SUKAH 12 (10 Av 5781) - Dedicated by Rabbi Dr. Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel, in memory of his father, Reb Yisrael Shimon ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel. Isi Turkel loved Torah and labored to support it literally with his last ounces of strength. He passed away on 10 Av 5740.

[12a - 17 lines; 12b - 35 lines]

1)[line 3]"[ ,] ""[CHAG HA'SUKOS TA'ASEH LECHA SHIV'AS YAMIM,] B'ASPECHA MI'GORNECHA UMI'YIKVECHA"- "[You shall make for yourself the holiday of Sukos for seven days,] when you gather from your threshing floor and from your press" (Devarim 16:13). The simple understanding of the second clause in this verse is that it is a description of the time of year during which Sukos falls.

2)[line 3] PESOLES GOREN V'YEKEV- that which remains from the threshing floor and press (i.e., denuded stalks of wheat, olive branches, and grape vines and clusters)

3)[line 5] YEKEV KESIV KAN- the verse states "Yekev" [which denotes wine, a substance impossible to use as a roofing material]

4)[line 6] YAYIN KARUSH HA'BA MI'SNIR- congealed wine imported from Mount Hermon

5)[line 7] IGULEI DEVEILAH- round cakes of pressed figs

6)[line 9] SHADA BEI NARGA- swung an ax at it; i.e., cut this down as a possible source

7)[line 11]"[ ,] ' , , , , , [ ]'""... TZE'U HA'HAR V'HAVI'U ALEI ZAYIS, VA'ALEI EITZ SHEMEN, VA'ALEI HADAS, VA'ALEI TEMARIM, VA'ALEI EITZ AVOS, [LA'ASOS SUKOS KAKASUV]" - "[They then issued a command] that it should be announced and proclaimed in all of their cities and in Yerushalayim saying: 'Go to the mountain and bring olive branches, pine branches, branches of myrtle, date-palm branches, and branches that are braided with leaves, [to make Sukos as it is written]'" (Nechemyah 8:15) (EZRA EDUCATES KLAL YISRAEL ABOUT SUKOS)

(a)Following the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash, Klal Yisrael were resettled in Bavel. After seventy years of exile, many returned to Yerushalayim, led by Ezra ha'Sofer.

(b)Ezra first set about rebuilding the walls of Yerushalayim. As the Torah had largely been neglected during the years of exile, the unlearned people then clamored to hear what the Torah said. Ezra gather everyone to the square before the Water Gate of the Beis ha'Mikdash on the first day of Rosh Hashanah and read the section of the Torah pertaining to Rosh Hashanah aloud. The assembled wept as they realized that they had forsaken the teachings of the Torah. Ezra, however, told them to be joyous and celebrate the festival.

(c)On the second day of Rosh Hashanah, Ezra gathered the leaders of the community, along with the Kohanim and the Leviyim. He read to them from the Torah concerning the Mitzvah of Sukos. The first items listed in the verse refer to materials with which to build and cover their Sukos, whereas the last two refer to Lulavim and Hadasim for the Arba Minim. The proclamation certainly included a directive to bring Esrogim and Aravos as well (METZUDAS DAVID).

(d)The nation responded enthusiastically, and the Sukos festival was celebrated more fully and with more rejoicing than it had been since the days of Yehoshua bin Nun, who had lived nearly one thousand years earlier.

8)[line 14] HADAS SHOTEH- lit. a foolish myrtle; a myrtle branch in which three leaves do not grow from a single point on the stem along its length (as is required for the Hadas taken as part of the Arba Minim)

9)[line 15] CHAVILEI KASH- [bound] bundles of straw

10)[line 16]ZERADIN- (O.F. tudeles - stalks) a type of reed

11)[line 17]HITIRAN- that he untied them

12)[line 17]KULAN- and anything [listed as invalid for Sechach]

13)[line 19]TARTEI- [the reasons for the Halachos detailed in] two [Mishnayos]

14)[line 19] HA'CHOTET B'GADISH- one who removes sheaves of grain from [the bottom of] a stack of such sheaves [in order to hollow out a space]

15)[line 20] GEZEIRAS OTZAR- Gezeiras Otzar is a decree enacted by the Chachamim that invalidates a Sukah which would otherwise be kosher. This is because the Sechach of the Sukah in question is set up similar to the way in which one stores or dries his produce. If such a Sukah is allowed, one may come to mistakenly think that he can use his storehouse as a Sukah - even though the produce stored there was never elevated in order to provide shade.

16)[line 28]SUKASO- his Sukah [used to hold his animals over the course of the year]

17)[line 33] ?MISHUM TA'ASEH V'LO MIN HE'ASUY LEIKA?- is it not possible that [our Mishnah is discussing a case in which the bundles were placed there in order to dry out and he then decided to utilize them as Sechach, in which case] they are invalid due to Ta'aseh v'Lo Min he'Asuy?

18)[line 34] ?MISHUM GEZEIRAS OTZAR LEIKA?- is it not possible that [the Mishnah (15a) is discussing a case in which he lifted the top of the stack and set it down as Sechach, in which case] it is invalid due only to Gezeiras Otzar?


19)[line 2] AFILU DI'EVED MID'ORAISA NAMI EINAH SUKAH- it is clearly discussing a case in which one did not lift the top, for it is an invalid Sukah mid'Oraisa even b'Di'eved. However, in a case in which he did lift and resettle the Sechach, Gezeiras Otzar does not apply. This is because of the following logic: if he went out of his way to fix such a situation, he certainly will not create it to begin with!

20a)[line 4] CHITZIN ZECHARIM- (O.F. fleches - arrow shafts) male arrow shafts; i.e., those with a peg at the end meant to fit into the corresponding hole in an arrowhead

b)[line 5]NEKEIVOS- female arrow shafts; i.e., those with a hole at the end into which the corresponding peg of an arrowhead is meant to fit into

21)[line 5]PESULAH - it is invalid [for use as Sechach] (TUM'AH: PESHUTEI KLEI ETZ)

(a)Vessels made from certain materials are objects that can receive Tum'ah from a Mes or a Sheretz (see Background to 11:7). These materials are wood, fabric (wool, linen, canvas, etc.), leather, goat hair, and bone (Vayikra 11:32).

(b)A vessel is defined as that which has a receptacle. Although the Torah does not specify that these materials cannot receive Tum'ah unless they have a receptacle, this is derived through a Hekesh which compares these materials to a sack, which by definition has a receptacle (Gemara Chagigah 26b). Therefore, Peshutei Klei Etz - wooden utensils that do not have a receptacle, such as male arrow shafts - cannot become Tamei. Female arrow shafts, however, can receive Tum'ah, since they have a receptacle.

22)[line 7] BEIS KIBUL HE'ASUY L'MAL'OS- a receptacle that one intends to permanently fill

23a)[line 10] ANITZEI PISHTAN- (O.F. ristes - bundles of combed flax) bundles of flax that have been pounded and carded (combed so that they are free of hard substances)

b)[line 11] HUTZNEI PISHTAN- unprocessed stalks of flax

C)[line 11] HUSHNEI PISHTAN- flax at a middle stage of processing

24a)[line 11] EINI YODE'A MAHU- I do not know its Halachic status (this is the completion of the quote from Rebbi Yochanan)

b)[line 12] V'HUSHNEI PISHTAN EINI YODE'A- and I am not even sure what stage "Hushnei Pishtan" refers to (these are the words of Rabah bar bar Chanah)

25)[line 12] MAH NAFSHACH- which way would you like to turn? (i.e., there is more than one possibility)

26a)[line 13]DAYIK- pounded

b)[line 13]NAFITZ- carded

C)[line 13]TARI- soaked

27a)[line 16]SHUSHEI- (O.F. falje) a fern

b)[line 16]SHEVATZREI- a) (O.F. arneise) nag-wood or wormwood, a species of Artemisia (RASHI); b) (O.F. erbe policaire) fleabane, a hairy perennial herb (Pulicaria dysenterica) with yellow ray flowers and wide leaves (REBBI MACHIR, cited by RASHI)