BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
in memory of Reb David ben Aharon Ha'Levi Rosenwald z"l
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[21a - 41 lines; 13b - lines]
1a) [line 1] אימא וכן הוא עושה EIMA V'CHEN HU OSEH - say that this is how he does it (Melikah)
b) [line 2] חותך שדרה ומפרקת בלא רוב בשר CHOSECH SHIDRAH U'MAFREKES B'LO ROV BASAR - he severs the spine and the neckbone without a majority of the flesh around it (that is, he thrusts his finger into the neck and makes a hole through which he breaks the neckbone, and only afterwards does he cut the majority of flesh around the neckbone)
2) [line 3] כי סליק רבי זירא KI SALIK REBBI ZEIRA - when Rebbi Zeira went up [to Eretz Yisrael from Bavel]
3) [line 4] וכי מתה עומד ומולק V'CHI MESAH OMED U'MOLEK - and once it has died (and is considered like a Neveilah), he goes and does Melikah to it?!
4) [line 5] אשתומם כשעה חדא ISHTOMAM K'SHA'AH CHADA - he (Rebbi Ami) was quiet for a moment, thinking how he would answer this question (this is a quote from Daniel 4:16, where the verse describes Daniel's reaction when he heard Nevuchadnetzar's dream.)
5) [line 8] חטאת העוף CHATAS HA'OF
(a) The offering of the Chatas ha'Of (which is brought by a Zav and Zavah, by a Yoledes and Metzora who are poor, and by a poor person who was Nishba l'Sheker, or who transgressed Shevu'as ha'Edus, or was Metamei Mikdash v'Kodashav) consists of three procedures (see, for example, Vayikra 5:8-9): Melikah, Hazayah, and Mitzuy.
1. MELIKAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail. He makes sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus), but does not sever both Simanim ("v'Lo Yavdil" - Vayikra 5:8).
2. HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3. MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and squeezes its remaining blood onto the Mizbe'ach.
(b) The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim, in the Azarah, on the day that it is offered and the following night. No part of it was burned on the Mizbe'ach ("Ein Mimenu la'Ishim").
6a) [line 9] וושט VESHET - esophagus
b) [line 9] קנה KANEH - trachea
7) [line 16] נשברה מפרקת ורוב בשר עמה מטמא באהל NISHBERAH MAFREKES V'ROV BASAR IMAH METAMEI V'OHEL - if the neckbone [of a person] broke and most of the flesh around it became detached, [the person is considered to be dead and] his body causes Tum'as Ohel (MES: TUM'AS OHEL)
(a) See Background to Chulin 13:20.
(b) The Rambam (Hilchos Tum'as Mes 1:15) writes, "A corpse is not Metamei until the soul departs entirely, even if the body is dismembered or moribund. Even if the two Simanim (esophagus and trachea) have been severed, the body is not Metamei until the soul departs, as the verse states, 'b'Nefesh ha'Adam Asher Yamus' - '[Whoever touches] the dead body of any man who has died'" (Bamidbar 19:13). If his neckbone is broken and most of the flesh around it is detached, or he was cut like a fish from his back, or his head was shattered, or his body was cut in half at his abdomen, the body is Metamei, even though it still has movement in any of its limbs."
8) [line 17] אותו מעשה דעלי OSO MA'ASEH D'ELI - the incident involving Eli
(a) Eli was one of the last Shoftim of Benei Yisrael. He served as the Kohen Gadol in the Mishkan in Shilo. He led the people for forty years (Shmuel I 4:18).
(b) When Eli was 98 years old, the Pelishtim attacked Benei Yisrael. The Aron ha'Kodesh was taken out to the battlefield in order to sway the outcome of the war. However, due to certain sins of the people, the war effort of Benei Yisrael was unsuccessful, and the Pelishtim captured the Aron ha'Kodesh (Shmuel I 4:1-11). In the same battle, Eli's two sons, Chofni and Pinchas, were killed. When the news of the Aron's capture, and the death of his sons, was brought to Eli, he fell backwards off of his chair and died instantly. The verse relates that the righteous Eli died not from news of the death of his sons, but from the news that the holy Aron had been captured.
(c) See Background to Makos 11:38 with regard to the sons of Eli.
9) [line 19] "וַיְהִי, כְּהַזְכִּירוֹ אֶת אֲרוֹן הָאֱלֹקִים, וַיִּפֹּל מֵעַל הַכִּסֵּא אֲחֹרַנִּית בְּעַד יַד הַשַּׁעַר, וַתִּשָּׁבֵר מַפְרַקְתּוֹ וַיָּמֹת, כִּי זָקֵן הָאִישׁ וְכָבֵד וְהוּא, שָׁפַט אֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה/" "VA'YEHI CH'HAZKIRO..." - "And it came to pass, that when he mentioned the ark of HaSh-m, that he (Eli) fell off backwards from the seat by the side of the gate, and his neckbone was broken and he died; for he was an old man, and heavy, and he had judged Yisrael for forty years." (Shmuel I 4:18)
10) [line 23] קרעו כדג KERA'O K'DAG - he was torn like a fish (lengthwise, from his back)
11) [line 24] עשאה גיסטרא ASA'AH GISTERA - he made it (an animal) into two (he cut it in half)
12) [line 25] ניטל הירך וחלל שלה (ניכר) NITAL HA'YERECH V'CHALAL SHELAH (NIKAR) - the thigh and its cavity were removed (that is, the entire leg was removed, including some of the flesh at the point that it connects to the body, without leaving any stump)
13) [line 27] כל שרבוצה ונראית חסרה הותזו ראשיהן KOL SHE'REVUTZAH V'NIR'EIS CHASERAH - any animal that lies down and it is seen to be lacking. (When an animal lies down on its legs, its legs are covered and cannot be seen. If the animal - that has had its leg and flesh from the cavity removed - were to lie down and there would be a noticeable depression where the leg was once attached, then the animal is considered a Neveilah.)
14a) [line 27] אע''פ שמפרכסין טמאים HUTZU ROSHEIHEN - their heads were cut off (according to RASHI, this refers to the Shemoneh Sheratzim; according to TOSFOS, this refers to animals and birds)
b) [line 28] אע''פ שמפרכסין טמאים AF AL PI SHE'MEFARKESIN TEMEI'IM - even though they are convulsing, they are Temei'im (TUM'AS SHERETZ)
See Background to Chulin 3:3; see also Insights to Chulin 21:1.
15) [line 28] כזנב הלטאה שמפרכסת K'ZANAV HA'LETA'AH SHE'MEFARKESES - like the tail of a lizard that convulses spasmodically (even though there is no life in the tail)
16a) [line 38] "וְאֶת הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט ..." "V'ES HA'SHENI YA'ASEH OLAH KA'MISHPAT" - "and the second one he shall offer as an Olah according to the law" (Vayikra 5:10)
b) [line 38] עולה כמשפט OLAH KA'MISHPAT (OLAS HA'OF SHEL SHEMI'AS HA'KOL)
(a) A person brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored to atone for sins in three specific cases: Shemi'as ha'Kol, i.e. Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Shevuos 30:1), Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Shevuos 2:2) and Shevu'as Bituy (see Background to Shevuos 2:1). RASHI (DH b'Chatas ha'Of and DH v'Es ha'Sheni) only mentions Shemi'as ha'Kol since this is the first of these three sins mentioned (Vayikra 5:1).
(b) What constitutes a Korban Oleh v'Yored varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir). If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus). If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chotei (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus). (Vayikra 5:6-13)
(c) The offering of the Olas ha'Of consists of four procedures:
1. MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Menachos 72:9) of the Mizbe'ach, on the southeastern corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is crowded with Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of Korbanos are offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)
2. MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3. HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.
4. HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines - Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiyah), salts it, and throws it into the fire.
17) [line 41] "וְהִקְרִיבוֹ הַכֹּהֵן ..." "V'HIKRIVO..." - "And the Kohen shall offer it ..." (Vayikra 1:15) - This verse singles out the Olas ha'Of, distinguishing it from other Korbanos in the ways in which the Gemara proceeds to discuss.
18a) [line 1] מן החולין MIN HA'CHULIN - from non-consecrated property (KOL DAVAR SHEB'CHOVAH EINO BA ELA MIN HA'CHULIN)
(a) Every Korban that a person is required to bring must be set aside from animals that are Chulin (non-consecrated). This applies whether the obligation to bring the Korban stems from the Torah, such as Pesach, Chatas, Asham, etc., or whether it stems from the person himself, such as if he vowed to bring a Korban Olah, Shelamim or Todah. He does not fulfill his obligation unless he sets aside and offers as the Korban an animal that is Chulin. Therefore, if the person owns an animal that he already set aside as a Korban by declaring it a Nedavah (e.g. by saying, "This animal shall be a Shelamim"), or if he owns money that was used for the redemption of Ma'aser Sheni (which retains the Kedushah of Ma'aser Sheni), he cannot fulfill his obligation by bringing the animal that was declared a Nedavah, or by purchasing an animal for his Korban with the money that was used to redeem Ma'aser Sheni (Menachos 82a).
(b) If a person vows to bring a Korban and specifies at the time of his vow that he may bring an animal that is already Kadosh, or that he may purchase an animal with money that was used to redeem Ma'aser Sheni, then he does fulfill his vow with the animal that was Kadosh as a Nedavah or with the money that was used to redeem Ma'aser Sheni (ibid.).
b [line 1] ביום BA'YOM - a Korban may be brought only during the day, as the verse states with regard to the Chatas of Yom ha'Kipurim, "Ki va'Yom ha'Zeh Yechaper Aleichem" (Vayikra 16:30)
c [line 1] בידו הימנית B'YADO HA'YEMANIS - [the applications of blood must be performed] with his right hand
19) [line 4] "... וּמָלַק [אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ] וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה ..." "U'MALAK... V'HIKTIR" - "and the Kohen shall perform Melikiah... and he shall burn it [on the Mizbe'ach]" (Vayikra 1:15)