[12a - 49 lines; 12b - 31 lines]

1)[line 19]ממאנתMEMA'ENES (MI'UN)

(a)The Torah gives a father the right to marry off his daughter at any age before she is twelve years old.

(b)If she was divorced or widowed or her father died without marrying her off, the Chachamim gave the girl's mother and/or oldest brother the right to marry her off. In these cases the marriage is only mid'Rabanan and she must be at least ten years old, or at least six years old if she has an understanding of the concept of marriage.

(c)According to the RAMBAM and the RA'AVAD, in the above circumstances, the Chachamim also gave her the right to get married by herself. This marriage is also mid'Rabanan. According to the Rambam, she must be at least ten years old, or at least six years old if she has an understanding of the concept of marriage. According to the Ra'avad, however, her Kidushin is valid even if she has enough sense to guard the object given to her for her Kidushin (and she realizes that it was given to her for Kidushin).

(d)In the instances of marriage mid'Rabanan, before she reaches Halachic puberty and becomes a Na'arah (through the growth of two pubic hairs), she has the option of annulling the marriage through a procedure known as Mi'un (refusal). She says before two witnesses, "I do not want him," and the marriage is annulled retroactively. There is no need for her to receive a Get (a bill of divorce). A girl who is married off by her father cannot annul the marriage through Mi'un. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ishus 4:7-8)

2)[line 21]מיאנה בזה מותרת בזהMI'ANAH B'ZEH MUTERES L'ZEH- if she exercised her right of Mi'un on her brother-in-law (who was chosen as the one to perform Yibum or Chalitzah, usually the oldest), she is permitted to marry any of the other brothers-in-law

3)[line 25]משום צרת בתו ממאנתMISHUM TZARAS BITO MEMA'ENES- (Even though Tzaras Bito Mema'enes is prohibited only due to a Gezereirah d'Rabanan, and we normally do not enact a Gezeirah to enforce what has been prohibited through another Gezeirah ("Gezeirah l'Gezeirah"), in this case the Rabanan enacted both Gezeiros as two parts of one encompassing Gezeirah ("Kula Chada Gezeirah Hi"). -RASHBA)

4)[line 28]אילימא דמיאנה בבעלILEIMA D'MI'ANAH BA'BA'AL- that is, if we say that she exercised her right of Mi'un on her husband (annulling their marriage) before he died...

5)[line 36]אילוניתAILONIS- a woman who is incapable of conception. This word is derived from the word "Ayil," a ram, which is a male and does not have a womb (Kesuvos 11a).


6)[line 7]משמשות במוךMESHAMSHOS B'MOCH- are permitted to have relations using cloths to prevent them from becoming pregnant

7)[line 9]סנדלSANDAL- a flat, fish-shaped abortion

8)[line 29]כסימניםSIMANIM

(a)Simanim are the physical signs of maturity that confer the status of adulthood to a Jewish boy or girl with regard to their obligation in Mitzvos.

(b)From the time a child grows two pubic hairs, he is no longer considered to be a minor, and he is obligated in Mitzvos like a full grown adult. The pubic hairs must fit certain criteria of length and location, and the child must also have reached a certain minimum age. The minimum age for a boy is 12 years, and for a girl is 11 years. If the hairs grew before the age of 12 for a boy and 11 for a girl, they are assumed to be the result of a mole and not pubic hair (Nidah 46a). If they grow between the ages of 12 and 13 for a boy, and between the ages of 11 and 12 for a girl, the Amora'im argue as to whether they confer the status of adulthood or not ("Toch Zeman k'Lifnei ha'Zeman" and "Toch Zeman k'Le'achar ha'Zeman" - ibid. 45b).

(c)Sometimes other signs, aside from pubic hairs, confer the status of adulthood. Our Gemara discusses the possibility that giving birth to children confers the status of adulthood to a girl.

9)[last line]עד שירבה השחורAD SHE'YIRBEH HA'SHACHOR- until she has an abundance of pubic hair. The Gemara (Nidah 52a) explains that this means that the two hairs must have grown long enough to be easily visible