[121a - 37 lines; 121b - 44 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Rashi 121a DH Miktzaso מקצתו:

The words "k'Veitzah Minei Lo Mekabel Tum'ah d'Ha Lo Chishev Al Kulo" כביצה מיניה לא מקבל טומאה דהא לא חישב על כולו

should be "Kulo Lo Mekabel Tum'ah d'Ha Lo Chishev Al k'Veitzah Minei" כביצה כולו לא מקבל טומאה דהא לא חישב על כביצה מיניה

[2] ibid:

The words "Mitztaref ha'Hu Ketzas Machshavah d'Is Bei" מצטרף ההוא קצת מחשבה דאית ביה

should be "Mitztaref ha'Hu Ketzas d'Is Bei Machshavah" מצטרף ההוא קצת דאית ביה מחשבה

[3] Rashi 121a DH Zera'im זרעים:

The words "she'Hu Avi Avos v'Einan Na'asin Av" שהוא אבי אבות ואינן נעשין אב

should be "she'Hu Avi Avos Einan Na'asin Av" שהוא אבי אבות אינן נעשין אב

[4] Tosfos 121a DH v'Hadar Maisi והדר מייתי:

The words "v'Yeish Lomar d'Ribuy d'Hachah Tzerichi" וי''ל דרבוי דהכא צריכי

should be "v'Yeish Lomar d'Ribuy d'Hachah Tzarich" וי''ל דרבוי דהכא צריך (YA'AVETZ)

[5] Rashi 121b DH l'Mai למאי:

The words "Hechsher Shechitah b'Tehorah" הכשר שחיטה בטהורה

should be "Hechsher Shechitah k'Tehorah" הכשר שחיטה כטהורה

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1)[line 2]אללALAL- (Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish argue as to the definition of the Alal; see the next two entries)

2)[line 2]מרטקאMARTEKA- (O.F. jenol) the tough cervical ligament of animals

3)[line 3]בשר שפלטתו סכיןBASAR SHE'PALATETO SAKIN- small pieces of flesh that remain stuck to the hide after flaying

4)[line 3]"וְאוּלָם אַתֶּם טֹפְלֵי שָׁקֶר, רֹפְאֵי אֱלִל כֻּלְּכֶם""V'ULAM ATEM TOFLEI SHAKER, ROF'EI ELIL KULCHEM"- "But you are people who join together false words, you are all useless doctors" (Iyov 13:4) - The Gemara connects the Alal with the word "Elil," "useless," from this verse, finding a source to prove that when the Alal is cut, it causes irreparable damage. Iyov claimed that his friends were trying to cure the incurable; admonishing him that repentance from his sins would eliminate his suffering. He maintained that he committed no sins from which to repent.

5)[line 9]האלל המכונסHE'ALAL HA'MECHUNAS- Alal that is gathered together (showing that its owner is attributing to it the significance of food)

6)[line 10]חייבין עליוCHAYAVIN ALAV (TUM'AS NEVEILAH)

See below, entry #21.

7)[line 19]בטוליה בטליהBITULEI BATLEI- he has totally nullified it (removing its significance as a food)

8)[line 23]חרטוםCHARTOM- (O.F. bec) beak

9)[line 23]צפרניםTZIPORNAYIM- talons

10a)[line 23]מיטמאיןMITAM'IN- become Tamei themselves (e.g. if they touch a Sheretz)

b)[line 23]מטמאיןMETAM'IN- cause other things to become Tamei (e.g. if they touch food items)

11)[line 26]תחתון של עליוןTACHTON SHEL ELYON- the inner (lit. lower) part of the upper beak (referring to a thin strip of flesh that is attached to the upper beak along its length)

12)[line 28]קרניםKARNAYIM- horns

13)[line 30]שוניןSHONIN- there are those Tana'im who teach

14)[line 32]מחשבהMACHSHAVAH- intention [to use it as food]

15)[line 32]הכשרHECHSHER - they need to become wet in order for them to receive Tum'as Ochlin (HECHSHER OCHLIN)

(a)Foods may become Temei'im if they touch a source of Tum'ah only if they were wetted at some point in their history. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Temei'im is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can become Temei'im. Wetting food with any of seven liquids: water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey, can enable the food to become Tamei.

(b)The food can become Tamei only if the owner of the food was pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seed and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon it, the seed is Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" — "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" — "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food (i.e. it is as though he himself applied them).

(c)It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. That is, even if the owner desires the liquid for an entirely different purpose, if the liquid later comes into contact with food it will enable the food to become Tamei. On the other hand, if the owner only intended to dispose of the liquid, it does not enable the food to become Tamei, since only liquids that are significant can cause Hechsher. It is only considered "Ki Yiten" when the liquid falls upon an object (with the will of the owner) that is detached from the ground.

16)[line 33]סופו לטמא טומאה חמורהSOFO L'TAMEI TUM'AH CHAMURAH- eventually, after it dies, it will be Metamei a stringent Tum'ah, i.e. the Ofos Temei'im that die will be Metamei Tum'as Neveilos (see below, entry #21) and the Ofos Tehorim will be Metamei Tum'as Nivlas Of Tahor (see next entry)

17)[last line]נבלת עוף טהורNIVLAS OF TAHOR

(a)Normally, items that are Tamei spread Tum'ah through touching them or carrying them ("Maga" or "Masa"). The only object that is Metamei mid'Oraisa while being eaten is Nivlas Of Tahor (the carcass of a Kosher bird). Nivlas Of Tahor is a kosher bird that died or was killed without Shechitah. (This includes a bird that is unfit to be brought as a Korban upon which Melikah was performed.) It is only Metamei while in the Beis ha'Beli'ah (throat), during the process of being swallowed.

(b)A Nivlas Of Tahor is Metamei the person eating it, as well as any clothes or utensils that he is touching at the time that it is in his throat, giving them the status of "Rishon l'Tum'ah." (Once it is swallowed, the person remains Tamei, but is only Metamei food and drinks, i.e. he is a Rishon l'Tum'ah).

121b----------------------------------------121b

18)[line 5]מפרכסתMEFARKESES- it is making convulsive, jerking motions

19a)[line 6]אינה לאבריםEINAH L'EIVARIM- a Nochri who eats the limbs of an Of Tamei that has not stopped convulsing does not transgress the prohibition of Ever Min ha'Chai (see Background to Chulin 127:19)

b)[line 6]ישנה לאבריםYESHNAH L'EIVARIM- a Nochri who eats the limbs of an Of Tamei that has not stopped convulsing does transgress the prohibition of Ever Min ha'Chai

20)[line 17]טומאת נבלותTUM'AS NEVEILOS

A Neveilah is a carcass of a Kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah), you shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri; for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your El-kim." (Devarim 14:21). A person who eats a k'Zayis of Neveilah is liable to Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 4:1) and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Keli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).

21)[line 17]אבר הפורש ממנה כפורש מן החיEVER HA'PORESH MIMENAH K'PORESH MIN HA'CHAI- an entire limb of an animal, consisting of bone, flesh and sinews, which was detached while the animal was still convulsing, is Metamei through Maga (touching) and Masa (carrying) like a Neveilah, which is the Halachah of the Tum'ah of Ever Min ha'Chai

22)[line 18]בשר הפורש ממנה כבשר הפורש מן החיBASAR HA'PORESH MIMENAH K'BASAR HA'PORESH MIN HA'CHAI- a piece of flesh that was detached from an animal that was still convulsing is Tahor, like the Halachah of flesh detached from a live animal. However, it is prohibited to Nochrim even after the animal dies.

23)[line 21]נחרהNACHRAH (NECHIRAH)

Nechirah refers to killing an animal not by Shechitah, by rather by sticking a knife into its nostrils ("Necherei") and cutting its throat, all the way down to its chest (RASHI to Chulin 17a, DH veha'Nocher, and to Bava Kama 78b DH ha'Nocher). (Although Rashi to Daf 85b, DH Nochro explains that Nechirah involves "strangling" the animal, it is clear from Rashi's words to the Mishnah (Daf 15b, DH she'Hem) that "strangling" refers to any form of asphyxiation, including the tearing of the animal's trachea. See also ARUCH Erech Nachar, and RASHBA in Teshuvos (3:363).)

24)[line 30]טרפהTEREIFAH

(a)A Tereifah is an animal or bird that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in its death within a year. (There are some who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year, as mentioned in the Gemara — Chulin 42a.) The signs of the Tereifos do not have logical reasons; rather, they are Halachos l'Moshe mi'Sinai (RASHI to Chulin 42a DH Naflah; see Insights ibid.).

(b)For a further discussion of the eighteen signs of Tereifos, see Background to Chulin 42:3.

25)[line 33]מולחו יפה יפה ומדיחו יפה יפהMOLCHO YAFEH YAFEH U'MADICHO YAFEH YAFEH (MELICHAH V'HADACHAH)

(a)In order to prepare meat after it is slaughtered, the Gemara (Chulin 113a) teaches that one must "salt it very well and rinse it very well." The RAMBAM (Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 6:10; SHULCHAN ARUCH YD 69:6) states that in order to remove the blood from meat it must be salted for the amount of time that it takes to walk one Mil. The BI'UR HALACHAH (OC 459:2) writes that when it comes to salting meat, we are stringent and consider a Mil to be 24 minutes, and thus require that meat be salted for at least 24 minutes (that is b'Di'eved; l'Chatchilah, meat should be salted for at least an hour).

(b)Our Gemara states that if one wants to eat the meat of an animal before it is actually dead, he should cut off a k'Zayis of meat after the Shechitah while it is still Mefarkeses (twitching), salt it "very well" and rinse it "very well," and wait for the animal to die. Afterwards he may eat it. RASHI (DH Yafeh) explains that Mefarkeses meat must be salted and rinsed more than normal meat. Normally, blood is forced out of the meat when the animal breathes its last breath, but this meat was taken from the animal before it had a chance to do that.

(c)Both TOSFOS (to Chulin 33a DH Molcho) and the RAN (ibid.) learn that the Mefarkeses meat of our Sugya was going to be eaten roasted and not cooked. Tosfos proves this from the fact that the Gemara does not require that the meat be washed before salting, while the Ran proves this from the fact that the Mefarkeses is not yet dead by the time we are ready to eat it. (Preparing cooked meat takes much more time than preparing roasted meat, since cooked meat must first be salted for an extended period of time, as above, (a).)

(d)Salting very well and rinsing very well is usually only necessary before cooking meat. Since this meat is only being roasted, it must be that the meat of a Mefarkeses is treated differently from ordinary meat, for the reason that Rashi gives. (M. KORNFELD)

26)[line 37]שהה בה / דרס בהSHAHAH BAH / DARAS BAH (HILCHOS SHECHITAH)

(a)The laws of Shechitah (proper ritual slaughter) that permit an animal to be eaten are a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai, a tradition that was handed down to us from Moshe at Har Sinai (Chulin 28a, based on Devarim 12:21).

(b)There are two "Simanim," or parts of the animal that must be sliced through when performing Shechitah: the Kaneh (trachea) and the Veshet (esophagus). When slaughtering a bird, cutting one Siman is sufficient for a Kosher Shechitah. Five of the most important laws of Shechitah are the following:

1."Shehiyah" - One may not "pause" in middle of a Shechitah.

2."Derasah" - One may not "press" the knife into the neck, but must use a sliding, cutting motion.

3."Chaladah" - One may not insert the knife into the middle of the thickness of the neck and cut the Simanim from there.

4."Hagramah" - One may not cut the Simanim such that part of the cut "slants" above the point that delimits the part of the neck upon which Shechitah may be performed.

5."Ikur" - One may not "rip out" the Simanim from the neck and then cut them. Similarly, one may not cause the Simanim to tear during Shechitah, such as by cutting them with a dull blade.

27)[line 39]בדיקת סכיןBEDIKAS SAKIN

In order to perform Shechitah properly, the slaughtering knife has to be checked to make sure it is not nicked in the slightest way.

28)[line 40]מהו שתציל על הבלועיןMAHU SHE'TATZIL AL HA'BELU'IN- is it considered alive in order to prevent an object which is inside it to receive Tum'ah? (An object that is Tamei which is inside a living creature is not Metamei and an object that is Tahor does not become Tamei if the living creature entered a house in which a corpse lies.)

29)[line 42]הרובעה חייבHA'ROV'AH CHAYAV- one who engages in bestiality with this animal is liable to the death punishment for intentional transgression and a Korban Chatas for unintentional transgression

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