[61a - 51 lines; 61b - 28 lines]
1)[line 13]"וְהֵרִים [הַכֹּהֵן מִן הַמִּנְחָה אֶת אַזְכָּרָתָהּ ...]""V'HERIM [HA'KOHEN MIN HA'MINCHAH ES AZKARASAH...]"- "And [the Kohen] shall remove [from the Minchah offering its remembrance...]" (Vayikra 2:9). This verse refers to the removal of a Kometz.
2)[line 14]"וְהֵרִים מִמֶּנּוּ בְּקֻמְצוֹ ...""V'HERIM MIMENU B'KUMTZO ..."- "and he shall remove from it with a three-fingered fistful ..." (Vayikra 6:8)
3)[line 18]הבכורים כדברי רבי אליעזר בן יעקבHA'BIKURIM K'DIVREI REBBI ELIEZER BEN YAKOV (BIKURIM)
(a)The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. The verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Savo El ha'Aretz... vi'Yrishtah v'Yashavta Bah... v'Lakachta me'Reishis Kol Pri ha'Adamah..." - "And it shall be that when you come to the land... and you inherit it and you settle in it. You shall take of the first fruits of the land..." (Devarim 26:1-2). Each farmer enters the Azarah (courtyard) of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit in a decorative basket. While the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the Mikra Bikurim, specific verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Mitzrayim and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1). Live pigeons were a (voluntary) part of the adornment of the baskets of Bikurim. They were offered as Korbenos Olah when the Bikurim were brought (Menachos 58a).
(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2).
(c)Kohanim eat the Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the Azarah according to Rashi in Makos 18b), he receives Malkus. They must be returned to, and eaten in Yerushalayim.
(d)According to Rebbi Eliezer ben Yakov, at one point in the process of bringing the Bikurim, the owner of the fruits, together with the Kohen, performs Tenufah (see Background to Menachos 60:3) on the basket of Bikurim. Our Gemara will bring the teaching from which he learns this.
4a)[line 19]אימורי שלמי יחיד וחזה ושוק שלהןEIMUREI SHALMEI YACHID V'CHAZEH VA'SHOK SHELAHEN (KORBAN SHELAMIM)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice (Olas Nedavah), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a flour offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The flour offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar (ibid.).
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (right hind thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban ("Eimurim,") were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The Eimurim consist of: 1. the layer of fat covering the stomachs; 2. all other fat attached to the stomachs; 3. the two kidneys; 4. the fat on the kidneys; 5. The Yoseres, which is either the diaphragm (RASHI, RADAK) or a lobe of the liver (RAV HAI GA'ON) (Vayikra 3:3-4).
(d)The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten for two days and the intervening night.
5)[line 20]אחריםACHERIM- women (as the Gemara shows on Daf 61b, but see RASHASH and YA'AVETZ there)
6)[line 23]מוליך ומביא מעלה ומורידMOLICH U'MEVI MA'ALEH U'MORID- waves them in all four directions and upward and downward
7)[line 24]"... אֲשֶׁר הוּנַף וַאֲשֶׁר הוּרָם ...""... ASHER HUNAF VA'ASHER HURAM ..."- "that was waved and that was lifted" (Shemos 29:27)
8)[line 25]תנופה היתה במזרחTENUFAH HAYESAH B'MIZRACH- Tenufah was [valid even when it was] performed in the east (i.e. east of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon) (RASHI)
9)[line 25]הגשה במערבHAGASHAH BA'MA'ARAV- Hagashah was performed in the west (i.e. west of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon, which was the holiest part of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash since it was closest to the entrance of the Beis ha'Mikdash)
10)[line 26]תנופות קודמות להגשותTENUFOS KODMOS L'HAGASHOS- [when a Korban requires Tenufah and Hagashah, such as the Minchas ha'Omer and the Minchas Kena'os] the Tenufos were performed before the Hagashos
11a)[line 29]ג' מינין טעונין ג' מצותSHELOSHAH MININ TE'UNIN SHELOSHAH MITZVOS- three types of Korbanos require three Mitzvos
b)[line 30]שתים בכל אחת ואחתSHETAYIM B'CHOL ACHAS V'ACHAS- (lit. two in each one) but of those three Mitzvos, each type of Korban only requires two of the Mitzvos
12)[line 37]"]... וְהִקְרִיב אֹתוֹ לְאָשָׁם וְאֶת לֹג הַשָּׁמֶן וְהֵנִיף אֹתָם תְּנוּפָה [לִפְנֵי ה""... V'HIKRIV OSO L'ASHAM V'ES LOG HA'SHAMEN V'HENIF OSAM TENUFAH"- "and he shall offer it as a Korban Asham and the Log of olive oil, and he shall wave them [in the Mitzvah of] Tenufah" (Vayikra 14:12)
13)[line 42]והא אמר "לפני ה'' - יכול במערבV'HA AMAR "LIFNEI HASH-M", YACHOL BA'MA'ARAV- but however, with regard to the Hagashah of the Menachos, the assumption of the Gemara (Menachos 19a) is that "Lifnei HaSh-m" is in the west
14)[line 43]דאיקרי חטאתD'IKRI CHATAS- since it is compared to a Chatas (as the verse states, "Kodesh Kodashim Hi, ka'Chatas vecha'Asham" - "it is the among the holiest Korbanos, like the Korban Chatas and the Korban Asham" (Vayikra 6:10)
15)[line 44]חטאת טעונה יסודCHATAS TE'UNAH YESOD - the Korban Chatas needs the Yesod (foundation) [of the Mizbe'ach, upon which the Sheyarei ha'Dam are poured (KORBAN CHATAS)
(a)If a person transgresses a sin b'Shogeg (unintentionally) for which he is liable to Kares b'Mezid (intentionally), he is liable to bring a Korban Chatas. The Korban Chatas is a female goat or sheep. Since it is one of the Kodshei Kodashim (the highest sanctity of sacrifices), it may only be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah) and confesses his sin.
(b)The offering of the Chatas Behemah consists of five procedures:
1.SHECHITAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah north of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen slaughters the animal, making sure to cut two Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus).
2.KABALAS HA'DAM - A Kohen catches the life-blood of the animal in a utensil. The Eimurim (the fats and other parts of the Korban that are burned on the Mizbe'ach) are removed from the animal.
3.HOLACHAH - The Kohen walks with the blood up to the top of the Mizbe'ach.
4.NESINAS HA'DAM - Using his finger, the Kohen applies some of the blood to each of the four Keranos of the Mizbe'ach.
5.HAKTARAS HA'EIMURIM - The Eimurim are cast into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.
(c)The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured onto the southern Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The Kohanim eat the rest of the Chatas Behemah in the Azarah.
16)[line 44]קרן דרומית מזרחית לא היה לו יסודKEREN DEROMIS MIZRACHIS LO HAYAH LO YESOD - the southeastern corner of the Mizbe'ach did not have a Yesod (foundation) (MIZBE'ACH HA'CHITZON: YESOD)
(a)The Mizbach ha'Olah of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. The Yesod (bottom platform) was 32 Amos long, 32 Amos wide and 1 Amah high. The second platform was 30 Amos long, 30 Amos wide and 5 Amos high. The third platform (which the Rambam calls "Mekom ha'Ma'arachah"), upon which the sacrifices were offered, was 28 Amos long, 28 Amos wide, and 3 Amos high. A Keren (horn), which was a one-Amah cube, was poured on each corner of the upper platform. (RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 2:5-8)
(b)The Yesod protruded outward one Amah further than the middle section on two complete sides, the northern and the western. It protruded on the eastern and southern sides only for the length of one Amah from the northern and western corners. As such, there was no Yesod on the southeastern corner. The blood of many of the Korbanos was cast on the sides of the Mizbe'ach above the Yesod, and it ran down to the Yesod (Zevachim 37a, based upon Vayikra 5:9). The remainder of the blood of animal Korbanos was poured directly onto the Yesod, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 29:12; Vayikra 4:7; etc.). Omitting this last procedure does not prevent atonement; it is not a requirement for atonement.
(c)The Kohanim walked upon the part of the middle platform that jutted out one Amah on each side past the upper platform. This was called the "Sovev", because it encircled the Mizbe'ach.
(d)The Keranos were hollow. (RAMBAM ibid. 2:8)
(e)The ramp was 32 Amos long and 16 Amos wide, and was separated from the south side of the Mizbe'ach by a hair's breadth (Pesachim 77a, Zevachim 62b). It was indented on the bottom, at the face of the Mizbe'ach, such that it covered the Sovev.
17)[line 47]"וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן [הַטֶּנֶא מִיָּדֶךָ וְהִנִּיחוֹ ...]""V'LAKACH HA'KOHEN [HA'TENE MI'YADECHA V'HINICHO...]"- "And the Kohen shall take [the basket from your hand and shall put it down...]" (Devarim 26:4)
18)[last line]"יָדָיו תְּבִיאֶינָה ...""YADAV TEVI'ENAH ..."- "His (the owner's) hands shall bring it (the portion of the Korban Shelamim that will be offered to HaSh-m)" (Vayikra 7:30)
19)[line 4]"... וְהִנַּחְתּוֹ [לִפְנֵי ה]""... V'HINACHTO [LIFNEI HASH-M.]"- "and he shall place it (the basket of Bikurim) [before HaSh-m]" (Devarim 26:10)
20)[line 5]הנחהHANACHAH- placing the basket of Bikurim before the Mibe'ach (see above, entry #3)
21)[line 7]הואיל ופתח בו הכתוב תחלהHO'IL U'FASACH BO HA'KASUV TECHILAH- since he uses the word that is mentioned in the earlier verse (Devarim 26:4) as opposed to Rebbi Yehudah, who uses the word that is mentioned in the later verse (Devarim 26:10)
22)[line 9]הואיל ורב גבריהHO'IL V'RAV GUVREI- (lit. since his strength is great) since he is a great Torah scholar
(a)Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all his might on the head of his animal sacrifice before it is slaughtered, as described in Vayikra (1:4).
(b)Women and Nochrim are exempt from performing Semichah, since the verse states "Daber El Benei Yisrael... v'Samach..." (Vayikra 1:2-4).
24)[line 25]גריםGERIM- converts
25)[line 25]עבדים משוחרריןAVADIM MESHUCHRARIN- freed Nochri slaves, who are obligated in the same Mitzvos that women are obligated
26)[line 26]"... הַמַּקְרִיב [אֶת זֶבַח שְׁלָמָיו ...]""... HA'MAKRIV [ES ZEVACH SHELAMAV ...]"- "he who offers [his Korban Shelamim]" (Vayikra 7:29) - In the conclusion of the Gemara, this word is used to teach that during Tenufah, the Kohen holds the Eimurim along with the owner of the Korban, and that Gerim and Avadim Meshuchrarim are required to perform Tenufah (see YOSEF DA'AS, She'eilos u'Seshuvos l'Sikum, end of Daf 61b)