[8a - 35 lines; 8b - 38 lines]

1)[line 1]ליבן סכיןLIBEN SAKIN- a person heats up a knife until it is white-hot (while foreign languages use the term red-hot - RASHI)

2)[line 2]חידודהCHIDUDAH- the sharpness of its blade

3)[line 3]והאיכא צדדיןVEHA'IKA TZEDADIN- but the sides of the knife must also be taken into consideration, and they will burn the Simanim (the esophagus and the trachea) before the Shechitah is finished, rendering the animal a Tereifah, since even the most minute hole in the Simanim renders an animal a Tereifah

4)[line 3]בית השחיטה מירווח רווחBEIS HA'SHECHITAH MIRVACH RAVACH- the incision in the neck widens as the knife goes in (and only the edge of the blade touches the Simanim, not the sides)

5)[line 4]שפודSHEPUD- a spit (skewer)

6)[line 4]והכה בוV'HIKAH VO- and he hit someone with it (with the side of it, not poking him)

7)[line 4]שחין / מכוהSHECHIN / MICHVAH (TZARA'AS)

(a)When a Jew develops a mark on his body the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) that looks like the skin disease of Tzara'as, a Kohen must be summoned to ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. (Depending on the type of mark, this is determined by different factors - see below, (b).) The Kohen inspects the mark during the day, but not in bright sunshine and not under conditions that obstruct the sunlight, such as a cloudy day or a darkened room. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, initiating a one or two-week period of quarantine or "Hesger" (depending on the type of blemish). During this period, he is known as a Metzora Musgar. If no "Simanei Tum'ah" (signs of Tum'ah - see below, b:1-4) appear in the mark during that time, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora Musgar to have become Tahor. If Simanei Tum'ah do appear in the mark at the end of the first or second week of Hesger - or even when the Kohen first sees the Nega or after the Metzora has become Tahor - the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah go away, after which the Kohen pronounces him to have become Tahor.

(b)There are four types of blemishes that constitute Neg'ei Tzara'as that affect a Jewish person: Nig'ei Basar; Shechin or Michvah; Nesek; Karachas or Gabachas.

1.NIG'EI BASAR refers to Tzara'as that affects normal skin. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white, sometimes with some red mixed in. The period of Hesger for Nig'ei Basar is two weeks. A Kohen inspects the Nega at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah for Nig'ei Basasar are:

i.The lesion spreads ("Pisyon");

ii.Two or more white hairs ("Se'ar Lavan") grow inside the lesion after it appears on the skin;

iii.A patch of normal looking skin ("Michyah"), measuring two by two hairs or more, appears in middle of the Nega.

2.SHECHIN or MICHVAH refer to the Tzara'as of a blister or a burn. It appears as a white blotch of one of four bright shades of white, sometimes with red mixed in, that develops over a partially healed pustule, boil or blister produced by non-fire heat or by friction (in the case of Shechin), or over a burn produced by the heat of a fire (in the case of Michvah). The period of quarantine for Shechin and Michvah is only one week, after which the Kohen declares the Metzora either Tahor or Muchlat. (The Halachos of Shechin and Michvah are identical. They are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei (Nega'im 9:2). Their signs of Tum'ah are:

i.The mark spreads (Pisyon);

ii.Two or more white hairs (Se'ar Lavan) grow inside the mark after the Nega Tzara'as appears.

3.NESEK (pl. Nesakim) refers to Tzara'as that appears beneath the hair of the scalp, beard or eyebrows. According to most Rishonim, a Nesek appears as normal skin that is revealed when a cluster of hair (measuring the size of a Gris) falls out from parts of the scalp or beard that are normally covered with hair, such that a bald spot without even two normal hairs is created (see RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29). The period of Hesger for a Nesek is two weeks. At the beginning of the Hesger, the Kohen shaves the hair surrounding the Nesek, only leaving a two-hair-thick ring of normal hair around the Nesek. A Kohen inspects the Nesek at the end of each week, and at the end of the two-week period he declares the Metzora to be either Tahor or Muchlat. The signs of Tum'ah of a Nesek are:

i.The Nesek spreads ("Pisyon") - that is, more hair falls out around the periphery of the original Nesek;

ii.Two or more thin, golden hairs ("Se'ar Tzahov Dak") grow inside the Nesek after it appears on the skin.

iii.Nesek, unlike the other Nega'im, also has a Siman Taharah, which can make it Tahor at any time: If normal, black hairs grow in the Nesek, the Kohen pronounces the Metzora to be Tahor.

4.KARACHAS or GABACHAS refer to Tzara'as that affects a completely bald scalp (which became bald through exposure to a balding agent, or through a normal balding process - see RASH to Negaim 10:10A and RAMBAN to Vayikra 13:29), either in the fore part of the head (Gabachas) or the back part of the head (Karachas). Their Halachos are identical to those of Nig'ei Basar (above, 1) that appear on a normal, non-hairy part of the skin, except that it lacks the Siman Tum'ah of Se'ar Lavan (since it is on a part of the body on which hair does not grow). (The Halachos of Karachas and Gabachas are identical. They are distinct only in that a half-Gris of one of them does not combine with a half-Gris of the other to make a person Tamei, Negaim 10:10.)

(c)The four marks that make a person a Metzora through Nig'ei Basar, Shechin or Michvah and Karachas or Gabachas are:

1.Baheres, which is the color of snow;

2.Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool;

3.Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash;

4.Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an eggshell (RASHI).

(d)For a full discussion of the process by which a Metzora becomes Tahor, see Background to Menachos 27:20.

8a)[line 6]בשבוע אחדB'SHAVU'A ECHAD- with [quarantine of] one week (see previous entry, b:2, for an explanation of this and the following three entries)

b)[line 7]בשני סימניןSHNEI SIMANIN- with two signs of Tum'ah

c)[line 7]בשער לבןSEI'AR LAVAN- with white hair

d)[line 7]פסיוןPISYON- with the mark spreading

9)[line 8]אין מצטרפין זה עם זהEIN MITZTARFIN ZEH IM ZEH- they do not combine with each other (see entry #7:b:2)

10a)[line 9]לקה בעץLAKAH V'ETZ- he was wounded with a blow from a branch

b)[line 10]אבןEVEN- a stone

c)[line 10]גפתGEFES- olive-waste after their oil has been pressed out, that was lit and used as coals

d)[line 10]חמי טבריאCHAMEI TEVERYA- water from the hot springs of Tiberias

e)[line 10]כל דבר שלא בא מחמת האורKOL DAVAR SHE'LO VA MACHMAS HA'UR- and all things (i.e. one more thing) that do not cause a wound by the heat of a fire

f)[line 11]אבר מעיקרוEVER ME'IKARO- lead from its mine

11)[line 12]נכוה בגחלתNICHVEH V'GACHELES- he was burned with a glowing coal

12a)[line 12]רמץREMETZ- hot ashes left from coals

b)[line 13]סיד רותחSID ROSE'ACH- hot lime or plaster

c)[line 13]גפסית רותחGIFSIS ROSE'ACH- hot gypsum

d)[line 14]חמי האורCHAMEI HA'UR- water heated by fire

13)[line 18]חצי גריסCHATZI GERIS- half of a cilician bean (half the area of a dime)

14a)[line 20]חבטאCHAVATA- the blow aspect of the wound caused by the red-hot spit

b)[line 20]הבלאHEVLA- the burn aspect of the wound caused by the red-hot spit

15)[line 28]מכות אשMICHVAS ESH- the burn from the heat of a fire (see above, entry #7:b:2)

16)[line 29]ברזייה מיברזBARZEYEI MIVRAZ- he poked him (O.F. point - to pierce) with the point of the spit (it which case we do not have a proof that the blow from a red-hot spit is considered to be a Michvah)

17)[line 30]סכין של עבודת כוכביםSAKIN SHEL AVODAS KOCHAVIM - a knife used in the service of Avodah Zarah (MESHAMSHEI AVODAH ZARAH)

(a)An object that is worshipped as Avodah Zarah, e.g. an idol, becomes Asur b'Hana'ah - it is forbidden to derive any benefit from it. One who benefits from such an object receives Malkus two times, once for the prohibition in Devarim 7:26 and once for the prohibition in Devarim 13:18. Similarly, an object that was used in the service of Avodah Zarah ("Meshamshei Avodah Zarah") is also Asur b'Hana'ah, as the verse states in Devarim 12:2 (Avodah Zarah 51b), and an object that was offered to an Avodah Zarah is Asur b'Hana'ah, as the verse states in Tehilim 106:28 (Avodah Zarah 50a). Objects of Avodah Zarah themselves and the utensils that are used in their service must be destroyed, as it states in Devarim 7:5 and 12:2. Money paid in exchange for an item of Avodah Zarah becomes forbidden (Asur b'Hana'ah) like the Avodah Zarah itself.

(b)The Tana'im argue whether an Avodah Zarah becomes Asur b'Hana'ah immediately when the object is set up as an idol, or only after it has been worshipped (Avodah Zarah 51b). An object used in the service of Avodah Zarah becomes Asur b'Hana'ah only when it is used to serve the Avodah Zarah. In addition, an object used to beautify the Avodah Zarah ("Noy Avodah Zarah") becomes Asur b'Hana'ah, as the verse states, "Lo Sachmod Kesef v'Zahav..." (Devarim 7:25; Avodah Zarah 51b).

(c)There are certain types of objects that do not become prohibited when they are worshipped or used in the service of Avodah Zarah:

1.Animals do not become prohibited (Avodah Zarah 46a).

2.An object that is attached ("Mechubar") to the ground and that was always attached and was never manipulated by human hands does not become prohibited (Avodah Zarah 45a).

i.The Tana'im argue whether or not a tree that was planted by a person and that did not grow by itself becomes prohibited when worshipped or not. Everyone agrees, however, that a tree that was initially planted in order to be worshipped as an Avodah Zarah becomes prohibited (Avodah Zarah 45b). Some maintain that the part of the tree that grows after it was worshipped becomes Asur b'Hana'ah according to all opinions (Avodah Zarah 48a).

ii.Any object that does not grow from the ground but that was attached to the ground by a person's action, such as a house, becomes Asur b'Hana'ah when worshipped according to all opinions. According to Rashi (to Avodah Zarah 46a), even a tree that already grew and was uprooted and replanted in another place becomes Asur b'Hana'ah when worshipped (see Tosfos to Avodah Zarah 45b and Insights to Avodah Zarah 46a).

3.When an object belonging to one person is worshipped as an idol by another person (without the owner's permission), the object does not become Asur b'Hana'ah.

(d)Even though animals and objects that are attached ("Mechubar") to the ground do not become Asur b'Hana'ah (as mentioned above), nevertheless they become invalidated from being used for holy purposes, such as bringing such an animal as a Korban, or building a Mizbe'ach out of stones that were worshipped. Even though they are not Asur b'Hana'ah, they are considered abhorrent to be used for a holy purpose (Avodah Zarah 46b-47a). The Gemara (ibid.) is in doubt whether or not such objects may be used for other forms of Mitzvos, such as performing the Mitzvah of Lulav with the branch of a tree that was worshipped. Most Rishonim (see RITVA to Avodah Zarah 54a) maintain that an object that was worshipped by someone who does not own the object does not become prohibited even for holy purposes, such as being offered as a Korban, as the Gemara in Chulin (Avodah Zarah 40a) mentions. The RAMBAM, however, maintains that such an object does become prohibited for holy purposes (Hilchos Isurei Mizbe'ach 4:6).

(e)Similarly, even though animals, objects that are attached to the ground, and an object that does not belong to the one worshipping it do not become Asur b'Hana'ah when worshipped as Avodah Zarah, nevertheless they do become Asur b'Hana'ah when they are worshipped with a physical action. Therefore, if one pours a wine libation on an animal that does not belong to him, or if one began to slaughter an animal to an idol, the animal becomes Asur b'Hana'ah even for ordinary uses.

(f)Under certain circumstances, an object that became Asur b'Hana'ah by being worshipped as an idol can become permitted through "Bitul" (see Background to Avodah Zarah 52:6).

18)[line 34]מסוכנתMESUKENES- an animal that is about to die

19)[line 34]אטמי דקיימין לקורבנאATMEI D'KAIMIN L'KURBENA- limbs or choice cuts of meat that can be used as presents or bribes

20)[last line]שמנונית דאיסוראSHAMNUNIS D'ISURA- oily secretions of prohibited foods

8b----------------------------------------8b

21)[line 2]משמשי עבודת כוכביםMESHAMSHEI AVODAS KOCHAVIM- see above, entry #17

22)[line 4]פסק ביה גווזא לעבודת כוכביםPASAK BEI GAVZA L'AVODAS KOCHAVIM- he cut off a branch (sitha new knife) for the purposes of Avodah Zarah

23)[line 5]ישנה שליבנה באורYESHANAH SHE'LIBNA B'UR- a used knife that was made Kosher by the process of Libun (heating it up in a fire; see Background to Avodah Zarah 75:46)

24a)[line 7]קולףKOLEF- he must remove the surface area touched by the knife, which is considered to have absorbed prohibited food items

b)[line 7]מדיחMEDI'ACH- he must wash the area touched by the knife

25a)[line 9]צונןTZONEN- is not hot enough to absorb prohibited food items

b)[line 10]רותחROSE'ACH- is hot enough to be considered "boiling" with regard to the fact that is can absorb prohibited food items

26)[line 14]אגב דוחקא דסכינא בלעAGAV DUCHKA D'SAKINA BALA- because of the pressure of the edge of the knife, it absorbs

27)[line 15]סכין טריפהSAKIN TEREIFAH - the knife used to slaughter an animal that was found to be a Tereifah (TEREIFAH)

A Tereifah is an animal that has acquired or was born with a fatal defect that will result in his or its death within a year. The signs of a Tereifah are described in Chulin 42a et seq. (There are some who maintain that a Tereifah can live for more than a year - see Chulin 42a-b.)

28a)[line 16]בחמיןB'CHAMIN- he must perform Hag'alah with boiling water on the knife to remove the absorption of Shamnunis of the Tereifah, since he rules that the Beis ha'Shechitah is Rose'ach

b)[line 16]בצונןB'TZONEN- he must wash the knife, since he rules that the Beis ha'Shechitah is Tzonen

29)[line 17]ואי איכא בליתא דפרסא למיכפריה לא צריךV'IY IKA BALISA D'FARSA L'MICHPEREI LO TZARICH- and if there is a worn-out piece of curtain that is hard (O.F. aspre - scaly) with which to wipe it, then it (washing the knife) is not necessary

30)[line 19]משום דקא בלעה איסוראMISHUM D'KA VAL'AH ISURA- since it has absorbed prohibited Shamnunis; knives, however, do not absorb blood (RASHI)

31)[line 19]דהיתירא נמי בלעה אבר מן החיD'HEITEIRA NAMI VAL'AH EVER MIN HA'CHAI - in a Kosher Shechitah, the knife has absorbed the Shamnunis of the animal before it dies, and this should be prohibited because of Ever Min ha'Chai (EVER MIN HA'CHAI)

(a)Ever Min ha'Chai refers to a limb that is detached from an animal when it is alive, whether the limb contains only flesh (such as the tongue or heart) or whether it contains bone, flesh and sinews (such as a hand or foot). Basar Min ha'Chai refers to flesh detached from an animal when it is alive. Both are forbidden to be eaten by the Torah (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 5:1).

(b)The prohibition for Benei Yisrael to eat Ever Min ha'Chai is learned from the verse, "v'Lo Sochal ha'Nefesh Im ha'Basar" - "You shall not eat the spirit together with the flesh" (Devarim 12:23). If the limb contains only flesh (e.g. the tongue or heart), one receive lashes for eating a k'Zayis of flesh. If the limb contains bones, sinews and flesh, then the bone and sinews may be combined with the flesh to make up a k'Zayis if the limb is eaten in its natural state (i.e. if the flesh was not detached from the limb prior to its consumption). One does not receive lashes for eating less than a k'Zayis, even if he ate an entire limb. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros Ch. 5; SEFER HA'CHINUCH #452)

(c)The prohibition for Benei Noach to eat Ever Min ha'Chai is learned from the verse, "... mi'Kol Etz ha'Gan Achol Tochel." - "... from all of the trees of the Garden [of Eden] you may surely eat" (Bereishis 2:16). The implication is that Adam may eat from all of the trees, but he may not eat Ever Min ha'Chai (Sanhedrin 56b). This follows the teaching of Rebbi Yochanan. Other sages learn the prohibition from different verses (ibid.).

32)[line 20]לכי חיימאL'CHI CHAIMA- when it heats up

33)[line 23]טבחTABACH- a butcher

34)[line 25]חלביםCHALAVIM - certain prohibited fats

See Background to Chulin 5:15a.

35)[line 25]וליתקן ליה חדאV'LISKAN LEI CHADA- and he should only need to prepare for himself one [knife] (besides the one for Shechitah)

36)[line 28]אית ליה היכראIS LEI HEIKERA- he makes a distinguishable mark on it (RASHI)

37a)[line 35]לא ליסחוף איניש כפלי עילוי בישראLO LISCHOF INISH KAFLEI ILAVEI BISRA- a person should not rub the [inside of the] flank section (O.F. flancs, that contains the Chelev) onto another piece of meat

b)[line 36]דדאיב תרבא ובלע בישראD'DA'IV TARBA U'VALA VISRA- since the Chelev flows and the piece of meat absorbs the prohibition

38a)[line 37]כי תריצי נמיKI TERITZEI NAMI- when it is lying with the Chelev side up also (it should not be left like that)

b)[line 37]דאיב תרבא ובלע בשראDA'IV TARBA U'VALA BISRA- since the meat of the flank itself will absorb from the flow of the Chelev

39)[last line]קרמא מפסיק מתתאיKERAMA MAFSIK MI'TATA'I- a membrane (O.F. teile) intervenes underneath the Chelev and does not allow it to flow into the meat of the flank

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