The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[15a - 35 lines; 15b - 33 lines]

1a)[line 1] EFSHAR L'TEKUNAH- is it possible to correct [Holachah that was carried out either by a non-Kohen or in a manner other than walking by returning it to where it began and having a valid Kohen re-carry it]

b)[line 1] O LO EFSHAR L'TEKUNAH- or is it not possible to correct [since it has been rendered irreparably invalid by the incorrect Holachah]?

2)[line 5] KA'I ZAR GAVA'I- the non-Kohen is standing inside (i.e., closer to the Mizbe'ach than the Kohen]?

3)[line 5] KA'I ZAR BERA'I- the non-Kohen is standing outside (i.e., farther from the Mizbe'ach than the Kohen) [and the act of extending it in that direction therefore did not constitute Holachah at all]

4)[line 6]PESULAH- it is invalid. This terminology implies that the blood was invalidated.

5a)[line 8] NISHPACH MIN HA'KLI AL HA'RITZPAH V'ASFU- if [blood that had been received in a vessel (Kabalas ha'Dam)] spilled from the vessel onto the floor [of the Azarah] and was collected

b)[line 9]KASHER- it is valid [for subsequent use in Zerikas ha'Dam, even though some of it had presumably seeped in the direction of the Mizbe'ach along the floor, which would constitute Holachah she'Lo b'Regel]

6)[line 9] KESHE'YATZA LA'CHUTZ- [a case] in which it seeped [only] away [from the Mizbe'ach]

7)[line 10] , ?L'BERA'I NAFIK, L'GAVA'I LO AYIL?- [is it possible that] it went away, [but] it did not go toward [the Mizbe'ach]?

8)[line 10]MADRON- an incline

9)[line 11]B'GUMA- [a case] in which [the blood fell] into a depression

10)[line 11]B'SEMICHAH- [a case] in which [the blood] is very viscous [and does not seep at all]

11)[line 12] ?ICHPAL TANA L'ASHMO'INAN KOL HANEI?- did the Tana trouble himself to teach all of these [highly specific cases]?

12)[line 14] LI'FLOG B'DIDEI- differentiate within the case itself; i.e., draw a finer distinction

13)[line 16] " MACHLOKES REBBI SHIMON V'RABANAN- it is the subject of the disagreement between Rebbi Shimon and the Rabanan [in our Mishnah (13a)]

14a)[line 17] B'HOLACHAH RABASI- lit. regarding greater transport; i.e., regarding invalidating thoughts that occur while transporting the blood to the Mizbe'ach from a somewhat distant area in a manner other than walking

b)[line 18] B'HOLACHAH ZUTRESI- lit. regarding lesser transport; i.e., regarding invalidating thoughts that occur while standing alongside the Mizbe'ach, slaughtering, and dashing the blood without taking a step

15)[line 18] MACHKU ALAH B'MA'ARAVA- they laughed at [this characterization of the Machlokes] in Eretz Yisrael

16)[line 19] CHATAS HA'OF- see Background to 11:4. The Gemara (65a) establishes that invalidating thoughts that occur during the flinging of the blood of a Chatas ha'Of render it unacceptable.

17)[line 21] MEKAMEI D'LEIPOK DAM- before the blood exits [the neck of the bird]

18)[line 21]BASAR- after

19)[line 22] !ISAVIDA LEI MITZVASO!- the Mitzvah has already been fulfilled! Our Gemara at this point assumes that since the blood is on a trajectory to land upon the Mizbe'ach from the time that it has been flung from the neck of the bird, the Mitzvah of Zerikas ha'Dam has already been fulfilled at that point.

20)[line 23] [] MID'PARISH [DAM] V'AD D'MATA L'MIZBE'ACH- [invalidating thoughts render the Chatas ha'Of unacceptable] from the time that [the blood] separates [from the neck of the bird] until it reaches the Mizbe'ach

21)[line 24] HAYAH MAZEH- if [a Kohen] was sprinkling [the blood of a Chatas ha'Of (for example)]

22)[line 25] NIKTE'AH YADO- his hand was cut off [rendering him a Ba'al Mum (one who is blemished and therefore invalid to perform Avodah)]

23)[line 26] AVIR HA'MIZBE'ACH- the airspace of the Altar; i.e., where it must be to be Halachically considered dashed

24)[line 27]"[ ] [ ' .] [ ...]""... V'HIZAH... V'NASAN..."- "[And the Kohen shall dip his finger in the blood] and sprinkle [from the blood seven times before HaSh-m in front of the holy curtain.] And [the Kohen] shall place [from the blood upon the corners of the Altar of Ground Incense...]" (Vayikra 4:6-7). Although this verse refers to the Par Kohen Mashi'ach (see Background to Sanhedrin 4:39:b), we may derive a general rule regarding all sprinkling of blood. This is that it must be similar to the placement of blood; just as placement is not complete until it the blood is upon the Mizbe'ach, so too sprinkling is not complete until the blood has reached the Mizbe'ach.

25)[line 28] BEI RAV- the Yeshivah of Rav

26)[line 29] !KI PELIGI B'HOLACHAH RABASI PELIGI!- when they argue, it is in a case of a Kohen who transported the blood from an area relatively far from the Mizbe'ach! This is seen from the terminology utilized in our Mishnah. Rebbi Shimon rules that invalidating thoughts do not affect Holachah since "it would have been possible to have avoided it altogether." From this it is clear that Rebbi Shimon is ruling in a case in which the Kohen did not actually avoid Holachah, but rather slaughtered the Korban in an area somewhat distant from the Mizbe'ach and then carried its blood to the Mizbe'ach.

27)[line 30][] ( )[D'PESALAH] (D'LO PESALAH)- a) according to the Girsa D'PESALAH - that [invalidating thoughts that occur during it] invalidate [the Korban, since it is a necessary component of the offering of the Korban (preferred Girsa and explanation of RASHI DH Ela); b) according to the Girsa D'LO PESALAH - that [invalidating thoughts that occur during it] do not invalidate [the Korban, since it is insignificant] (second explanation of RASHI DH Ela)

28a)[line 34] , () []L'DIVREI HA'MACHSHIR, (PASUL) [POSEL]- according to the opinion that [earlier] validated [Holachah first performed by a Zar and then repeated by a Kohen], he would invalidate [this case since the second performance is the one that counts]

b)[last line] , L'DIVREI HA'POSEL, MACHSHIR- according to the opinion that [earlier] invalidated [Holachah first performed by a Zar and then repeated by a Kohen], he would validate [this case since the first performance is the one that counts]

29)[last line] TZARICH L'AMTUYEI- he must [still] bring it [to the Mizbe'ach, and the second Holachah is therefore still significant]


30a)[line 6]B'CHUTZ- lit. outside; i.e., relatively farther from the Mizbe'ach

b)[line 7]BIFNIM- lit. inside; i.e., relatively closer to the Mizbe'ach

31)[line 11] LAV K'HILUCH HA'TZARICH LA'AVODAH DAMI- it is not like Holachah that is necessary for the Divine Service [since it should not ever have been necessary]

32)[line 17] , IY TANYA, TANYA- if it has been taught in a Beraisa [other than what I taught], then it has been taught [and I retract my earlier teaching]

33)[line 19] ... TEVUL YOM... MECHUSAR KIPURIM (TUMAH: Varying Levels of the Purification Process)

(a)A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that had been Tamei and subsequently immersed in a Mikvah. This is the first stage in the process of Taharah (purification) from any Tum'ah, and it is at this point that the person or vessel is termed a "Tevul Yom." The second stage requires waiting for the following night to fall, at which point the person or utensil will become completely Tahor. The level of impurity of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah. This means that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh become Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches does not become Tamei whatsoever.

(b)An additional level of partial Tum'ah is possible during the purification process of a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora. Since they all must offer Korbanos in order to complete their Taharah, they are not yet fully Tahor even after night falls. Between nightfall and the offering of their Korbanos, which must take place during the day, they are termed a "Mechusar Kipurim" - "lacking atonement" - and their level of impurity is even more minimal than that of a Tevul Yom. Their level of Tum'ah is that of a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. This means that he may not eat Kodesh nor enter the Mikdash, and if he touches Kodesh then it becomes Pasul and must be burned. Neither Chulin nor Terumah that he touches become Tamei whatsoever.

34)[line 20] MECHUSAR BEGADIM- a Kohen who is not wearing the priestly vestments (see Background to 13:8)

35)[line 21] SHE'LO RACHATZ YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM - [a Kohen] who had not sanctified his hands and feet (KIDUSH YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM)

(a)Every Kohen must wash his hands and feet whenever he enters the Heichal (Sanctuary) of the Beis ha'Mikdash, as well as prior to the performance any part of the Avodah (Divine service) (Shemos 30:19). This is termed "Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim."

(b)The manner of washing is as follows: The Kohen bends down and places his right hand upon his right foot and his left hand upon his left foot. A different Kohen pours water from the Kiyor (the large basin of water in the Azarah; TY #52) on his hands and feet. If he is alone, he places his hands and feet under a running faucet of the Kiyor. Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim is itself part of the Avodah, and therefore must be performed while standing.

(c)A Kohen need not wash his hands and feet more than once a day, as long as he makes certain that they do not become Teme'im or dirty, and as long as he has not left the Azarah. There is a disagreement as to whether or not a Kohen who spent the entire night performing Avodah must wash his hands and feet again in the morning.

(d)A Kohen who intentionally performs Avodah without washing his hands and feet is liable to receive Misah b'Yedei Shamayim, and his Avodah is disqualified.

36)[line 21]AREL- one who is uncircumcised [even if this is due to that which his brothers died as a result of circumcision]

37)[line 24]" , ...""DABER EL AHARON V'EL BANAV, V'YINAZRU MI'KODSHEI VNEI YISRAEL V'LO YECHALELU ES SHEM KODSHI..."- "Speak to Aharon and his sons, and they should separate from the sanctified items of Bnei Yisrael and they should not profane My holy Name..." (Vayikra 22:2). This verse instructs Kohanim to avoid contact with Kodshim when they are Teme'im.

38)[line 27] ?KORBAN NASHIM B'TUM'AH KAREV?- [is there some special quality of] sacrifices offered by women [that allows them to be offered] when [Kohanim are] Teme'im? [Certainly not!]

39)[line 28] TZITZ LO MERATZEH - the appeasing quality of the Tzitz is not invoked (RITZUY TZITZ)

(a)If any part of a Korban becomes Tamei, this renders it unfit to be offered. Therefore, if the blood of a Korban becomes Tamei before it is dashed upon the Mizbe'ach (Zerikas ha'Dam), then the Zerikah may not be performed. Rebbi Yehoshua rules that even if the Dam remains Tahor, it is prohibited to perform Zerikas ha'Dam if all of the meat and Chelev (fats) of a Korban become Tamei or otherwise unfit before Zerikas ha'Dam (Pesachim 77b). Another application of this law is that if the Eimurim (innards) or other parts of a Korban that are offered on the Mizbe'ach become Teme'im, then the Kohanim may no longer offer them on the Mizbe'ach.

(b)If blood that was Tamei was dashed b'Di'eved, then that Avodah (service) is not automatically invalid. If the Kohen Gadol was wearing the Tzitz (a thin gold band upon which the words "Kodesh la'Sh-m" are inscribed, worn upon the his forehead) at that time, then the presence of the Tzitz renders the Avodah acceptable. This means that the owner has fulfilled his obligation of offering his Korban, and he may therefore eat from his offering. If the meat of the Korban had become Tamei, then the presence of the Tzitz still renders the Korban acceptable, although it does not then permit the eating of the meat.

(c)These Halachos of Ritzuy Tzitz are derived from that which the Tzitz is described as that which "causes them (Klal Yisrael) to find favor in the eyes of HaSh-m" (Shemos 28:38). The word "Lahem" - "them" - implies that the Korbanos of Nochrim do not benefit from Ritzuy Tzitz.

40)[line 31]'' , ''''V'YINAZRU MI'KODSHEI, BNEI YISRAEL V'LO YECHALELU''- [the verse should be punctuated,] "they should refrain from the sanctified items, and Bnei Yisrael should not profane [the Avodah by performing it]" - see above, entry #37

41)[last line]OCHEL- he may eat [from Kodshim (Vayikra 21:22)]