[10a - 39 lines; 10b - 43 lines]

1)[line 9]רחשRACHASH- (lit. a crawling pest, a Sheretz) the snake

2)[line 11]מתחת אוזן כליMI'TACHAS OZEN KELI- from [a hole in the ground] under the handle of the utensil (which was on the ground)

3)[line 13]פגומהPEGUMAH- blemished, having nicks

4)[line 14]שיבר בה עצמותSHIBER BAH ATZAMOS- [after the Shechitah,] he used it to break bones

5)[line 15]שמא בעור נפגמהSHEMA BA'OR NIFGEMAH- perhaps it was nicked by the hide [of the animal, as the Shochet started the Shechitah]

6)[line 19]אין ספק מוציא מידי ודאיEIN SAFEK MOTZI M'YEDEI VADAI - a doubt does not override a certainty

(a)This principle is used with regard to questions of Isur and Heter, as well as with regard to questions of monetary matters. With regard to questions of Isur and Heter, this principle dictates that when one event certainly (Vadai) occurred, while there is a doubt (Safek) whether the other event (which would alter the Halachic status of the object in question) occurred, we assume that the doubtful event did not occur, since "a doubt does not override a certainty."

(b)With regard to questions of monetary matters, one of the rules that Beis Din follows when settling monetary disputes is "Ein Safek Motzi m'Yedei Vadai." According to this rule, if one party certainly has rights over part of a disputed object, and the other party cannot prove that it has rights over any part of that object, the first party wins the case. See Background to Yevamos 38:1.

7)[line 21]דבר חוצץDAVAR CHOTZETZ (TEVILAH: CHATZITZAH)

(a)Certain Mitzvos require that there be no intervening substance (Chatzitzah) between the person performing the action and the substance upon which or in which the action is performed. Among these Mitzvos are Tevilah (immersion in a Mikvah), where the person's skin must touch the water, and the Avodah (divine service) in the Beis ha'Mikdash, during which a foreign substance must not intervene between the Kohen and the Kli Shares (sanctified utensil), or between the Kohen's feet and the floor of the Azarah.

(b)An intervening substance that covers the majority of one's body and that a person minds (and would normally remove) causes a Chatzitzah that disqualifies immersion in a Mikvah.

8)[line 22]שנתעסק באותו המיןSHE'NIS'ASEK B'OSO HA'MIN- he was involved [working] with that substance

9)[line 27]העמד טמא על חזקתוHA'AMED TAMEI AL CHEZKASO - establish the man known to be Tamei as such based upon his Chazakah (CHAZAKAH)

See Background to Chulin 9:12a

10)[line 30]איתילידא ביה ריעותאISYELIDA BEI REI'USA- a damaging element developed in it (ruining the ability to rely on the Chazakah)

11)[line 32]שחט את הושטSHACHAT ES HA'VESHET - he cut the esophagus (SHECHITAS OF)

The Shechitah of fowl is valid with the cutting of a single Siman (the esophagus or the trachea). Therefore, if, after the first Siman was cut, the second Siman was subject to any of the five acts that invalidate a Shechitah (see Background to Chulin 2:1), the Shechitah remains valid.

12)[line 32]נשמטה הגרגרתNISHMETAH HA'GARGERES- the trachea slipped out of its place; if this occurred before the Shechitah (that is, before the esophagus was cut), then the Shechitah is invalid, because the bird was a Tereifah at the time of the Shechitah. If the trachea slipped out of its place after the esophagus was cut, then the Shechitah is valid, since the bird was already slaughtered when the trachea slipped out of its place.

10b----------------------------------------10b

13)[line 7]עצם דמפרקתETZEM D'MIFREKES- the neck-bones

14)[line 8]עד תליסר חיותאAD TELEISAR CHEIVASA- up to thirteen animals

15)[line 11]מתלא תלינןMITLA TALINAN- we attribute [the nick in the knife to the neck-bone, and we assume that the nick occurred after the Shechitah was complete, and thus the Shechitah is valid]

16)[line 18]בדיקת חכםBEDIKAS CHACHAM (BEDIKAS SAKIN: BEDIKAS CHACHAM)

In order to perform Shechitah properly, the slaughtering knife has to be checked to make sure it is not nicked in the slightest way.

17)[line 18]עד אחד נאמן באיסוריןED ECHAD NE'EMAN B'ISURIN - a single witness is believed with regard to matters of prohibitions (such as to testify that a certain piece of meat is Kosher)

(a)RASHI says that the source for this Halachah is the fact that the Torah allows a person to eat with his friend (without requiring two witnesses testifying that the food is Kosher). TOSFOS and the other Rishonim say that this is derived from the verse, "v'Safrah" (Vayikra 15:28), that teaches that a woman is believed to state that she counted her seven days of Taharah for her Tum'as Nidah.

(b)When the item in question is "Ischazek Isura" - its status of Isur has already been established, the Gemara in Yevamos (88a) raises the possibility that a single witness is not believed to permit it. However, when the matter is in the hands of the witness ("b'Yado") to correct (for example, it is in his hands to separate Terumah from questionable produce, or it was in his hands to slaughter an animal properly), then the witness is certainly believed. (See Insights.)

18)[line 23]"וְיָצָא הַכֹּהֵן מִן הַבַּיִת ...""V'YATZA HA'KOHEN MIN HA'BAYIS" - "and the Kohen will exit the house" (Vayikra 14:38). (NEGA'IM: NIG'EI BATIM - Tzara'as that infects houses)

(a)The marks of Tzara'as for houses consist of intense green or intense red streaks or spots that are at least the size of two Gerisin (a Gris is a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) (Nega'im 12:3). If Tzara'as is found on the walls of a house, it is put into quarantine by a Kohen for a week. Before the Kohen puts the house into quarantine, he commands that the house be emptied of its contents to prevent its utensils from becoming Tamei, and the house must be closed up.

(b)The Torah states (Vayikra 14:39) "v'Shav ha'Kohen," to prescribe that the Kohen return six days later to check the house. If the Tzara'as has spread, one must remove (Choletz) the stones with Tzara'as from the house, scrape off the surrounding plaster, insert new stones and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then put into quarantine for another week. If the Tzara'as returns to the house during the following week, the owner must dismantle (Notetz) the entire house (Vayikra 14:45). The stones from the house must be taken out of the city, and they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever.

(c)On the other hand, if the Tzara'as did not change after the first week, the Kohen leaves it as is and returns again six days later. The verse states, "u'Va ha'Kohen" (Vayikra 14:44), which means "if, when the Kohen comes back to the house to inspect it a second time, he finds that the spot of Tzara'as has spread, the house is Tamei." Chazal teach that this verse is referring to a spot of Tzara'as that does not spread during its first week. The Kohen "comes back to the house" after a second week to see whether the spot has spread, remains, or has disappeared. If the Tzara'as has either spread or remained, one must remove (Choletz) the stones with Tzara'as from the house, scrape off the surrounding plaster, insert new stones and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then put into quarantine for another week (Vayikra 14:40). If the Tzara'as returns to the house during the following week, the owner must dismantle (Notetz) the entire house (Vayikra 14:45). The stones from the house must be taken out of the city, and they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever.

(d)Even though the words "v'Shav" and "u'Va" are not identical, they are referring to the same action; namely, the Kohen entering the house to inspect it. This relates the two verses to each other with a Gezeirah Shavah. Just as the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spreads during the first week - unless the stones are scraped and the Tzara'as returned to the house after a week of quarantine - so, too, the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spread during the second week unless it returns to the house after the quarantine period that follows the scraping.

(e)If during one of the inspections at the end of the first or second week the Kohen finds that the Tzara'as has disappeared or diminished in intensity such that it can no longer be classified as a Nega, the location of the spot alone is scraped and the house is declared Tahor after the owner follows the procedure for being Metaher houses (see Background to Sukah 13:11:IV). (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Tzara'as 15:2)

19)[line 25]אדנפיק ואתא בצר ליה שיעוראAD'NAFIK V'ASA BATZAR LEI SHI'URA- by the time he leaves the house, the mark of Tzara'as may decrease in size, to less than a Gris

20)[line 28]דרך אחוריוDERECH ACHORAV- walking backwards

21)[line 31]אחורי הדלתACHOREI HA'DELES- behind the door

22)[line 32]פתח ביה כוותאPASACH BEI KAVSA- he opened a window [in the door - RASHI]

23)[line 32]בית אפלBAYIS AFEL- a dark room

24)[line 36]דרך כניסתוDERECH KENISASO- in the way that he entered. When the Kohen Gadol left the Kodesh Kodashim, he was to walk backwards, facing the Aron, the same way that he entered.

25)[line 37]היכא דלא איתחזקHEICHA D'LO ISCHAZEK- where it was not yet determined [that the house is afflicted with Tzara'as]

26)[line 39]לתוך ביתוL'SOCH BEISO- into his (the Kohen's) home

27)[line 39]ויסגירV'YASGIR- and he will close the door (either by returning to the afflicted house, or by way of a rope attached to the door of the afflicted house; see Insights)

28)[line 40]תחת המשקוףTACHAS HA'MASHKOF- underneath the lintel

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