal, he must make a Siman (so people will know why he does not give Matanos).
Question: Is a Siman really needed when a Nochri is a partner?!
Contradiction (Beraisa): One who joins with a Kohen must make a Siman;
One who joins with a Nochri or slaughters Pesulei ha'Mukdashim (a blemished Korban) need not make a Siman.
Answer #1: The Beraisa discusses when the Nochri sits in the store. (People realize that he owns a share.)
Question: Surely, it similarly discuss a Kohen who sits in the store. Why is a Siman needed?
Answer: People may think that the Kohen is there to buy.
Objection: Likewise, people may think that the Nochri is there to buy!
Answer #2: The Beraisa discusses when the Nochri sits by the money box.
Question: Surely, it similarly discuss a Kohen who sits there. Why is a Siman needed?
Answer: People may think that the Kohen merely guards the money.
Question: Likewise, people may think that the Nochri merely guards the money!
Answer: It is unlikely that a Yisrael would trust a Nochri with his money.
Answer #3: A Nochri screams about the price. People realize that he owns a share. (A Kohen is quiet.)
(Beraisa): If one slaughters Pesulei ha'Mukdashim, he need not make a Siman.
Question (Mishnah): Pesulei ha'Mukdashim are sold and slaughtered in the market. The meat may be weighed. (This is just like Chulin. People will not know it is exempt from Matanos!)
Answer (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): The Beraisa discusses a Korban that one sells from his house (a blemished Bechor or Ma'aser).
THE EXEMPTION OF PARTIAL OWNERSHIP
(Rav Huna): If a Kohen owns part of the head, Zero'a or intestines, this exempts from the corresponding Matanah (jaw, Zero'a or stomach);
(Chiya bar Rav): Even if he is a partner in one of these, this exempts from all the Matanos.
Question (against Chiya bar Rav - Beraisa): If a Kohen sold (most of) his animal to a Yisrael, and said "the head remains mine. The rest is yours," even if the Kohen retained one part in 100 of the head, it is exempt;
If he said "the Zero'a (or intestines) remains mine. The rest is yours," then even if he retained one part in 100, it is exempt;
Suggestion: In each case, he is only exempt from the Matanah from which the Kohen kept a part.
Answer: No, he is exempt from all the Matanos.
Objection #1: If so, the Beraisa should say that he is exempt from all the Matanos!
Objection #2 (Beraisa): If a Kohen sold his animal to a Yisrael, and said "the head remains mine. The rest is yours" then even if the Kohen retained one part in 100 of the head, the Yisrael is exempt from giving the jaw. He must guve the other Matanos.
Chiya bar Rav is refuted.
(Rav Chisda): The following Beraisa misled Chiya;
(Beraisa): Twenty-four Matanos were given to Aharon and his sons. We learn them from a Klal u'Frat u'Chlal;
If one observes them, it is considered that he observed every Klal Perat u'Chlal in the Torah, and the covenant of salt regarding Korbanos.
Ten Matanos are (given and eaten) in the Mikdash - Chatas Behemah and Chatas ha'Of, Asham Vadai (brought for a definite transgression) and Asham Taluy (brought if one is unsure if transgressed a Lav of Kares), Shalmei Tzibur (two lambs brought on Shavuos), the (leftovers) of the Log of oil that a Metzora brings, Shtei ha'Lechem (the two loaves brought on Shavuos), Lechem ha'Panim, the leftover part of Menachos, and the Omer.
Four Matanos are (given/eaten) in Yerushalayim - Bechor of Tahor animals, Bikurim, certain parts of Kodshim Kalim (Chazeh v'Shok of a Todah (or Shelamim), Zero'a of Eil Nazir, and one of each kind of bread accompanying Todah or Eil Nazir), and the skin of Kodshim. (Tosfos asked why skin of Kodshim is considered a Matanah in Yerushalayim. It is given in the Azarah, but one may take it anywhere! Rashi - we call a Matanah 'of the Mikdash' only if it becomes Pasul if taken outside.)
Ten Matanos are given in all parts of Eretz Yisrael - Terumah, Terumas Ma'aser, Chalah, Reishis ha'Gez, Matanos (foreleg, jaw and stomach), Pidyon ha'Ben, redemption of firstborn donkeys, Sedeh Achuzah (Ploni inherited a field that his ancestors received in the days of Yehoshua, he was Makdish it, Shimon redeemed it, and Ploni did not buy it back before Yovel), Sedeh Cherem (one declared his ancestral inheritance 'Cherem'), Gezel ha'Ger (one stole from a convert, swore to deny it, and repented after the convert died without heirs).
Chiya bar Rav assumed that since Matanos are counted like one, they are like one. (If one is exempt from one, he is exempt from all);
This is wrong. Portions of Todah and Eil Nazir are independent, but they were counted like one because they are similar. The same applies to Matanos.
Question: If a Kohen sold the head of his animal to a Yisrael, and kept the rest for himself, must the jaw be given to a Kohen?
If it depends on the part that must be given, it belongs to a Yisrael, so it should be given;
If it depends on the main part of the animal, it belongs to a Kohen, so Matanos need not be given.
Answer (Beraisa): If a Nochri or Kohen asked a Yisrael to shear his sheep, he is exempt from Reishis ha'Gez;
If a Yisrael bought the wool on the sheep of a Nochri or Kohen (and sheared it himself), he is exempt;
In this respect, Matanos are more stringent than Reishis ha'Gez.
Inference: Regarding Matanos, it depends on the part that must be given.