BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
in memory of Reb David ben Aharon Ha'Levi Rosenwald z"l
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[77a - 40 lines; 77b - 38 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos
 Gemara 77a [line 36]:
The words "Kol Behemah Tochelu" כל בהמה תאכלו
should be "Kol ba'Behemah Tochelu" כל בבהמה תאכלו (Rashash, Ya'avetz) (Devarim 14:6; see below, entry #20; however, see the Rif - Rashash)
 Rashi 77b DH Ela she'Ein Imah Vlad אלא שאין עמה ולד :
The words "b'Osah she'Bifnim" באותה שבפנים
should be "b'Osah Behemah Bifnim" באותה בהמה בפנים
 Tosfos 77b DH Hareini... הריני ... :
The words "Lefi Mah she'Piresh" לפי מה שפירש
should be "Lefi Mah she'Pirashti" לפי מה שפירשתי
1) [line 1] נמנין עליהן בפסח NIMNIN ALEIHEN B'PESACH (KORBAN PESACH)
(a) It is a Mitzvah for all Jews to offer a Korban Pesach on the fourteenth of Nisan in the afternoon, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 12:6), "and the whole assembly of the congregation of Yisrael shall slaughter it towards evening." The Pesach is a male lamb or goat within its first year.
(b) An adult (who was Tahor and was not far from the Beis ha'Mikdash on the fourteenth of Nisan) who willfully did not offer the Korban Pesach is liable to the Kares punishment.
(c) In order to eat from the Korban Pesach, a person must be "appointed" to the Korban before it is slaughtered. This appointment is called "Minuy." Each Pesach must have appointed to it people who are able to eat at least a k'Zayis of the meat on the night of the fifteenth of Nisan. The Korban is sacrificed in the name of all the people who were appointed for that specific Pesach animal. The people appointed to the Pesach then eat the Pesach together in a "Chaburah." (Some Tana'im maintain that a single Pesach may be split into many Chaburos eating in different places - Pesachim 86a.)
(d) Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Shimon ben Lakish initially argued as to whether or not it is permitted for a person to have in mind, at the time of his Minuy, to eat a k'Zayis only from the soft Gidin of the Korban Pesach, even if they are of the type that eventually harden and become inedible. Rebbi Yochanan had ruled that this is permitted, since these Gidin are considered "meat." Afterwards, he rescinded his opinion and assented to the ruling of Rebbi Shimon ben Lakish, that they have the status of their ultimate state.
2) [line 7] אל תקניטני AL TAKNITENI - do not annoy me (with your arguments)
3) [line 7] בלשון יחיד אני שונה אותה B'LASHON YACHID ANI SHONEH OSAH - for I learned that it is the opinion of an individual (and not the accepted ruling)
4) [line 9] קורטיתא KURTISA - a drop, a small fragment
5a) [line 10] שהייה SHAHIYEI - (lit. he caused it to wait) he held on to it
b) [line 10] תלתא ריגלי TELASA RIGLEI - (a) for three holidays, in order to ask the Halachah of the sages who gather for the holidays (RASHI); (b) for three Yahrtzeits of certain Chachamim. (The term "Riglei" of the Amora'im refers to the date of the death of a Chacham, which was instituted in his honor as a day of learning, when all of the sages would gather to a special assembly near his burial site - RASHI to Yevamos 122a, citing TESHUVAS HA'GA'ONIM)
6) [line 12] דחריפא סכיניה D'CHARIFA SAKINEI - (lit. that his knife is sharp) since he has a sharp mind; his reasoning is acute
7a) [line 14] מתלקט MISLAKET - (lit. needs to be gathered) if the required quantity of flesh (Rov Ovyo and Rov Hekeifo; see Background to Chulin 76:21, 22) needed to cover the broken bone is scattered in many places
b) [line 15] מתרוסס MISROSES - if the flesh covering the broken bone is flattened and brittle
c) [line 15] מתמסמס MISMASMES - if the flesh appears rotted, decayed
8) [line 17] קודרו KODRO - cuts out from its surroundings
9a) [line 17] ניקב NIKEV - if the flesh is pierced (but no flesh is missing)
b) [line 18] נקלף NIKLAF - if the flesh is peeled (i.e. separated from the bone)
c) [line 18] נסדק NISDAK - if the flesh is cracked
d) [line 18] ניטל שליש התחתון NITAL SHELISH HA'TACHTON - if the bottom third of the flesh (that is next to the bone) is missing, having been removed or torn out
10) [line 20] דקנה משכא דידיה D'KANAH MASHCHA DIDEI - (a) where the skin holds its own place, i.e. a place on the bone where there is no flesh, only hide. It is possible that Rebbi Yochanan only ruled in this instance that the hide is like flesh (RASHI); (b) According to the Girsa D'KANAH MASHCHA RIREI - where the hide over the broken bone retains its emissions [of fluids that will heal the fracture] (TOSFOS DH d'Kanah)
11) [line 21] נקדר כמין טבעת NIKDAR K'MIN TABA'AS - if the flesh above the broken bone was cut with a circular incision, like a ring
12) [line 25] פרזלא מזרף זריף PARZELA MIZRAF ZARIF - iron lacerates [the flesh]
13) [line 27] שליא SHILYA - commonly translated as the placenta; a more accurate description is the fetal membranes in which the fetus forms, which are attached to the placenta (RASHI to Berachos 4a; TOSFOS to Nidah 18a DH Shilya and elsewhere in the Rishonim)
14) [line 27] נפש היפה NEFESH HA'YAFEH - his disposition is good (he can tolerate everything); a person who is not extremely fastidious or sensitive
15) [line 28] טומאת אוכלין TUM'AS OCHLIN
See Background to Chulin 117:31a.
16) [line 28] טומאת נבלות TUM'AS NEVEILOS
See Background to Chulin 121:21.
17) [line 32] המבכרת HA'MEVAKERES - a female kosher animal that is about to give birth to a firstborn male (BECHOR)
See Background to Chulin 69:16.
18) [line 34] פרשת דרכים PARSHAS DERACHIM - a crossroads
19) [line 35] דרכי האמורי DARCHEI HA'EMORI - the manner of the Emorites (DARCHEI HA'EMORI)
(a) Darchei ha'Emori is the term that refers to those customs of the Nochrim that have no logical foundation, but are not idol worship.
(b) The prohibition of performing such acts is derived from the verse, "Lo Sa'aseh k'Ma'aseihem" (Shemos 23:24; RASHI, RAMBAN to Shemos ibid.), or from the verse "uve'Chukoseihem Lo Seileichu" (Vayikra 18:3; RASHI to Shabbos 67a).
20) [line 36] "[וְ]כָל [בְּהֵמָה מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע שְׁתֵּי פְרָסוֹת, מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה] בַּבְּהֵמָה, [אֹתָהּ] תֹּאכֵלוּ." "[V']CHOL [BEHEMAH MAFRESES PARSAH V'SHOSA'AS SHESA SHTEI PERASOS MA'ALAS GERAH] BA'BEHEMAH [OSAH] TOCHELU." - "[And] any [animal that splits its hooves until they are entirely divided into two hooves, and chews its cud] in [the category of] the [domesticated farm] animals, [it] you shall eat." (Devarim 14:6) - The Gemara interprets the word "ba'Behemah" (lit. "in the animal") to permit a fetus that was found inside its mother after her slaughter (Chulin 69a).
21) [line 39] אסמכתא בעלמא ASMACHTA B'ALMA - it is merely an Asmachta (ASMACHTA)
(a) At times, when Chazal make a Derashah (extrapolate a Halachah or other teaching) from a word in the Torah, it happens that the Halachah or teaching is not mid'Oraisa at all, but rather mid'Rabanan. When this happens, the Gemara usually states that the Halachah is mid'Rabanan, and "Kera Asmachta b'Alma," i.e. that the verse is only cited as a "support" for the Halachah mid'Rabanan, but its source is not actually from the Torah. (TOSFOS to Bava Basra 66b DH Michlal d'She'ivah writes that in many instances, Derashos of Chazal in the Midreshei Halachah, such as Toras Kohanim, which appear to be from the Torah, are only Asmachta'os.)
(b) A second type of Asmachta applies even to a Halachah which actually is mid'Oraisa. When Chazal find a hint in the Torah to a Halachah that has its basis in the Oral Tradition, they call this an Asmachta as well (here and Eruvin 5a).
(c) The Rishonim argue as to the reason why Chazal, in these instances, used verses to support their teachings.
1. From the words of the RAMBAM (Introduction to his Perush ha'Mishnayos) it appears that Asmachta'os are only mnemonic devices. (It is possible that he writes this only with regard to the latter type of Asmachta, Asmachta'os for Isurei Torah.)
2. MAHARIL (in Likutei Maharil) writes that Chazal used the device of Asmachta in order to make people regard certain Halachos mid'Rabanan as if they were actually mid'Oraisa, so that they should not treat them lightly.
3. The RITVA (to Rosh Hashanah 16a, see Be'er ha'Golah of the MAHARAL, Be'er #1) states that when Chazal present an Asmachta, it means that the Torah meant to suggest that it is fitting to implement such a Halachah, but that it did not choose to make it obligatory. The Torah empowered the Chachamim to enact it should the need for it arise. Similarly, the SHELAH (in Torah she'Be'al Peh, entry titled "Rabanan") writes that when the Chachamim utilized a hint from a verse, it means that they learned a particular approach of reasoning from this verse. Accordingly, it appeared to them that there was a need to decree this particular Halachah.
4. The MESHECH CHOCHMAH (Parshas Shoftim) claims that when Chazal present an Asmachta, it means that after Chazal instituted a particular Halachah or enacted a particular decree, they studied the Torah and found that the Torah had already hinted to that future decree in its eternal wisdom.
(d) There are those who write that a Halachah mid'Rabanan that is learned from an Asmachta, and which has a hint in the apparent meaning of the verses, is more stringent than an Isur mid'Rabanan for which an Asmachta from the Torah is not offered. These Halachos were given the status of Halachos of the Torah in certain respects, for example, with regard to the requirement to be stringent in the case of a Safek (PRI MEGADIM, Introduction to Shulchan Aruch Orach Chayim 1:2:d)
22) [line 5] "[.וְכִי יָמוּת מִן הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר הִיא לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה, הַנֹּגֵעַ] בְּנִבְלָתָהּ [יִטְמָא עַד הָעָרֶב]" "[V'CHI YAMUS MIN HA'BEHEMAH ASHER HI LACHEM L'OCHLAH, HA'NOGE'A] B'NIVLASAH [YITMA AD HA'AREV.]" - "[And if any beast, of which you may eat, dies, he who touches] its carcass [shall be Tamei until the evening.]" (Vayikra 11:39)
23) [line 8] ציקי קדרה TZIKEI KEDERAH - (O.F. arsedure - meat seasoned with spices) a certain spicy dish made from ground meat mixed with spices
24) [line 24] חומר שני ולדות CHOMER SHNEI VELADOS
See Background to Chulin 71:3.
25) [line 25] שפיר SHEFIR - the outer skin of an embryo before any sinews, bones, or flesh form
26) [line 29] נדמה NIDMEH - (O.F. contrefait) resembling a different species (for example, the offspring of goats that has the appearance of a sheep)
27) [line 37] סוקרו בסיקרא SOKRO B'SIKRA - one should paint it with red paint