1)THE EXTRA PORTION OF A FIRSTBORN
(a)(Beraisa): "Lases Lo Pi Shnayim" - he gets twice what a regular brother receives.
(b)Question: Perhaps he receives two (thirds) of all the property!
1.Suggestion: It is reasonable that he gets twice the share of a regular brother.
i.A firstborn's share when he has one brother should resemble his share when he has five brothers. In each case, he gets twice the share of a regular brother.
2.Rejection: We can say otherwise. Just like when he has one brother he gets two thirds of the estate, also when he has five brothers!
(c)Answer #1: "B'Yom Hanchilo Es Banav" is extra, to increase the inheritance of the other sons (i.e. the firstborn only gets twice the share of a regular brother).
(d)Answer #2: "Reuven Bechor Yisrael... Nitenah Bechoraso li'Vnei Yosef v'Lo Lehisyaches la'Bechorah" (Yosef would not be called firstborn, just he would receive a double portion. He received twice the portion of a regular brother.)
(e)Answer #3: "Veha'Bechorah l'Yosef" - just like Yosef's Bechorah entitled him to twice the portion of a regular brother, also firstborns in all generations.
(f)Answer #4: "Nosati Lecha Shechem Achad Al Achecha Asher Lokachti mi'Yad ha'Emori b'Charbi uv'Kashti (with my sword and bow)";
1.Question: Yakov didn't get these through his weapons - "Ki Lo v'Kashti Evtach v'Charbi Lo Soshi'eni"!
2.Answer: Rather, Charbi means prayer, and Kashti means request.
(g)Question: Why were additional answers needed?
(h)Answer: One could reject the first answer. Perhaps "b'Yom Hanchilo Es Banav" teaches R. Yochanan ben Brokah's law (that one may give his entire inheritance to one heir). Therefore, we bring a proof from "Reuven... (Bechoraso li'Vnei Yosef)".
1.One could reject also this proof. Perhaps we cannot learn Bechorah from that verse, for it says "Bechoraso" (this is not the same word)!
2.Therefore, we bring a proof from "veha'Bechorah l'Yosef."
3.One could reject this, and say that Yosef himself received two thirds of all the property. Therefore, we bring "Nosati Lecha Shechem Achad Al Achecha".
(i)Question (Rav Papa): Perhaps Yosef only received an extra date tree!
(j)Answer (Abaye): "Efrayim u'Mnashe ki'Reuven v'Shimon Yihyu Li".
2)GIVING THE BECHORAH TO YOSEF
(a)Question (R. Chelbo): Why did Yakov take the Bechorah from Reuven and give it to Yosef?
1.Question: The verse explicitly says why it was taken from Reuven - "uv'Chalelo Yetzu'ei Aviv"!
2.Answer: The question was, why did he give it to Yosef?
(b)Answer #1 (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): We learn from a parable. A man raised an orphan in his home. Later, the orphan became rich; he decided to give some of his wealth to the man who raised him.
(c)Objection (R. Chelbo): (According to your parable,) had Reuven not sinned, Yakov would not have given anything extra to Yosef!
(d)Answer #2 (R. Yonason): The Bechorah was fitting to come from Rachel - "Eleh Toledos Yakov Yosef";
1.Through prayer, Leah merited to bear the firstborn. Hash-m returned the Bechorah to Rachel to reward for her modesty.
(e)Question: How do we see that Le'ah merited through prayer?
(f)Answer: "V'Einei Le'ah Rachos".
1.Question: What does this mean?
i.Suggestion: Her eyes were teary.
ii.Rejection: The Torah elaborated to say "ha'Behemah Asher Einenah Tehorah" to avoid using a derogatory expression (Tamei) for Tamei animals. Surely it would not speak to the detriment of Tzadikim!
2.Answer #1 (R. Elazar): Her gifts (Kehunah, Levi'yah and kingship were given to her children) are Aruchos (lasting).
3.Answer #2 (Rav): Really, it means that her eyes were weak. This is praiseworthy!
i.She heard people talking on the crossroads that Lavan's daughters will marry Rivkah's sons. The elder (Esav) will marry the elder (Leah), and the younger (Yakov) will marry the younger (Rachel).
ii.She asked about the brothers. They told her that the elder is an evil robber, and the younger is a Tzadik who constantly learns.
4.She cried until her eyelashes fell out - "va'Yar Hash-m Ki Senu'ah Leah."
5.Question: What does this mean?
i.Suggestion: She was hated.
ii.Rejection: The Torah avoided using a derogatory expression for Tamei animals. Would it speak to the detriment of Tzadikim?!
6.Answer: Rather, Hash-m saw that Esav's deeds were hateful to her, so He gave to her children.
(g)Question: What modesty did Rachel demonstrate?
(h)Answer: "Va'Yaged Yakov l'Rachel Ki Achi Aviha Hu..."
1.Question: Really, he is the son (not the brother) of her father's sister!
2.Answer: When he told her to marry him, she agreed, but warned him that her father is a trickster, and Yakov cannot overcome him.
i.Yakov: What is his trickery?
ii.Rachel: I have an older sister. He will not marry me off before her.
iii.Yakov: I am your father's brother in trickery.
iv.Rachel: May Tzadikim use trickery?
v.Yakov: Yes! "Im Navar Titavar v'Im Ikesh Titapal."
3.Yakov gave to her a code. When she saw that Le'ah was being brought to the Chupah, she reasoned that Le'ah will not know the code, Yakov will protest, and Le'ah will be embarrassed. She gave the code to Le'ah.
i.Support: "Va'Yhi va'Boker v'Hinei Hi Le'ah".
ii.Question: This implies that until the morning, she was not Le'ah!
iii.Answer: Due to the code that Rachel gave to Le'ah, Yakov did not know that she was Le'ah until morning.
(i)Question (Aba Chalifa Karviya): The Torah says that Yakov descended to Miztrayim with 70 people. When you count them there are only 69!
(j)Answer #1 (R. Chiya bar Aba): A twin sister was born with Dinah - "v'Es Dinah."
(k)Objection (Aba Chalifa): If so, you should also say that a twin was born with Binyamin - "v'Es Binyamin"!
1.R. Chiya: I had a gem (a precious teaching), and you want me to lose (publicize) it!
(l)Answer #2 (R. Chiya citing R. Chama bar Chanina): The 70th is Yocheved, who was born between the walls.
1."Asher Yaldah Osah l'Levi b'Mitzrayim" - Yocheved was born in Mitzrayim, but not conceived there (she was conceived on the way).
(m)Question (R. Chelbo): "Ka'asher Yoldah Rachel Es Yosef" - what was special about Yosef (that Yakov now wanted to leave)?
(n)Answer (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): Yakov saw that the seed of Esav will be defeated only by the seed of Yosef - "v'Hayah Veis Yakov Esh u'Veis Yosef Lehavah u'Veis Esav l'Kash."
(o)Question: "Va'Yakem David meha'Neshef v'Ad ha'Erev" (David is from Yehudah, and Amalek is from Esav)!
1.R. Shmuel bar Nachmani: You learned the Nevi'im (from which you asked this question) but not Kesuvim (a verse answers your question)!
(p)Answer (R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): "B'Lechto El Tzikelag Nafelu Alav (to help David) mi'Menasheh..."
(q)Question (Rav Yosef): "Min Benei Shimon...Benei Yish'i b'Rosham. Va'Yaku Es She'eris ha'Peletah la'Amalek..."!
(r)Answer (Rabah bar Shilo): Yish'i descended from Menasheh - "Roshei Veis Avosam (of Menasheh) v'Efer v'Yish'i..." (Maharsha - presumably, this is the source. What is cited in the Gemara is not a verse.)
3)IN WHAT DOES A FIRSTBORN RECEIVE A DOUBLE SHARE?
(a)(Beraisa): A firstborn receives a double portion in Matanos (when one slaughters a Chulin animal, he gives the foreleg, jaw and stomach to a Kohen), and in Kodshim; and in Shevach (the increased value of the property after the father's death).
1.If the father left a cow with others, and he was a partner in the profits, or he rented it to others, or it was grazing in the pasture and it gave birth, the firstborn gets an extra share in the profits, rental or calf;
2.If the orphans built houses or planted vineyards, the firstborn does not get a double share in them.
(b)Question: What is the case of the Matanos?
1.Suggestion: If the father already received them, clearly, the firstborn gets a double share in them!
2.Suggestion: If the father did not receive them, they are only Ra'uy (destined to come to the father), and the firstborn has no extra share in such property, only what was Muchzak to the father when he died!
(c)Answer: The case is, Ploni (a Yisrael who regularly gives Matanos to the father) slaughtered the animal in the father's lifetime
1.The Tana holds that Matanos that were not yet separated, are considered as if they were separated.
(d)Question: Why does he get an extra share of Kodshim? They do not belong to the father!
(e)Answer: The case is, they are Kodshim Kalim (those that become permitted even to a non-Kohen); the Tana holds like R. Yosi ha'Galili, who says that Kodshim Kalim are the property of the owner.
1.(Beraisa - R. Yosi ha'Galili): "U'Mo'alah Ma'al ba'Shem" includes Kodshim Kalim, which are the property of the owner.
(f)(Beraisa): If the father left a cow with others in which he was a partner in the profits, or he rented it to others, or it was grazing in the pasture and it gave birth, the firstborn gets an extra share in the profits, rental or calf.
(g)Question: If he gets an extra share in profits from a cow with others, there is no need to say that he gets an extra share in profits of a cow in the pasture!
(h)Answer: The last clause teaches about the previous clauses;
1.When grazing in the pasture, the Shevach comes by itself; he need not pay for the food. Similarly, the case when it is with others and he shares the profits, or receives rental, is when the father was not obligated to pay for the food.