[20a - 51 lines; 20b - 44 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Gaon printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, and Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.

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1a)[line 1] BA'I MESHEIZEGA- wanted to wash

b)[line 1]ISKUFTEI- The TALMID HA'RASHBASH writes that it is clear from the context that this is the name of a certain cut of meat. THE RASH SIRILIO defines this word as the Greek word for hat, and explains that the story told in our Gemara is about someone who went to wash his hat, in which he was carrying pieces of meat. (Alternatively, perhaps this refers to a cut of meat from the "Shipuy ha'Kova" the epiglottis which is at the top of the trachea.)

2)[line 1]V'INASHTAH- (a) and it fell from his hands into the water; (b) and he forgot it at the edge of the river

3)[line 1] V'AZIL LEI- and he went away

4)[line 2]MEISEVINA- to take it

5)[line 2] ( ( )DENA AMAR- for I [could] say

6a)[line 3] HA'HI SHATAF NAHARA- that [kosher piece of meat], the river washed away

b)[line 3] V'AYESI CHORI DI'NEVEILAH TACHTO'I- and brought a different [piece of meat] that is from a Neveilah in its place

7)[line 4] TA'IN KUPAD- carrying a piece of meat

8)[line 5] ()DAYESA- a kite (a hawk-like bird that eats mice, hares, and carrion); alternatively, a vulture (TARGUM ONKELUS Vayikra 11:14)

9)[line 5]U'TELAKTEI- and let it go

10)[line 7] V'NASBA HA'HU OCHERANA- and took the other [kosher piece of meat]

11)[line 8] GINA'I SHATAF ZIKIN- the Gina'i River washed away [leather] bottles of wine

12)[line 8]UVEDA- the case

13)[line 9] YECHAKEMUN SHAPAYEI KITREHON- let those who pour wine (i.e., the wine dealers) recognize their knots [with which they tied the bottles, and they will then be permitted to use them]

14)[line 9]() NUKANIKAH- (a) (lucanica in Latin) a type of sausage; intestines (Dakin) stuffed with spiced meat (ARUCH Erech ); (b) barrels (KORBAN HA'EDAH, TIKLIN CHADTIN)

15)[line 10] ISHTECHACH BI'KENISHTA D'BULI- were found in the synagogue of Buli

16)[line 11] YISCHAKEMUN SIKURAYA AVIDTEHON- let (a) the sausage makers; (b) those who mark barrels with red paint recognize their work

17)[line 12] B'ISRATEI D'GUFTA- in a wide thoroughfare in Gufta

18)[line 12]V'HITIRUHU- and they allowed it [to be retained and eaten]

19a)[line 14]GAYAS- an army

b)[line 14] SHUNAS HA'YAM- lit. teeth of the sea; outcroppings of rock upon which the waves break

c)[line 15]ISRATYA- a wide thoroughfare

d)[line 15]PELATYA- a wide, open plaza wherein people gather to do business

20)[line 16] MIS'YA'ASHIN ME'HEN- give up hope of [ever recovering] them

21)[line 17] MI'SHUM SHECHITAS NOCHRI- [that he did not have to consider the possibility that the meat was] slaughtered by a Nochri

22)[line 17] V'ISHTAKACH MIN D'VEIS REBBI- and it was found to have come from the house of Rebbi (this demonstrates the propriety of relying upon the majority]

23)[line 18] IGUL D'GUVENA- a wheel of cheese

24)[line 18]PUNDEKA- the inn

25)[line 25] VA'ANAN CHAMYAN- but we see

26)[line 25]MACHRIZIN- announcing [lost objects found under such circumstances, in an attempt to find their owners]

27)[line 26], , ?AT, IN HAVISA MASHKACH, LO NASVAS?- you, should you find [a lost object under such circumstances], would you not take it?

28)[line 27] , HALVAI KAD NASHKACH, NASHKACH MIN PEYUSA UL'GAVA- were it only that when we found lost objects, we would find them on the inside of the Pivsaros (small paths to the side of wide streets; sidewalks). The reason for this wish of Rebbi Yonah is that since the main thoroughfare is an area in which one gives up hope of recovering his lost item, it would then be permitted to keep it.

29)[line 28] ASHKACH, V'LO NASIV- a) Rebbi Yonah; b) his son, Rebbi Mana found such a lost object and did not keep it [but rather attempted to find its owner]

30)[line 30] MIGDAL EDER- an ancient settlement mentioned in the Torah (Bereishis 35:21), located on a hill halfway between Chevron and Beis Lechem. This is the current location of Gush Etziyon. According to Targum Yonasan Ben Uziel (loc. cit.), this is where Mashi'ach will ultimately reveal himself.

31)[line 30]UCHE'MIDASAH- and an equal distance

32)[line 31] ZECHARIM; OLOS- [any] male animals [found must be assumed to be] Korbenos Olah [that have run away from Yerushalayim] (since only a male animal may be offered as a Korban Olah)

33)[line 33] HAYU MEMASHKENIN- they would take property as collateral


This refers to the Korban Minchah (meal-offering; see Background to 6:34) and wine libation that are offered along with a Korban Shelamim or Olah (Bamidbar 15:3-16).

35)[line 38] GER SHE'MEIS - if a convert passed away (NICHSEI HA'GER)

When a Jew dies, his closest relatives inherit his estate (according to the hierarchy established by the Torah as recorded in Bamidbar 27:8-11). Since all Jews are related to each other (through Yakov Avinu and his sons), every Jew by definition has heirs. A convert, however, may possibly have no heirs (since his Nochri relatives do not inherit his estate). When a convert dies without heirs, his estate becomes Hefker (ownerless). The first person who takes possession of his belongings becomes their owner.

36)[line 40] KOHEN GADOL SHE'MEIS- Our Mishnah is discussing a case involving a Kohen Gadol who passed away, and a replacement has not yet been named. Even without an acting Kohen Gadol, the daily Asiris ha'Eifah (see Background to 19:14) must be offered, albeit with certain modifications. The Tana'im in our Mishnah disagree as to who funds the Korban in such a situation.

37)[line 42]SHELEIMAH- whole (as opposed to half in the morning and half in the evening)

38)[line 43] NE'OSIN BA'HEN- may benefit from them (by using them to prepare Korbanos that are eaten by the Kohanim)

39)[line 43]PARAH (PARAH ADUMAH)

(a)A Parah Adumah is a red cow; if there are as many as two hairs of any other color it is not a Parah Adumah (see Maseches Parah 2:5). Only a cow which has never had a yoke placed upon it nor performed any other work is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow as it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).

(b)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

40)[line 44]MO'ALIN (ME'ILAH)

(a)It is forbidden to derive any personal benefit from that which is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol bi'Sh'arecha... v'Chol Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount of benefit for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth.

(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he is liable to receive Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable for Misah b'Yedei Shamayim). In addition, he must pay Hekdesh for the benefit which he received; however, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.

(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, he must bring a Korban known as a Korban Me'ilah. He must then reimburse Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, equal to a quarter of the original value). The object then loses its Kedushah. This is true of any object which has the status of Kedushas Damim (i.e. it itself will not be used by Hekdesh, but rather its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object which has the status of Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live animal pledged to be offered as a Korban) does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).

(d)Our Mishnah teaches that the prohibition of Me'ilah does not apply to the ashes of a Parah Adumah.

41)[line 44] KININ HA'PESULOS- the Kinim (see Background to 18:22) found to be physically unfit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach [that had been purchased with money left in the Shofar designated for this purpose; see Mishnah 18a and Background ibid.]

42)[line 45] HA'MESAPEK ES HA'KININ- he who supplies the birds for the Kinim

43)[line 47] LA'BA BI'DEMEIHEN SHANU- our Mishnah is discussing one who wishes to offer a Korban with the value of the animal found [by transferring its Kedushah to two separate animals, one an Olah and the other a Shelamim and not the offering of the animal itself] (see Insights for a detailed explanation of the give-and-take in this section of the Gemara)

44)[line 47] ?OMERIM LO L'ADAM, TZEI U'ME'OL B'KODSHIM?- do we tell someone to go and transgress the prohibition against Me'ilah (see above, entry #40; see Insights)

45)[line 50] ?V'EIN HA'SHELAMIM BA'IN MIN HA'ZECHARIM U'MIN HA'NEKEVOS?- is it not true that both male and female animals be offered as Korbenos Shelamim [and why therefore does our Mishnah assume that a male animal found must be an Olah]?


46)[line 1] K'MAH D'AT AMAR TAMAN- just as you said over there

47)[line 2]MOSAROS- animals designated as public Korbenos Chatas that ended up being unnecessary as such (Mishnah 6b)

48)[line 2] ( )KEN AT AMAR OF HACHA- so you may say here

49)[line 4] ?EIN ZEH MEZID?- is this not an intentional attempt to divest an animal designated as a Korban of its Kedushah, which accomplishes its aim only according to Rebbi Meir (Kidushin 53b)? This is a question upon the original statement of Rav Hoshaya, at the beginning of the Gemara; see HAGAHOS HA'GRA, and Insights.

50a)[line 6] AD DA'ANA TAMAN- while I was still there [in Bavel]

b)[line 6] SHAM'IS KAL RAV YEHUDAH- I heard the voice of Rav Yehudah

51)[line 10] CHOTZEH OSAH- he divides it in half

52a)[line 12] MAKRIV MECHETZAH- [if a Kohen Gadol passes away in the middle of the day,] half [of his Asiris ha'Eifah] is offered [in the morning]

b)[line 12] MECHETZAH AVAD- and the other half is lost; it cannot be used for any purpose. This does not seem to fit with the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan, who maintains that the second half is not sanctified until the evening.

53)[line 13] AFILU MA'OS- The Gemara answers that Rebbi Yochanan's opinion, quoted above, is that even leftover money designated for the Kohen Gadol's Korban Minchah must be disposed of, even though it is not Kadosh; therefore, the second, unused half of this Korban is no better.

54)[line 14] NIMTZE'U SHNEI CHATZA'IN KEREVIN, U'SHNEI CHATZA'IN AVUDIN- [the above Beraisa continues to explain that if a replacement is designated for the deceased Kohen Gadol immediately, he must prepare a full Asiris ha'Eifah, but offer only the second half of it.] The end result is that two half-Korbanos are offered [that day], while two half-Korbanos are lost.

55a)[line 16] TE'UBAR TZURASAN- see Background to 19:26

b)[line 16] BEIS HA'SEREIFAH- the place where invalidated Korbanos are burned (also known as the Beis ha'Deshen)

56)[line 17] ISARON MEKADESH- the Isaron (the container which holds the Asiris ha'Eifah) automatically confers Kedushah upon it (it is therefore completely Kadosh from the time that is placed in the container according to this opinion)


On the day upon which a Kohen first performs the service in the Beis ha'Mikdash, he offers a Korban Minchah. This Korban is identical to the Minchas Chavitin offered by the Kohen Gadol every day (see Background to 19:14).

58)[line 19] V'OVEDAH B'YADO- and he himself offers it

59)[line 21] BA'I MEIMAR- thought that it was logical to say

60)[line 23]L'CHINUCHO- for both the obligation to offer a Minchas Chavitin due to that which it is his first day performing the Avodah, as well as that of his obligation to offer a Minchas Chavitin due to that which it is his first day performing the Avodah as a Kohen Gadol. The Bavli (Menachos 71a) concludes that the Halachah does not follow Rebbi Mana, and that each of these must be offered separately; therefore, in such a situation the Kohen Gadol must offer a total of three Asiriyos ha'Eifah.

61)[line 24] CHOVAS HA'YOM- the obligation [of a Kohen Gadol to offer a Minchas Chavitin every] day

62)[line 24]"[ , ;] [ ']""[AL MACHAVAS BA'SHEMEN TE'ASEH, MURBECHES TEVI'ENAH;] TUFINEI [MINCHAS PITIM TAKRIV REI'ACH NICHO'ACH LA'SH-M]"- "[It should be made on a pan with oil, you shall bring it scalded;] a baked [flour-offering, broken into pieces, shall you offer as a pleasing aroma to HaSh-m]" (Vayikra 6:14).

63a)[line 24] B'SHA'AS HAVA'AH ''TUFINEI''- (a) you must bake when it is offered (RASH SIRILIO, KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) you may bake it when it is offered (RAV CHAYIM KANIEVSKY)

b)[line 25] V'EIN B'SHACHARIS ''TUFINEI''- (a) do not bake the half offered in the morning before dawn (RASH SIRILIO, KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) the half that is offered in the afternoon need not be baked in the morning (RAV CHAYIM KANIEVSKY)

64)[line 25] HE'EMIDU OSEI CHAVITIN- [the Mikdash officials] appointed those who made the Minchas Chavitin to do so [before dawn]

65)[line 27] CHAMIN LI'REVUCHA- hot water necessary for boiling [the dough of the Minchas Chavitin]

66)[line 28]METAGENAH- he fries it

67a)[line 29] TE'AFENAH NA- bake it when it is partly cooked (i.e. fried, since the frying process cooked the outside of the thick rolls but not their inside)

b)[line 30] TE'AFENAH NA'EH- bake it when it is nice to look upon (as opposed to blackened from the frying pan)

c)[line 30] () []TE'AFENAH RABAH- (a) bake it many times; it should be baked, fried and then baked again. This is not a derivation from the wording of the Pasuk like the previous two; rather, Rebbi Dosa understands "Tufinei" according to the understanding if both "Na" and "Na'eh." (RASHI to Menachos 50b, 1st explanation); (b) bake it when it is large (spread out from the frying pan, which is what constitutes "Na'eh"); i.e., after frying (RASHI to Menachos 50b, 2nd explanation); (c) according to the Girsa TE'AFENAH RAKAH - bake it when it is soft [from the large quantity of oil in the frying pan, which is what constitutes "Na'eh"]; i.e., after frying (RASHI to Menachos 50b, 3rd explanation)

68)[line 31] , ASYAN ILEIN PELAGVASA K'HINEN PELAGVASA- the Machlokes of these Amora'im follows that of those Amora'im

69)[line 33] LO SOF DAVAR SHE'MES- these laws (that a whole Isaron must be prepared for the second half of the Minchas Chavitin) apply not only when the Kohen Gadol has passed away

70a)[line 34]() AFILU NITMA- (a) but even when he has become Tamei (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) [does the previous statement apply] even when he has become Tamei [and will return to the Avodah]? (TIKLIN CHADTIN, according to the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON, who is not Gores the word "Ela")

b)[line 34] AFILU NIDCHEH MI'MUM- (a) [does the previous statement apply] even when he has developed a permanent blemish that renders him forever unfit to perform the Avodah? (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) or only when he has developed a permanent blemish that renders him forever unfit to perform the Avodah? (TIKLIN CHADTIN, according to the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON)

71)[line 35] ()D'BAR DELAYA- from Bardilaya, a place near Lydda

72)[line 40] MI'MI SHE'HA'BERIYOS SHELO- from He to whom all creatures belong (see Girsa Section #2)

73)[line 42] KALIL L'HAKTARAH- it is completely burned

74)[line 43] "MECHALEFAH SHITESEI D'REBBI SHIM'ON- Rebbi Shimon has [apparently] changed his opinion!

75)[line 43] TAMAN AMAR MI'SHEL YORESHIN- (a) in our Mishnah he said that [as a result of a Rabbinic decree, the Korban must be paid for by public funds which implies that mid'Oraisa it is paid for] by the late Kohen Gadol's inheritors (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on is: - in the Beraisa quoted above he said that the Korban is paid for by public funds mid'Oraisa (TIKLIN CHADTIN)

76)[last line] ?V'HACHA AMAR MI'SHEL TZIBUR?- (a) and in the Beraisa quoted above, he said that the Korban is paid for by public funds [mid'Oraisa]? (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on is: ? - and in our Mishnah he said that it is a result of a Rabbinic decree? (TIKLIN CHADTIN)