1) [line 1] EINO MEME'AT CHELEK BECHORAH - he does not diminish the amount which the firstborn receives as his double portion (that is, when we calculate the size of the extra portion of the Bechor, we do not take the Tumtum into account, but rather we view him as though he does not exist, and thus the Bechor receives a larger portion)
2) [line 3] EINO NIMOL LI'SHEMONAH - he is not circumcised on the eighth day (if the eighth day falls on Shabbos (MILAH)
(a) A Jewish father has a Mitzvas Aseh to see that a Bris Milah is performed on his son, as the verse states, "va'Yamal Avraham Es Yitzchak Beno..." (Bereishis 21:4). If he does not fulfill his obligation, Beis Din is required to have him circumcised (ibid. 17:10). If Beis Din is likewise lax or unable to fulfill this Mitzvah, when the boy grows up, he must have Milah performed upon himself (ibid. 17:14). The punishment for a man who is not circumcised and refuses to fulfill the Mitzvah of Milah is Kares (ibid., see RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Milah 1:1-2).
(b) The Mitzvah of performing the Milah on the eighth day after the child's birth overrides Shabbos. Thus, even though the procedure of the Milah constitutes a Melachah, it is permitted (and obligatory) on Shabbos. This is derived (in Shabbos 132a) from the verse, "uva'Yom ha'Shemini, Yimol Besar Orlaso." - "And on the eighth day, the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised" (Vayikra 12:3).
3) [line 6] EIN IMO TEME'AH LEIDAH - his mother does not become Tamei with Tum'as Leidah (YOLEDES / TUM'AS LEIDAH)
(a) In Vayikra 12:1-8 the Torah discusses the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah after childbirth. After a woman gives birth, she must wait for a certain amount of time before she can enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Kodshim. That time period is divided into two stages: 1. During the initial stage, she has the status of a Nidah (even if she had not seen any blood). If she gave birth to a male, this lasts for seven days. If a female was born, this stage lasts for two weeks. At the end of this period, she may go to the Mikvah after nightfall. After she has gone to the Mikvah, she is permitted to eat Terumah, if she is the wife of a Kohen. 2. During the second stage, any blood that she sees does not give her the status of a Nidah as it normally would. The blood that she sees during this period is called Dam Tohar. Nevertheless, during this period, she may not eat Kodshim or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash. This lasts for thirty-three days for a male, and sixty-six days for a female. Thus, the total waiting period for a male is forty days and for a female, eighty days.
(b) At the end of the above two stages, the woman may eat Kodshim and enter the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash only after she brings a Korban Yoledes. Until then she is a Mechuseres Kaparah (see Background to Nedarim 35:9). As such, in order to stand alongside her Korban while it is being offered, she may only enter as far as the archway of Sha'arei Nikanor (see Background to Sotah 7:8b). Her Korban includes a male sheep as an Olah and a Tor (turtledove) or a Ben Yonah (common dove) as a Chatas. If she could not afford a sheep, she brings 2 Torim or 2 Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. (The current practice is to consider a woman a Nidah even during the period of Dam Tohar -- see Insights to Nidah 25a.)
4) [line 9] HA'MAPELES - a woman who miscarries
5) [line 9] ANDROGINUS
An Androginus is a hermaphrodite, a person with both male and female reproductive organs. There is a Machlokes as to whether an Androginus is a male, a female or a new gender.
6) [line 9] TESHEV L'ZACHAR UL'NEKEIVAH - she must sit [observing the days of Tum'ah and the days of Taharah for both] a male and a female (that is, she must observe 14 days of Tum'ah as if she gave birth to a female, and afterwards she must observe only 26 days of Taharah (until 40 days after her birth) as if she gave birth to a male)
7) [line 10] IY HACHI TESHEV L'ZACHAR UL'NEKEIVAH UL'NIDAH MIBA'I LEI! KASHYA - [the Gemara refutes the answer and says that] if this is true (that the Mishnah in Nidah means that the woman should conduct herself stringently out of doubt whether or not the birth of a Tumtum is considered a birth), then it should also require her to conduct herself like a Nidah out of doubt that perhaps a Tumtum is excluded altogether from the Yemei Taharah of a Yoledes. [Rather, it must be that the Mishnah in Nidah holds that the birth of a Tumtum definitely makes the mother Temei'ah, and the only doubt is whether the Tumtum is considered a male or a female, and thus] this is a difficulty [on the view of Rav Shizbi.]
8) [line 13] SHTEI NASHIM SHE'YALDU SHNEI ZECHARIM B'MACHVO - two women who gave birth to two male children in a hidden area (they were both married to the same man, and it is not known which woman gave birth first and, thus, which child is the Bechor)
8) [line 14] HARSHA'AH - a document granting power of attorney, which entitles the bearer to act on behalf of the issuer
9) [line 15] BERAM - in truth
10) [line 15] HUKRU ULEVA'SOF NIS'ARVU - they were [originally] recognized, and then later they became mixed up
11) [line 16] HADAR UKI RAVA AMORA ALEI - Rava immediately appointed a Meturgeman to teach in his name. A Meturgeman is (a) the person who repeats in a loud voice the words of the Rav, who lectures in a low voice (RASHI to Berachos 56a); (b) the person who translates into Aramaic the words of the Rav, who delivers the Shi'ur in a low voice in Hebrew (RASHI to Yoma 20b)
12) [line 19] BENEI AKRA D'AGMA - the people of Akra d'Agma, the name of a town in Bavel
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