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BAVA BASRA 97
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[97a - 33 lines; 97b - 28 lines]


1)
[line 1] HA'METAMED - a person who makes Temed (O.F. bufet), inferior wine made from fermented grape pits or grape lees soaked in water
2a)
[line 1] NASAN MAYIM B'MIDAH - he poured in a specific measure of water
  b)
[line 1] U'MATZA KEDEI MIDASO - and he found that the amount of Temed that resulted was equal to the measure of water that he poured in
3)
[line 2] PATUR - he is exempt [from separating Terumos and Ma'asros for it, since it is considered to be merely water]
4)
[line 9] KIYUHA - (O.F. aigror - sharpness, acidity) a liquid that is not wine, that has merely absorbed the acidity of the fermented grape lees
5)
[line 9] SHEMARIM SHEL TERUMAH - the lees of wine that is Terumah (the process of separating Terumos and Ma'asros is described in Background to Bava Basra 96:1)
6a)
[line 10] RISHON - the first [time that the person pours water over the lees to obtain Temed}
  b)
[line 10] SHENI - the second [time that the person pours water over the lees to obtain Temed]
7)
[line 10] ASUR - are prohibited [to non-Kohanim, just like Terumah]
8)
[line 11] AF SHELISHI B'NOSEN TA'AM - even the third [time that the person pours water over the lees to obtain Temed, if the Temed] has a taste of wine, [it is prohibited to non-Kohanim]

9)
[line 18] KEDUSHAS HA'GUF / KEDUSHAS DAMIM
(a) KEDUSHAS HA'GUF - an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5) or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is."
(b) KEDUSHAS BEDEK HA'BAYIS - an object the value of which is consecrated to Hekdesh so that it should be used for filling the day to day needs of the Beis ha'Mikdash and not for Korbanos. (The term Kedushas Damim that is used in our Sugya refers to Kedushas Bedek ha'Bayis and should not be confused with the term Kedushas Damim that is mentioned in Kidushin 52b -- see Background to Kidushin 52:35:b, c.)

10a)
[line 19] MA'ASER VADAI - Ma'asros (tithes) from produce from which the obligation to separate Ma'asros is unquestionable (the process of separating Terumos and Ma'asros is described in Background to Bava Basra 96:1)

    b)
[line 20] MA'ASER DEMAI - Ma'asros (tithes) from produce from which the obligation to separate Ma'asros is in doubt (DEMAI)
(a) Produce bought from an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned Jew who is lax in his Torah-observance; see Berachos 47b) is referred to as Demai ("Da Mai?" -- "What is this?").
(b) Yochanan Kohen Gadol decreed that Terumas Ma'aser and Ma'aser Sheni must be separated from this produce since a minority of Amei ha'Aretz cannot be trusted to have separated them before selling the produce. Terumah Gedolah, however, because of its stringency, is presumed to have been separated. Ma'aser Rishon and Ma'aser Ani are separated from the produce, but they are eaten by the owner and not given to the Levi or the Ani (in keeping with the principle "ha'Motzi me'Chaveiro Alav ha'Re'ayah").

11a)
[line 21] L'INYAN ISURAN - with regard to (a) their prohibition [to non-Kohanim, with regard to Terumah (see Background to Bava Metzia 52:38, "Chomesh"); (b) their prohibition to be eaten outside of Yerushalayim, with regard to Ma'aser Sheni (see Background to Bava Metzia 90:1:d, e); and (c) their prohibition to be used for purposes other than for Bedek ha'Bayis

    b)
[line 22] L'INYAN HECHSHERAN - with regard to their ability to cause Hechsher l'Tum'ah (HECHSHER / KI YUTAN)
(a) Foods may become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah only if they were wetted at some point in their history. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can become Tamei. Wetting food with either of seven liquids, water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey, can enable the food to become Tamei.
(b) The food can only become Tamei if the owner of the food was pleased that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" -- "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" -- "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food (i.e. it is as though he himself applied them).
(c) It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. That is, even if the owner desires the liquid for an entirely different purpose, if the liquid later comes into contact with food it will enable the food to become Tamei. On the other hand, if the owner only intended to dispose of the liquid it does not enable the food to become Tamei, since only liquids that are significant can cause Hechsher.
(d) It is only considered "Ki Yiten" when the liquid falls upon an object, with the will of the owner, that is detached from the ground.

12)
[line 24] SHE'TAMDO B'MEI GESHAMIM - he used rain water to make the Temed
13)
[line 24] KEIVAN D'KA SHAKIL V'RAMI LEHU L'MANA, ACHSHEVINHU - but since he took the rainwater and poured it into the utensil that contained the lees, he has demonstrated that he considers the rainwater important and desirable and it will be Machshir the Temed (see entry #11b)
14)
[line 26] SHE'NISMAD ME'ELAV - the Temed was created without his intervention
15)
[line 26] KEIVAN D'KA NAGID KAMA KAMA, ACHSHEVINHU - but since he has drawn of the Temed bit by bit, he has demonstrated that he considers the Temed important and desirable and it will become Muchshar to receive Tum'ah (see entry #11b)

16)
[line 29] KIDUSH HA'YOM
Reciting or hearing Kidush on Friday night is a Mitzvas Aseh. It consists of the verses from Bereishis 2:1-3 (preceded by the last words of Bereishis 1:31), the Berachah over a cup of wine, and the Berachah sanctifying the day of Shabbos.

17)
[line 30] YAYIN HA'RA'UY LINASECH AL GABEI HA'MIZBE'ACH (NISUCH HA'YAYIN)
All public and private sacrifices were brought together with wine libations (Nesachim) except for Korbenos Chatas and Asham. The wine was poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach). The amount of wine needed depended upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar 15:1-12.

18)
[line 31] YAYIN MI'GITO - lit. wine from his collection pit, i.e. grape juice


97b----------------------------------------97b


19a)
[line 1] SOCHET ADAM - a person may squeeze
    b)
[line 1] ESHKOL SHEL ANAVIM - a cluster of grapes
20a)
[line 3] MI'PIHA - from its (the barrel's) mouth
    b)
[line 3] MI'SHULEHA - from its (the barrel's) bottom
21a)
[line 5] KUSHI - black or very dark [wine]
    b)
[line 5] BOREK - shining [white wine, of inferior quality]
    c)
[line 5] HILISTON - sweet, weak wine
    d)
[line 5] SHEL MARTEF - from the cellar (where there is a doubt as to its quality)
    e)
[line 6] SHEL TZIMUKIM - wine made of raisins
22a)
[line 7] KOSES - wine that is about to turn to vinegar
    b)
[line 7] MAZUG - diluted wine

    c)
[line 8] MEGULEH - wine that was left uncovered
The sages prohibited the consumption of an uncovered liquid that was left unattended. There is a possibility that a poisonous snake drank from it, injecting poison into it. (See RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach u'Shemiras ha'Nefesh 11:5-16)

    d)
[line 8] SHEL SHEMARIM - [wine made from the] lees/dregs [of other wine]
    e)
[line 8] SHE'REICHO RA - bad smelling [wine]
23)
[line 9] L'MI'UTEI MAI? - [the statement that wine which is not valid for Nisuch is also not valid for Kidush is] to exclude what [of the four types of inferior wine listed in the preceding Beraisa]?
24)
[line 11] ILUYEI ALYEI - it has improved (and is a superior wine)
25)
[line 12] MODIM CHACHAMIM L'REBBI ELIEZER - the Chachamim agree to Rebbi Eliezer. According to TOSFOS, this refers to the argument between the Chachamim and Rebbi Eliezer (in a Beraisa in Berachos 50b) whether one may recite the blessing of "Borei Pri ha'Gafen" on undiluted wine (Chachamim), or only the blessing of "sheha'Kol" (Rebbi Eliezer). Rebbi Yosi bar'Rebbi Chanina says that the Chachamim agree that when reciting a blessing on a Kos Shel Berachah (see next entry), the wine must be diluted.
26)
[line 13] KOS SHEL BERACHAH - the cup of wine used for Birkas ha'Mazon
27)
[line 15] SAKANAH HI - it is a danger [to drink wine, or any liquid, that was left uncovered, lest it contain the venom of a snake that drank from it]
28)
[line 20] D'ABREI B'MESANENES - he passed it through a strainer
29)
[line 20] K'REBBI NECHEMYAH - like [the ruling of] Rebbi Nechemyah. Rebbi Nechemyah ruled that although it is prohibited to drink a liquid that was left uncovered (due to the danger involved), if one strains the liquid then he is permitted to drink it.
30)
[line 21] "['V'CHI SAGISHUN IVER LIZBO'ACH EIN RA? V'CHI SAGISHU PISE'ACH V'CHOLEH EIN RA?] HAKRIVIEHU NA L'FECHASECHA! HA'YIRTZECHA O HA'YISA FANECHA?' [AMAR HASH-M TZEVAKOS]" - "['When you present a blind animal for sacrifice, is it not bad? And when you present a lame or sick animal for sacrifice, is it not bad?] Present it, if you please, to your governor! Would he be pleased with you or show you favor?' [said HaSh-m, Master of Legions]." (Malachi 1:8)
31)
[line 22] CHAMUHA - his father-in-law
32)
[line 23] CHAMAR CHIVARYAN - (a) white wine (RASHBAM); (b) exceedingly white (and thus inferior) wine (TOSFOS, RABEINU GERSHOM). (See YA'AVETZ for an original explanation of why this wine is called "Chivaryan.")
33)
[line 24] "AL TERE YAYIN KI YIS'ADAM, [KI YITEN BA'KOS EINO, YIS'HALECH B'MEISHARIM.]" - "Do not look upon wine when it is red, [when a person eyes a cup, whatever he does, he considers just (i.e. any path he follows he considers straight).]" (Mishlei 23:31) - The verse implies that red wine takes precedence, because it is praised as being the most intoxicating.
34)
[line 25] NA'OS U'MEGUFAROS - handsome [vessels] and lined with pitch (see Background to Bava Basra 93:30)
35)
[line 27] IM YADU'A SHE'YEINO MACHMITZ - if it is known that his (the seller's) wine always becomes vinegar (but the buyer was not aware of that)

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