CARCASSES (NEVELOS) OF CHAYOS (cont.)
(Conclusion of Beraisa - Ben Azai): It is a shame that I did not learn from R. Yishmael!
Question: What is the source that 'Behemah' includes Chayah?
Answer: "This is the Behemah that you will eat - an ox, a sheep... a wild goat, a deer... " (the Tahor Chayos are also listed).
Question: What is the source that 'Chayah' includes Behemah?
Answer: "This is the Chayah that you will eat, from every Behemah on the ground... "
'Behemah' includes Tahor Chayos regarding Simanim (the Torah is Machshir a Behemah with split hooves that chews the cud. This applies also to Chayos);
'Behemah' includes (even) Tamei Chayos for the prohibition to crossbreed different species.
'Chayah' includes Tamei Behemos for Rebbi's law;
(Beraisa - Rebbi): It was not necessary to write 'Behemah' in the Parshah of Tumos (since it already said Chayah). It is extra, to teach from another place that Behemah Teme'ah is mentioned, that one who became Tamei must bring a Korban only if he entered the Mikdash or ate Kodshim when Tamei.
'Chayah' includes (even) Tahor Behemos in the Parshah of creation. (R. Meir learns from this that a woman who miscarried the form of either is Teme'ah like one who gave birth to a human form);
(Mishnah - R. Meir): If a woman miscarried the form of a male Behemah, Chayah or bird, whether Tahor or Tamei, she is (Tamei like) Yoledes Zachar. For a female form, she is Yoledes Nekevah. If we do not know the gender, she has the stringencies of both;
Chachamim say, if it is not a human form, it is not considered a child.
Question: According to Chachamim, why do we need the rule that Chayah includes Tahor Behemos? (Tosfos; Rashi - what do Chachamim learn from the verse that R. Yosi ha'Gelili uses to teach that a fetus inside a Tamei animal is Tamei?)
Answer: It is needed for Rebbi's teaching.
TUMAH OF A DEAD FETUS
(Mishnah): If a midwife touched a dead fetus in the womb, she is Teme'ah (Mes) for seven days. The mother is Tehorah until the fetus comes out.
(Gemara - Rabah): Just like Tum'ah Belu'ah (enveloped) is not Metamei, also Taharah Belu'ah does not become Tamei.
Question: What is the source that Tum'ah Belu'ah is not Metamei?
Answer: "One who eats Nevelah will (immerse and) wash his clothes (and be Tahor at night)" applies even if he ate just before nightfall (and immersed, even though the Nevelah is intact in his stomach and he moves it)!
Question: Perhaps the Nevelah is not Metamei because it is not fitting for a Ger Toshav (a non-Jew who accepted to keep his seven Mitzvos) to eat!
This is not difficult for R. Yochanan, who holds that the Nevelah retains its full Tum'ah as long as it is fit for a dog.
However, Bar Pada holds that a Nevelah is Metamei people only if a Ger Toshav would eat it, and it is Metamei food as long as a dog would eat it;
Nevelah is not Metamei in the stomach because then it is not fit for a Ger Toshav!
Answer: Granted, a Ger Toshav would not eat it if he saw the man vomit it out, but if he did not know that it had been swallowed, he would eat it, so it retains its full Tum'ah.
Question: What is the Rabah source that Taharah Belu'ah does not become Tamei?
Answer: A Kal va'Chomer teaches this;
A Kli Cheres (earthenware Kli) with a Tzamid Pasil (hermetic seal) does not suppress Tum'as Mes (from breaking out);
If Tumas Mes is not under an Ohel (of a Tefach in each direction), the Tum'ah breaks through (any covering) and is Metamei anything directly overhead, up to the sky.
Nevertheless, such a Kli Cheres shields its contents from becoming Tamei (in Ohel ha'Mes);
One suppresses Tum'ah that he swallowed. All the more so, he should shield what he swallowed from becoming Tamei!
Question: We cannot learn from a Kli Cheres, for it cannot become Tamei from its outside, whereas a person can!
Answer: The Kal va'Chomer is not from the outside of a Kli Cheres, rather from its inside;
The inside of a Kli Cheres is even more prone to Tum'ah than man. It becomes Tamei through Tum'ah in its airspace!
OTHER CASES OF TUMAH BELU'AH
Question: We have a source that Tum'ah swallowed via the mouth is not Metamei. What is the source for Tum'ah inserted through the rectum?
Answer: We learn from a Kal va'Chomer. The mouth does not digest food very much, yet what it swallows is not Metamei (afterwards). All the more so, what enters below (through the rectum) is not Metamei, for most digestion takes place below!
Question: We have a source that Tum'ah Belu'ah in a person is not Metamei. What is the source for Tum'ah Belu'ah in an animal?
Answer: We learn from a Kal va'Chomer. A living person can become Tamei, yet Tum'ah Belu'ah inside him is not Metamei. A live animal cannot become Tamei, all the more so, Tum'ah Belu'ah inside it is not Metamei!
Question: Regarding Bayis ha'Menuga (a house with Tzara'as), man is less prone to receive Tum'ah than an animal. Man must tarry, but an animal need not!
Answer: The stringency that an animal need not tarry pertains to Kelim on the animal. The same stringency applies to man!
(Mishnah): If one enters Bayis ha'Menuga with clothes resting on his shoulder, and sandals and rings on his hands (not on the proper fingers), he and his clothes are Teme'im immediately;
If he enters wearing his clothes, sandals and rings (on the proper fingers), he is Tamei immediately. His clothes are Teme'im only after he tarries the time needed to eat a half loaf of bread;
We gauge the time to eat wheat bread (not barley), reclining, and with an accompaniment on the bread.
Question (Rava): Why must Rabah teach about Tum'ah and Taharah Belu'ah? We can derive both of these from Mishnayos!
(Mishnah): If one swallowed a Tamei ring, after he immerses, he may eat Terumah. (Even though the ring touches and moves inside his innards, he remains Tahor.)
(Mishnah): If one swallowed a Tahor ring and entered a room with a Mes, and after he became Tahor, he vomited out the ring, it is still Tahor.
Answer: Rabah taught about swallowing two rings, one Tahor, and one Tamei. The Tamei ring is not Metamei the Tahor one.