WHO MAY NOT EAT TERUMAH? [line before last of previous Amud]
Question: If we expound "it", how will we expound "Any Ben Nechar (apostate) will not eat it"?
Answer: Apostasy forbids eating from Pesach, but not from Ma'aser.
Question: How do we expound "Any Arel will not eat it"?
Answer: An Arel may not eat Pesach, but he eats Matzah and bitter herbs.
The Torah needed to write the Isur of Arel and also of an apostate:
Had it written only Arel, one might have thought that he is forbidden because he is repulsive, but an apostate may eat!
Had it written only Ben Nechar, one might have thought that he is forbidden because he does not want to serve Hash-m, but an Arel who wants to serve Hash-m (e.g. it is dangerous for him to circumcise) may eat!
Question: Why is "Mimenu" repeated (regarding Pesach)?
Answer: Rabah uses it (for a Gezeirah Shavah, on Daf 74a).
Answer #2 (R. Akiva): We need not learn from there. It says "Ish Ish" (regarding the Isur for a Tamei to eat Terumah) to include an Arel.
Question: Perhaps it comes to include an Onen!
Answer (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): "V'Chol Zar (may not eat Terumah)", but an Onen may.
Question: Perhaps this permits an Arel, and not an Onen!
Answer: "Ish Ish" forbids an Arel.
Question: Why not learn the other way ("V'Chol Zar" permits an Arel, and "Ish Ish" forbids an Onen)?
Answer: It is more reasonable to forbid an Arel, since he has the following stringencies:
He needs to do an action;
This action must be done to his own body;
The punishment for remaining uncircumcised is Kares;
The Isur applied before Matan Torah;
Failure to circumcise his sons and slaves forbids him (to eat Pesach).
Question: We should say that an Onen is forbidden, since:
It can apply at any time;
It applies to men and women;
An Onen cannot fix himself.
Answer #1: There are more stringencies of an Arel.
Answer #2 (Rava): Even if there would not be more, we would learn this way!
"Ish Ish" teaches about something that applies to a man, but not a woman, namely, Arelus!
HOW R. AKIVA AND R. ELIEZER EXPOUND [line 24]
Question: What does R. Akiva learn from "Toshav v'Sachir"? (It cannot discuss Avadim Ivriyim, for they must eat Pesach!)
Answer #1 (Rav Shemaya): It includes a circumcised Aravi or Givoni (they may not eat Pesach).
Question: They are not considered circumcised (Arel already forbids them)!
(Mishnah): If one said 'Konam (should be forbidden like Hekdesh) any benefit I get from Arelim', he may benefit from an Arel Yisrael, but not from a circumcised Nochri;
If he said 'Konam any benefit I get from circumcised people', he may benefit from a circumcised Nochri, but not from an Arel Yisrael.
Answer #2: Rather, it includes a convert who was circumcised but did not immerse, and one who was born circumcised.
R. Akiva requires Hatafas Dam Bris (taking blood from the place of Milah in order to fulfill the covenant).
R. Eliezer has no source to learn these laws. He holds that a convert who circumcised but did not immerse is a full convert, and he exempts someone born circumcised from Hatafas Dam Bris.
Question: What does R. Eliezer learn from "Ish Ish"?
Answer: The Torah speaks like people do (we need not expound the repetition).
ORLAH BEFORE ITS TIME [line 37]
Question (Rav Chama bar Ukva): May we anoint an Arel baby with Terumah oil?
Does Orlah (foreskin) forbid one to eat Terumah even before the proper time for circumcision (the eighth day), or not?
Answer (R. Zeira - Beraisa): The Torah taught only that failure to circumcise one's sons forbids him to offer Korban Pesach, and failure to circumcise his male slaves forbids him to eat it. A Gezeirah Shavah "Az-Az" teaches that failure to circumcise sons also forbids eating, and failure to circumcise slaves also forbids Hakravah.
Question: We understand how one can have (Arel) slaves at the time of eating, but did not have them at the time of Hakravah (so we need to learn the Isur to eat), i.e. he bought slaves in between;
However, how can one have (Arel) sons at the time of eating (Pesach night), but did not have them at the time of Hakravah (Erev Pesach)?
Suggestion: A son was born in between. This shows that Orlah forbids even before its time!
Rejection (Rava): This cannot be! "He will circumcise every male, then he will bring" - before its time, he may not circumcise!
Answer #1: Rather, his son had a fever at the time of Hakravah (and could not be circumcised), and recovered before the time of eating.
Question: If so, we must wait seven days before circumcising, like Shmuel taught!
Answer: We did. The case is, he recovered seven days before Erev Pesach!
Question: If so, the father should have circumcised him in the morning (so he was forbidden to offer Pesach)!
Answer: We require seven 24-hour days from the time of recovery (the baby recovered late in the afternoon, and the father offered Pesach early in the afternoon seven days later).
Question (Ludah's Beraisa): The day of recovery is like the day of birth.
Suggestion: Just like we need not wait seven 24-hour days from the time of birth, we need not wait seven 24-hour days from the time of recovery!
Answer: No, the day of recovery is more severe than the day of birth. One must wait seven 24-hour days after recovery, but this is not needed after birth. (The Beraisa teaches that they are the same regarding the need to wait seven days.)
Answer #2 (to question (1) - Rav Papa): The baby's eyes hurt him at the time of Hakravah, and healed before the time of eating. (One must wait seven days only after a fever.)
Answer #3 (Rava): His parents were imprisoned at the time of Hakravah (they did not circumcise due to Ones, so they were able to make a Shali'ach to offer Korban Pesach) and were released before the time of eating.
Answer #4 (Rav Kahana brei d'Rav Nechemyah): The baby was a Tumtum. The genitals were covered at the time of Hakravah. The covering was torn and the baby was found to be a boy before the time of eating. (Maharsha - normally, a woman is not commanded to circumcise her son. Even so, failure to do so forbids her to offer and eat Pesach.)
Answer #5 (Rav Sharbiya): The baby's head left the womb on Nisan 7, but he was not born until Erev Pesach, between the times of Hakravah and eating.
Question: Such a baby cannot survive!
(Beraisa): Once the baby enters the air of the world, what was closed (his mouth) is opened, and what was open (his navel, which was open to the umbilical cord) is closed. If not, the baby would die right away!
Answer #1: The case is, a fever sustained him.
Question: Whose fever sustained him?
If it was the baby's fever, we must wait seven days from the end of the fever!
Answer: The mother's fever fed him.
Answer #2 (to Question (13)): We discuss a baby who cried (Tosfos' text - it was attached by its umbilical cord). The Beraisa discusses when this is not so, then it cannot live long.
TAHARAH OF AN AREL [line 19]
(R. Yochanan): Haza'ah (sprinkling water with ashes of the red heifer) may be done on an Arel, as was done to our forefathers - "The nation came up from the Jordan River on the 10th of the first month."
They were not circumcised on the 10th because they were weak from travelling.
Question: When was Haza'ah done?
Answer: It was done when they were still Arelim (on the 10th, so Taharah could be completed on the 14th, in time to offer Korban Pesach)!
Question: Perhaps they did not bring the Pesach that year (and Haza'ah was after Milah)!
Rejection: "They did the Pesach"!
Objection (Mar Zutra): Perhaps Pesach was brought b'Tum'ah!
Answer (Rav Ashi - Beraisa): They circumcised, immersed and did the Pesach in Taharah.
PRI'AH [line 29]
(Rabah bar Yitzchak): Avraham was not commanded to do Pri'ah (to peel back the layer under the foreskin to reveal the crown) - "At that time Hash-m said to Yehoshua, make sharp knives (to circumcise Yisrael again)".
Question: Perhaps this was for those who were never circumcised - "... Those born in the Midbar had not circumcised"!
Answer: It says "Again". We must say that this time, Pri'ah was done.
Question: Why does the verse say "A second time"?
Answer: This equates the end of circumcision with the beginning:
Just like the start of circumcision is Me'akev (one is an Arel if it was not done), also the end (Pri'ah) is Me'akev.
(Mishnah): The following strands invalidate a circumcision: skin that covers most of the crown. The man may not eat Terumah.
(Ravina): This refers to skin that covers most of the height of the crown.