[133a - 41 lines; 133b - 37 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Gemara 133a [line 4]:

The words "v'Chol Kohen" וכל כהן

should be "Kol Kohen," כל כהן as it appears in Menachos 18a


1)[line 1]קבלותKABALOS- collecting the blood of the Korbanos that will be cast on the Mizbe'ach

2)[line 1]הזאותHAZA'OS- (lit. sprinkling) casting the blood of the Korbanos on the Mizbe'ach

3)[line 1]השקאת סוטהHASHKA'AS SOTAH (SOTAH)

See Background to Chulin 88:28.

4)[line 2]עגלה ערופהEGLAH ARUFAH

See Background to Chulin 117:24.

5)[line 2]טהרת מצורעTAHARAS METZORA

See Background to Menachos 82:5.

6)[line 2]נשיאות כפיםNESI'AS KAPAYIM - (lit. and the raising the hands) to administer the Birkas Kohanim (BIRKAS KOHANIM)

The Kohanim are required to bless the people with the three-fold blessing, as described in Bamidbar 6:22-27. (The Gemara (Menachos 44a) refers to the three verses as three separate Mitzvos Aseh.) In the Beis ha'Mikdash the blessing was said with the Shem ha'Meforash (the Tetragrammaton, the Holy Name of HaSh-m). According to TOSFOS (Sotah 38a DH Harei Hu Omer), this applies only when there is Giluy Shechinah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Since there was no Giluy Shechinah after the passing of Shimon ha'Tzadik, the Kohanim stopped saying Birkas Kohanim with the Shem ha'Meforash.

7)[line 8]חוטין שבלחיCHUTIN SHEB'LECHI- the blood vessels of the neck that are embedded in the Lechayayim

8)[line 10]בטויאB'TIVYA- when it is roasted

9)[line 10]מידב דייביMEIDAV DAIVI- [the blood] flows out of it

10)[line 10]לקדרהL'KEDERAH- (lit. for the pot) boiled

11)[line 11]דמיחתך להו ומלח להוD'MICHTACH LEHU U'MALACH LEHU- he cuts them into sections and salts them to Kasher them

12)[line 12]בדק לן רב יוסףBADAK LAN RAV YOSEF- Rav Yosef tested us

13)[line 12]חטיףCHATIF- grabs away [from children who were sent by their parents to deliver the Zero'a, Lechayayim, and Keivah to another Kohen]

14)[line 19]"[ולא הלכו בניו בדרכו] ויטו אחרי הבצע [ויקחו שחד ויטו משפט]""[V'LO HALCHU BANAV BI'DERACHAV], VA'YITU ACHAREI HA'BATZA [VA'YIKCHU SHOCHAD VA'YATU MISHPAT]" - "[But his sons did not go in his ways;] they turned after unlawful monetary gain, [and they took bribes and they twisted justice]" (Shmuel I 8:3) (SHMUEL'S SONS)

(a)When Shmuel became old, he appointed his two sons, Yo'el and Aviyah, judges. They set up court in Be'er Sheva.

(b)Chazal stress that this verse is not to be understood in its literal sense. The true misdeed of the sons of Shmuel was that they did not learn from the righteous ways of their father. Shmuel would travel from town to town to judge the people; his sons remained in their hometown, and the people were forced to come to them. The reason they did so was to ensure that those who worked for the Beis Din received a higher salary.

(c)Similarly, when the verse says that "they turned after unlawful monetary gain," it does not mean that they stole. Rather, Rebbi Meir explains that it means that they explicitly requested that people give them Ma'aser Rishon (something that a Levi is not supposed to do).

(d)As a result of his sons' behavior, the people complained to Shmuel, and demanded that he appoint a king to judge them "'like all the surrounding nations."

15a)[line 21]הצנועיםHA'TZENU'IM- the modest (well-mannered) Kohanim

b)[line 21]מושכין את ידיהםMOSHCHIN ES YEDEIHEM- they withdraw their hands [from taking a portion of the Lechem ha'Panim]

c)[line 29]מושכין את ידיהםMOSHCHIN ES YEDEIHEM (LECHEM HA'PANIM)

The Lechem ha'Panim (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Shulchan ha'Zahav (Golden Table) of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. The loaves are separated by wooden rods (Kanin) to allow air to circulate so that the bread will not spoil. Fresh loaves are arranged on the Shulchan every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word "l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz (the amount that will fit under the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm) of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten. (See Graphics to Menachos 94b for pictures and discussion of the Lechem ha'Panim.)

16)[line 22]לבר ממעלי יומא דכיפוריL'BAR MI'MA'ALEI YOMA D'CHIPUREI- except for Erev Yom ha'Kipurim (when there is a special Mitzvah to eat before the fast)

17)[line 22]לאחזוקי נפשאי בכהניL'ACHZUKEI NAFSHA'I B'CHAHANEI- to uphold my standing as a Kohen

18)[line 23]ולפרוס ידיהV'LIFROS YADEI- let him spread out his hands and say Birkas Kohanim (see above, entry #6) [to prove that he is a Kohen]

19)[line 23]אנסיה ליה עידניהANSEI LEI IDNEI- he was unable to perform the Birkas Kohanim since (a) he had intestinal troubles at the time of the Birkas Kohanim (RIF); (b) the time he set for learning with his students coincided with the time for saying Birkas Kohanim (RASHI)

20)[line 24]צורבא מרבנןTZURBA ME'RABANAN- a Talmid Chacham (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 21:4, SHULCHAN ARUCH Choshen Mishpat 17:2)

21)[line 24]בשבבותיהB'SHIVEVUSEI- in his neighborhood

22)[line 24]דחיקא ליה מילתאDACHIKA LEI MILSA- he is very poor

23)[line 25]מכרי כהונה ולויהMAKAREI KEHUNAH U'LEVIYAH- Kohanim and Leviyim to whom the people are acquainted and to whom the people always give their tithes; i.e. the landowner is in the habit of giving this Kohen the Matnos Kehunah of his produce

24)[line 27]עגלא תילתאIGLA TILTA- (a) a third-grown calf (that has reached one-third of its full growth and is particularly tasty) (RASHI to Eruvin 63a); (b) a calf that has reached one-third of its expected lifespan, at which time it has reached its full growth (RASHI to Sanhedrin 65b); (c) a calf that is a cow's third offspring which is well developed and fat (RASHI ibid., and to Shabbos 11a, Pesachim 68b, Megilah 7a); (d) a calf that is healthy and good to eat (TOSFOS to Gitin 56a). See Insights to Shabbos 136a.

25)[line 27]שמעיהSHAM'EI- the attendant of the host (who was a Kohen)

26)[line 28]אקריוה לרב ספרא בחלמאAKARYUHA L'RAV SAFRA B'CHELMA- in a dream, the following verse was read to Rav Safra

27)[line 29]"מעדה בגד ביום קרה חומץ על נתר ושר בשירים על לב רע""MA'ADEH BEGED B'YOM KARAH, CHOMETZ AL NASAR, V'SHAR BA'SHIRIM AL LEV RA"- "Like one who takes off a garment on a cold day, and like vinegar on nitre, is he who sings to a heavy heart" (Mishlei 25:20).

28)[line 33]נזוף הוהNAZUF HAVAH- he was rebuked, placed under a ban (a lower degree of excommunication. For a discussion of excommunication, see Background to Chulin 132:20)

29)[line 35]"כל חושך טמון לצפוניו; תאכלהו אש לא נופח; ירע שריד באהלו""KOL CHOSHECH TAMUN LI'TZEFUNAV; TE'ACHLEHU ESH LO NUPACH; YERA SARID B'OHOLO"- "All types of troubles will be covered up in places hidden from him; a fire not blown (by a bellows; i.e. the fire of Gehinom) shall consume him; harm will befall those left in his tent" (Iyov 20:26) - The Gemara interprets the end of the verse to mean that the "Sarid," i.e. the Talmid Chacham, will suffer the troubles mentioned at the beginning of the verse because "Yera b'Aholo," he left evil in his tent, i.e. he permitted a wicked student to remain in his Beis Midrash (MAHARSHA).

30)[line 37]"... ובשרידים אשר ה' קורא""UVA'SERIDIM ASHER HASH-M KOREI"- "[And it shall come to pass, that whoever shall call on the Name of HaSh-m shall be saved; for in Har Tziyon and in Yerushalayim there shall be those who escape, as HaSh-m has said,] and among the remnant those whom HaSh-m shall call" (Yoel 3:5) - According to the interpretation of this verse by our Gemara, HaSh-m will call upon the Talmidei Chachamim who will be saved.

31)[line 38]מרקוליסMARKULIS- the Roman god, Mercury, identified with the Norse god Wodin, worshipped by throwing stones at the Markulis Gadol or removing stones from in front of it (Rambam Hilchos Avodas Kochavim 3:2). The Markulis Gadol was a structure of three stones, two set next to each other and the third on top of the first two. (C.f. Audio Shiur to Avodah Zarah 50: Archeology and Avodah Zarah, for differing opinions.)

32)[line 38]"כצרור אבן במרגמה, כן נותן לכסיל כבוד""KI'TZEROR EVEN B'MARGEMAH, KEN NOSEN LI'CHESIL KAVOD"- "As one who loads a stone into a sling, so is he who gives honor to a fool" (Mishlei 26:8) - The Gemara interprets this verse to mean, "As one who has thrown a [precious] stone into a rock-pile, so is he who teaches Torah to a wicked student" (see RALBAG to Mishlei ibid.).

33)[line 39]"לא נאוה לכסיל תענוג...""LO NAVEH LI'CHESIL TA'ANUG..."- "Luxury is not seemly for a fool" (Mishlei 19:10).

34)[last line]פסולי המוקדשיםPESULEI HA'MUKDASHIN - [and those who sell] Pesulei ha'Mukdashin [that have been redeemed] (PESULEI HA'MUKDASHIN)

(a)Pesulei ha'Mukdashin are Korbanos that became unfit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach because of a Mum (blemish). After they are redeemed, it is still forbidden to work with them ("Avodah") or to shear them ("Gizah"). The milk they produce is also forbidden. They are only permitted to be eaten after being slaughtered (Bechoros 15b).

(b)The Mishnah in Bechoros (5:1) states that Pesulei ha'Mukdashin may be sold in the marketplace and weighed with a Roman Libra, a pound. These acts are normally considered unfitting for Kodshim, and are prohibited to be done to a Bechor (see Background to Chulin 130:8).

(c)Pesulei ha'Mukdashin that are redeemed and slaughtered are exempt from Matnos Kehunah, as the Mishnah records (Chulin 130a).


35)[line 2]אמסחתאA'MISCHASA- on the butcher's stall

36)[line 3]קא זביןKA ZAVIN- he is buying

37)[line 6]אכספתאKESAFTA- cash box

38)[line 9]מפעא פעיMIF'A PA'I- cries out (e.g. "Do not give it away for such a low price!")

39)[line 11]איטליזITLIZ- in the bazaar, marketplace

40)[line 11]ליטראLITRA- the Roman Libra, a pound

41)[line 15]הראש שלי..."HA'ROSH SHELI..."- if a Kohen or a Nochri said to the owner of an animal, "The head is mine and the rest of the animal belongs to you..."

42)[line 21]אטעיתיהAT'ISEI- misled him

43)[line 21]עשרים וארבע מתנות כהונהESRIM V'ARBA MATNOS KEHUNAH- the twenty-four gifts to the Kohanim (see below, entries #45-69)

44)[line 22]כלל ופרטKLAL U'FRAT - a generalization followed by a specification

See Background to Chulin 88:18.

45)[line 22]ברית מלחBRIS MELACH- and an everlasting covenant (similar to salt which does not spoil and is used as a preservative for food)

46)[line 22]כל המקיימןKOL HA'MEKAIMAN...- when one gives the gifts of Kehunah, it is considered as if he has kept all the laws of the Torah, which we were pronounced in a general commandment followed by specific commandments, and as if he offered all of the sacrifices, through which HaSh-m sealed with us an everlasting covenant

47)[line 25]חטאתCHATAS- see Background to Chulin Menachos 61:16.

48)[line 25]חטאת העוףCHATAS HA'OF- see Background to Chulin 120:26.

49)[line 25]אשם ודאיASHAM VADAI- see Background to Chulin 41:28.

50)[line 25]אשם תלויASHAM TALUY

(a)If a person is in doubt whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must bring a Korban Chatas, he temporarily brings a Korban Asham Taluy, which is a ram worth two Sela'im (Vayikra 5:17-19). If he later discovers that he did indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy only provides temporary atonement during the period of doubt.

(b)Certain Tana'im, including Isi ben Yehudah, rule that a person is obligated to bring an Asham Taluy only if there were "two pieces, one of which was eaten" ("Chatichah mi'Shtei Chatichos"). For example, if a person ate one out of two pieces of fat, where one was Shuman (permitted fat) and the other was Chelev (forbidden fat), and he later found out that he may have eaten the forbidden piece, he has to bring an Asham Taluy. If he has a doubt whether one piece of fat that he ate was Shuman or Chelev, he does not bring an Asham Taluy. Other Tana'im, including Rebbi Akiva, rule that even in the latter case he brings an Asham Taluy.


The Torah commands to bring a Minchah offering on Shavu'os called the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:16-17) that consists of two loaves of bread that are Chametz, made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour (approximately equal to 4.32, 4.98 or 8.64 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions). In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim are offered (ibid. 23:18-19). (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.)

52)[line 26]לוג שמן של מצורעLOG SHEMEN SHEL METZORA- and the remainder of the Log of oil which is used in the purification process of a Metzora (Vayikra 14:10; for a discussion of the laws of a Metzora, see Background to Menachos 48:26)

53)[line 26]שתי הלחםSHTEI HA'LECHEM- see above, entry #50.

54)[line 26]לחם הפניםLECHEM HA'PANIM- see above, entry #15c.

55)[line 26]שירי מנחותSHEYAREI MENACHOS- the remainder of all Menachos that are eaten by the Kohanim

56)[line 26]מנחת העומרMINCHAS HA'OMER- see Background to Chulin 120:32.

57)[line 27]בכורהBECHORAH (BECHOR)- see Background to Chulin 130:8.

58)[line 27]הבכוריםBIKURIM- see Background to Chulin 131:10.

59)[line 27]מורם מן התודה ומאיל נזירMURAM MIN HA'TODAH UME'EIL NAZIR (CHAZEH VA'SHOK / ZERO'A BESHELAH)

(a)CHAZEH VA'SHOK - see Background to Chulin 130:3:c.

(b)ZERO'A BESHELAH - see Background to Chulin 98:7:c-d.

60)[line 27]עורות קדשיםOROS KODSHIM- and the hides of the sacrifices

61)[line 28]תרומהTERUMAH- see Background to Chulin 131:9:a.

62)[line 28]תרומת מעשרTERUMAS MA'ASER- see Background to Chulin 131:9:a.

63)[line 28]חלהCHALAH- see Background to Chulin 131:7.

64)[line 28]ראשית הגזREISHIS HA'GEZ- see Background to Chulin 131:8.

65)[line 28]מתנותMATANOS- see Background to 130:1.

66)[line 29]פדיון הבןPIDYON HA'BEN- see Background to Chulin 68:7.

67)[line 29]פדיון פטר חמורPIDYON PETER CHAMOR

There is a Mitzvah to redeem each firstborn male donkey, as the verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Yevi'acha HaSh-m El Eretz ha'Kena'ani... v'Chol Peter Chamor Tifdeh v'Seh, v'Im Lo Sifdeh va'Arafto" - "And it shall come to pass that when HaSh-m brings you to the land of the Kena'ani... And every firstborn donkey must be redeemed with a sheep [that is given to a Kohen]; if it is not redeemed, you must decapitate it" (Shemos 13:11-13).

68)[line 29]שדה אחוזהSEDEH ACHUZAH

(a)A Sedeh Achuzah is a field that came into the possession of its owner's family after the conquest and division of Eretz Yisrael, at the time of Yehoshua bin Nun.

(b)Such a field may only be sold until the Yovel year, at which time it automatically returns to the possession of its original owner (Vayikra 25:25-28). Because of this, when a person sells an ancestral field he normally intends to sell only the Peiros, or produce, of the land until the Yovel year, and not the land itself (Gitin 48a).

(c)Beginning two years after the sale, the original owner may redeem the field from the person who purchased it. He does so by returning the proportion of the money that was paid for the remaining years until the Yovel year (Erchin 29a). The buyer is forced to accept the redemption money and return the field.

(d)For a discussion of the Halachos of someone who is Makdish (consecrates to Hekdesh) a Sedeh Achuzah, see Background to Bava Basra 102:11.

69)[line 29]שדה חרמיםSEDEH CHARAMIM - a field sanctified as "Cherem"

(a)There are two types of Charamim (a type of vow or pledge in which one pronounces "This object should be a Cherem"):

1.Chermei Kohanim, which are given to the Kohanim for their personal use and cannot be redeemed from the Kohen (see Bamidbar 18:14);

2.Chermei Gavo'ah, which are given to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the Bedek ha'Bayis and can be redeemed like any other Hekdesh.

(b)"Sedeh Charamim" refers to a field that was consecrated as Chermei Gavo'ah. Normally, an object that is consecrated as Chermei Gavo'ah but which is not usable by the Beis ha'Mikdash in its present state is sold and the money becomes Hekdesh. A field that was consecrated as Chermei Gavo'ah differs. A "Sedeh Charamim" may be redeemed by its owner (or his son) before Yovel. If it is redeemed by the owner (or his son) before Yovel, then the field becomes his just like it was his before he consecrated it. If another person redeems the field, or if it is not redeemed at all before Yovel (see Chart to Erchin 24-34), then upon the beginning of Yovel it leaves the possession of the one who consecrated it and it becomes the collective property of the Kohanim who are serving in the Beis ha'Mikdash at that time (at the beginning of the Yovel year). The field is divided equally among all of the members of that Mishmar of Kohanim (Vayikra 27:21).

70)[line 29]גזל הגרGEZEL HA'GER- see Background to Chulin 131:11.

71)[line 33]בתר חיובא אזלינןBASAR CHIYUVA AZLINAN- Do we rule that since the non-Kohen owns the head of the animal from which one is obligated to give the Matanah of the Lechayayim, he is not exempt from giving it to a Kohen?

72)[line 34]בתר עיקר בהמה אזלינן?BASAR IKAR BEHEMAH AZLINAN- or do we rule that since the Kohen owns the rest (and major part) of the animal, the owner is exempt from giving the Lechayayim to a Kohen?