1) [line 3] OSIYOS NIKNOS B'MESIRAH
A Shtar (document of debt) is acquired by handing it over ("Mesirah") to the buyer (or, if it is a gift, to the recipient) [and a deed of sale or a document recording the gift is not needed to transfer ownership]. The Gemara here asserts that the Tana of our Mishnah -- who says that either one of the two men named Yosef ben Shimon may present a Shtar Chov against another party (and we are not concerned that it fell from the other Yosef ben Shimon and this one found it) -- maintains that Mesirah is a valid way of transferring the debt. Therefore, even if the Shtar Chov was written for the other Yosef ben Shimon, the only way that the second Yosef ben Shimon is holding it is if the first one gave it to him (Mesirah), and since Mesirah is a valid form of Kinyan of a debt, he (the second Yosef ben Shimon) is entitled to collect with it.
2) [line 5] TANA VARA - the Tana of the Beraisa
3) [line 5] EIN OSIYOS NIKNOS B'MESIRAH - a Shtar (document of debt) is not acquired by handing it over ("Mesirah") to the buyer (see above, entry #1). The Gemara here asserts that the Tana of the Beraisa -- who says that neither one of the two men named Yosef ben Shimon may present a Shtar Chov against another party -- maintains that Mesirah is not a valid way of transferring the debt. Therefore, although we are not concerned that the Shtar fell from one Yosef ben Shimon and was found by the other, we are concerned that the Shtar was written for the first Yosef ben Shimon, and he handed it over (Mesirah) to the second. Since Mesirah is not a valid form of Kinyan of a debt, he (the second Yosef ben Shimon) is not entitled to collect with it.
4) [line 7] TZARICH L'HAVI RE'AYAH - he must bring a proof [that the Shtar was handed over to him for the sake of giving him ownership of the debt, and not that it was handed to him merely for him to guard]
5) [line 16] SHAMTU ME'HADADEI - they slip it away from each other
6) [line 21] MIZDAHER ZEHIREI - they are extra cautious
7) [line 27] NEKITA LEI - he will hold on to it [and present it as a debt owed to him]
8) [line 28] D'YAZFAS MINA'I - that you borrowed from me
9) [line 30] HA LO NIMTZA - but if it was not found [a note stating that "Yosef ben Shimon's debt has been repaid" among the documents of the lender]
10) [line 31] BI'MESHULASHIN - when three generations (i.e. the names of the grandfathers of each Yosef ben Shimon) are mentioned in the two documents of debt (attesting to the debts owed to one lender by both men named Yosef ben Shimon)
11) [line 31] V'NECHEZEI TAVRA BI'SHEMA D'MAN (DI')CHESIV - and let us look at the receipt, [to see] in whose name in was written (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #30)
12) [line 35] YICHTEVU DOROS - they shall write the names of previous generations
13) [line 40] YAD BA'AL HA'SHTAR AL HA'TACHTONAH
Yad Ba'al ha'Shtar Al ha'Tachtonah means that the bearer of the Shtar has the lower hand (and may collect only the smaller amount). This is because of the principle, "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah" - the general rule in monetary claims is that the burden of proof rests with the one who wishes to extract payment or other items of value from the other person. Hence, in the case of the seller and buyer, the buyer -- who is the one holding the Shtar Mecher (deed of sale) -- gets the smallest of the seller's fields until he can prove that the seller meant to sell him a large field. In the case of the lender and the borrower, the lender -- who is the one holding the multiple Shtarei Chov (deeds of debt) -- may collect only the smallest debt.
14) [last line] AREV - a guarantor of a loan
(a) An Arev is a guarantor for a loan who accepts upon himself to pay back the loan instead of the borrower, under certain circumstances.
(b) There are different levels of guarantors, as the Gemara here will discuss. A normal guarantor only has to pay back the loan if the borrower cannot pay. In the case of an Arev Kablan, the lender may approach the Arev Kablan to pay even if the lender has not yet asked the borrower to pay.
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