[20a - 51 lines; 20b - 44 lines]
We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Gaon printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, and Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.
 גמרא כ. [שורה 1]
בעי משיזגא אסקופתי'
צ"ל בעי משיזגא בשר אסקופתי'
(כ"ה בתקלין חדתין וכ"ה בדפו"י, ובהרבה ראשונים ודפוסים אי' "נחת משזגא" או "נחת משוגה (??)")
 גמרא כ: [שורה 40]
(ממי שהבריות שלו) מי שהברית כרותה לו
בר"ש סיריליו ודפוסים ישנים אי' רק ממי שהבריות שלו וכפירוש הקה"ע, דהיינו מתרומת הלשכה, וכדאי' בקרא, "חק עולם לד' " (ובבבלי מנחות איתא,*משל עולם*, כדאי' בהגהות הגר"א, והיא היא)
 הגהות הגר"א, עמוד ב', אות [א]
צ"ל מתניתין פליגא כו'
צ"ל "צ"ל מתניתא פליגא כו'"
(וכ"ה בתקלין חדתין)
1a)[line 1]בָּעִי מְשֵׁיזְגָהBA'I MESHEIZEGA- wanted to wash
b)[line 1]אִסְקוּפְתֵּיהּISKUFTEI- The TALMID HA'RASHBASH writes that it is clear from the context that this is the name of a certain cut of meat. THE RASH SIRILIO defines this word as the Greek word for hat, and explains that the story told in our Gemara is about someone who went to wash his hat, in which he was carrying pieces of meat. (Alternatively, perhaps this refers to a cut of meat from the "Shipuy ha'Kova" — the epiglottis — which is at the top of the trachea.)
2)[line 1]וְאִינַשְׁתָּהּV'INASHTAH- (a) and it fell from his hands into the water; (b) and he forgot it at the edge of the river
3)[line 1]ואזיל ליהV'AZIL LEI- and he went away
4)[line 2]מֵיסְבִינָאMEISEVINA- to take it
5)[line 2]דְּנָא אמר (דַּאֲנָא אמר (שאני אומר)DENA AMAR- for I [could] say
6a)[line 3]ההיא שָׁטַף נַהֲרָאHA'HI SHATAF NAHARA- that [kosher piece of meat], the river washed away
b)[line 3]ואַיְיתִי חוֹרִי דנבילה תַּחְתּוֹיV'AYESI CHORI DI'NEVEILAH TACHTO'I- and brought a different [piece of meat] that is from a Neveilah in its place
7)[line 4]טָעִין קוּפַּדTA'IN KUPAD- carrying a piece of meat
8)[line 5]דַּיְּיתָא (דַיָּה)DAYESA- a kite (a hawk-like bird that eats mice, hares, and carrion); alternatively, a vulture (TARGUM ONKELUS Vayikra 11:14)
9)[line 5]וּטְלַקְתֵּיהּU'TELAKTEI- and let it go
10)[line 7]וְנַסְבָּא ההוא אוֹחְרָנָאV'NASBA HA'HU OCHERANA- and took the other [kosher piece of meat]
11)[line 8]גִּינָאִי שטף זִיקִיןGINA'I SHATAF ZIKIN- the Gina'i River washed away [leather] bottles of wine
12)[line 8]עוּבְדָאUVEDA- the case
13)[line 9]יְחַכְּמוּן שַׁפָּיֵיא קִיטְרֵהוֹןYECHAKEMUN SHAPAYEI KITREHON- let those who pour wine (i.e., the wine dealers) recognize their knots [with which they tied the bottles, and they will then be permitted to use them]
14)[line 9](נקוניקה) נוּקָנִיקָהNUKANIKAH- (a) (lucanica in Latin) a type of sausage; intestines (Dakin) stuffed with spiced meat (ARUCH Erech נוקיקא); (b) barrels (KORBAN HA'EDAH, TIKLIN CHADTIN)
15)[line 10]אִשְׁתְּכַח בִּכְנִישְׁתָּא דְבוּלִיISHTECHACH BI'KENISHTA D'BULI- were found in the synagogue of Buli
16)[line 11]יִתְחַכְּמוּן סִקוּרַיָּיא עַבִידְתְּהוֹןYISCHAKEMUN SIKURAYA AVIDTEHON- let (a) the sausage makers; (b) those who mark barrels with red paint recognize their work
17)[line 12]בְּאִסְרַטֵי דְגוּפְתָּאB'ISRATEI D'GUFTA- in a wide thoroughfare in Gufta
18)[line 12]והתירוהוV'HITIRUHU- and they allowed it [to be retained and eaten]
19a)[line 14]הגַּיָּיסGAYAS- an army
b)[line 14]משׁוּנַת היםSHUNAS HA'YAM- lit. teeth of the sea; outcroppings of rock upon which the waves break
c)[line 15]ומאיסרטיאISRATYA- a wide thoroughfare
d)[line 15]ומפְּלַטְיָאPELATYA- a wide, open plaza wherein people gather to do business
20)[line 16]מִתְיַיאֲשִׁין מהןMIS'YA'ASHIN ME'HEN- give up hope of [ever recovering] them
21)[line 17]משום שחיטת נכריMI'SHUM SHECHITAS NOCHRI- [that he did not have to consider the possibility that the meat was] slaughtered by a Nochri
22)[line 17]וְאִישְׁתַּכַּח מן דבית רביV'ISHTAKACH MIN D'VEIS REBBI- and it was found to have come from the house of Rebbi (this demonstrates the propriety of relying upon the majority]
23)[line 18]עִיגוּל דְּגוּבְנָאIGUL D'GUVENA- a wheel of cheese
24)[line 18]בפּוּנְדְּקָאPUNDEKA- the inn
25)[line 25]וַאֲנַן חָמְיָיןVA'ANAN CHAMYAN- but we see
26)[line 25]מַכְרִיזִיןMACHRIZIN- announcing [lost objects found under such circumstances, in an attempt to find their owners]
27)[line 26]אַתְּ, אִין הָוִייתָה מַשְׁכַּח, לא נַסְבַת?AT, IN HAVISA MASHKACH, LO NASVAS?- you, should you find [a lost object under such circumstances], would you not take it?
28)[line 27]הַלְוַאי כַּד נַשְׁכַּח, נשכח מן פְּיוּסָא וּלְגַוָּאHALVAI KAD NASHKACH, NASHKACH MIN PEYUSA UL'GAVA- were it only that when we found lost objects, we would find them on the inside of the Pivsaros (small paths to the side of wide streets; sidewalks). The reason for this wish of Rebbi Yonah is that since the main thoroughfare is an area in which one gives up hope of recovering his lost item, it would then be permitted to keep it.
29)[line 28]אשכח ולא נסיבASHKACH, V'LO NASIV- a) Rebbi Yonah; b) his son, Rebbi Mana found such a lost object and did not keep it [but rather attempted to find its owner]
30)[line 30]מגדל עֵדֶרMIGDAL EDER- an ancient settlement mentioned in the Torah (Bereishis 35:21), located on a hill halfway between Chevron and Beis Lechem. This is the current location of Gush Etziyon. According to Targum Yonasan Ben Uziel (loc. cit.), this is where Mashi'ach will ultimately reveal himself.
31)[line 30]וּכְמִדָּתָהּUCHE'MIDASAH- and an equal distance
32)[line 31]זכרים עולותZECHARIM; OLOS- [any] male animals [found must be assumed to be] Korbenos Olah [that have run away from Yerushalayim] (since only a male animal may be offered as a Korban Olah)
33)[line 33]היו מְמַשְׁכְּנִיןHAYU MEMASHKENIN- they would take property as collateral
34)[line 34]נסכיהNESACHEHA (NESACHIM)
This refers to the Korban Minchah (meal-offering; see Background to 6:34) and wine libation that are offered along with a Korban Shelamim or Olah (Bamidbar 15:3-16).
35)[line 38]גר שמתGER SHE'MEIS - if a convert passed away (NICHSEI HA'GER)
When a Jew dies, his closest relatives inherit his estate (according to the hierarchy established by the Torah as recorded in Bamidbar 27:8-11). Since all Jews are related to each other (through Yakov Avinu and his sons), every Jew by definition has heirs. A convert, however, may possibly have no heirs (since his Nochri relatives do not inherit his estate). When a convert dies without heirs, his estate becomes Hefker (ownerless). The first person who takes possession of his belongings becomes their owner.
36)[line 40]כהן גדול שמתKOHEN GADOL SHE'MEIS- Our Mishnah is discussing a case involving a Kohen Gadol who passed away, and a replacement has not yet been named. Even without an acting Kohen Gadol, the daily Asiris ha'Eifah (see Background to 19:14) must be offered, albeit with certain modifications. The Tana'im in our Mishnah disagree as to who funds the Korban in such a situation.
37)[line 42]ושלימהSHELEIMAH- whole (as opposed to half in the morning and half in the evening)
38)[line 43]נֵאוֹתִין בהןNE'OSIN BA'HEN- may benefit from them (by using them to prepare Korbanos that are eaten by the Kohanim)
39)[line 43]הפרהPARAH (PARAH ADUMAH)
(a)A Parah Adumah is a red cow; if there are as many as two hairs of any other color it is not a Parah Adumah (see Maseches Parah 2:5). Only a cow which has never had a yoke placed upon it nor performed any other work is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow as it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).
(b)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).
40)[line 44]מועליןMO'ALIN (ME'ILAH)
(a)It is forbidden to derive any personal benefit from that which is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal le'Echol bi'Sh'arecha... v'Chol Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount of benefit for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth.
(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he is liable to receive Malkus (according to the Rabanan; according to Rebbi he is liable for Misah b'Yedei Shamayim). In addition, he must pay Hekdesh for the benefit which he received; however, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.
(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, he must bring a Korban known as a Korban Me'ilah. He must then reimburse Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, equal to a quarter of the original value). The object then loses its Kedushah. This is true of any object which has the status of Kedushas Damim (i.e. it itself will not be used by Hekdesh, but rather its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object which has the status of Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live animal pledged to be offered as a Korban) does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).
(d)Our Mishnah teaches that the prohibition of Me'ilah does not apply to the ashes of a Parah Adumah.
41)[line 44]הקינין הפסולותKININ HA'PESULOS- the Kinim (see Background to 18:22) found to be physically unfit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach [that had been purchased with money left in the Shofar designated for this purpose; see Mishnah 18a and Background ibid.]
42)[line 45]הַמְסַפֵּק את הקיניןHA'MESAPEK ES HA'KININ- he who supplies the birds for the Kinim
43)[line 47]לַבָּא בדמיהן שנוLA'BA BI'DEMEIHEN SHANU- our Mishnah is discussing one who wishes to offer a Korban with the value of the animal found [by transferring its Kedushah to two separate animals, one an Olah and the other a Shelamim — and not the offering of the animal itself] (see Insights for a detailed explanation of the give-and-take in this section of the Gemara)
44)[line 47]אומרים לו לאדם צֵא וּמְעוֹל בקדשים?OMERIM LO L'ADAM, TZEI U'ME'OL B'KODSHIM?- do we tell someone to go and transgress the prohibition against Me'ilah (see above, entry #40; see Insights)
45)[line 50]ואין השלמים באין מן הזכרים ומן הנקבות?V'EIN HA'SHELAMIM BA'IN MIN HA'ZECHARIM U'MIN HA'NEKEVOS?- is it not true that both male and female animals be offered as Korbenos Shelamim [and why therefore does our Mishnah assume that a male animal found must be an Olah]?
46)[line 1]כְּמַה דאת אמר תָּמָןK'MAH D'AT AMAR TAMAN- just as you said over there
47)[line 2]המוֹתָרוֹתMOSAROS- animals designated as public Korbenos Chatas that ended up being unnecessary as such (Mishnah 6b)
48)[line 2]כן אַתְּ אמר אוֹף הָכָא (הכא נמי)KEN AT AMAR OF HACHA- so you may say here
49)[line 4]אין זה מֵזִיד?EIN ZEH MEZID?- is this not an intentional attempt to divest an animal designated as a Korban of its Kedushah, which accomplishes its aim only according to Rebbi Meir (Kidushin 53b)? This is a question upon the original statement of Rav Hoshaya, at the beginning of the Gemara; see HAGAHOS HA'GRA, and Insights.
50a)[line 6]עד דַּאֲנָא תָּמָןAD DA'ANA TAMAN- while I was still there [in Bavel]
b)[line 6]שַׁמְעִית קַל רב יהודהSHAM'IS KAL RAV YEHUDAH- I heard the voice of Rav Yehudah
51)[line 10]חוֹצֶה אותהCHOTZEH OSAH- he divides it in half
52a)[line 12]מקריב מֶחְצָהMAKRIV MECHETZAH- [if a Kohen Gadol passes away in the middle of the day,] half [of his Asiris ha'Eifah] is offered [in the morning]
b)[line 12]ומחצה אבדMECHETZAH AVAD- and the other half is lost; it cannot be used for any purpose. This does not seem to fit with the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan, who maintains that the second half is not sanctified until the evening.
53)[line 13]אפילו מָעוֹתAFILU MA'OS- The Gemara answers that Rebbi Yochanan's opinion, quoted above, is that even leftover money designated for the Kohen Gadol's Korban Minchah must be disposed of, even though it is not Kadosh; therefore, the second, unused half of this Korban is no better.
54)[line 14]נִמְצְאוּ שני חֲצָאִין קְרֵיבִין ושני חצאין אֲבוּדִיןNIMTZE'U SHNEI CHATZA'IN KEREVIN, U'SHNEI CHATZA'IN AVUDIN- [the above Beraisa continues to explain that if a replacement is designated for the deceased Kohen Gadol immediately, he must prepare a full Asiris ha'Eifah, but offer only the second half of it.] The end result is that two half-Korbanos are offered [that day], while two half-Korbanos are lost.
55a)[line 16]תְּעוּבָּר צוּרָתָןTE'UBAR TZURASAN- see Background to 19:26
b)[line 16]לבית השריפהBEIS HA'SEREIFAH- the place where invalidated Korbanos are burned (also known as the Beis ha'Deshen)
56)[line 17]עִשָּׂרוֹן מְקַדֵּשׁISARON MEKADESH- the Isaron (the container which holds the Asiris ha'Eifah) automatically confers Kedushah upon it (it is therefore completely Kadosh from the time that is placed in the container according to this opinion)
57)[line 19]עשירית האיפה שלוASIRIS HA'EFAH SHELO (MINCHAS CHINUCH(
On the day upon which a Kohen first performs the service in the Beis ha'Mikdash, he offers a Korban Minchah. This Korban is identical to the Minchas Chavitin offered by the Kohen Gadol every day (see Background to 19:14).
58)[line 19]וְעוֹבְדָהּ בידוV'OVEDAH B'YADO- and he himself offers it
59)[line 21]בָּעִי מֵימַרBA'I MEIMAR- thought that it was logical to say
60)[line 23]לְחִינוּכוֹL'CHINUCHO- for both the obligation to offer a Minchas Chavitin due to that which it is his first day performing the Avodah, as well as that of his obligation to offer a Minchas Chavitin due to that which it is his first day performing the Avodah as a Kohen Gadol. The Bavli (Menachos 71a) concludes that the Halachah does not follow Rebbi Mana, and that each of these must be offered separately; therefore, in such a situation the Kohen Gadol must offer a total of three Asiriyos ha'Eifah.
61)[line 24]לחובת היוםCHOVAS HA'YOM- the obligation [of a Kohen Gadol to offer a Minchas Chavitin every] day
62)[line 24]"[עַל מַחֲבַת בַּשֶּׁמֶן תֵּעָשֶׂה, מֻרְבֶּכֶת תְּבִיאֶנָּה;] תֻּפִינֵי [מִנְחַת פִּתִּים תַּקְרִיב רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַה']""[AL MACHAVAS BA'SHEMEN TE'ASEH, MURBECHES TEVI'ENAH;] TUFINEI [MINCHAS PITIM TAKRIV REI'ACH NICHO'ACH LA'SH-M]"- "[It should be made on a pan with oil, you shall bring it scalded;] a baked [flour-offering, broken into pieces, shall you offer as a pleasing aroma to HaSh-m]" (Vayikra 6:14).
63a)[line 24]בשעת הבאה תופיניB'SHA'AS HAVA'AH ''TUFINEI''- (a) you must bake when it is offered (RASH SIRILIO, KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) you may bake it when it is offered (RAV CHAYIM KANIEVSKY)
b)[line 25]ואין בשחרית תופיניV'EIN B'SHACHARIS ''TUFINEI''- (a) do not bake the half offered in the morning before dawn (RASH SIRILIO, KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) the half that is offered in the afternoon need not be baked in the morning (RAV CHAYIM KANIEVSKY)
64)[line 25]הֶעֱמִידוּ עוֹשֵׂי חֲבִיתִּיןHE'EMIDU OSEI CHAVITIN- [the Mikdash officials] appointed those who made the Minchas Chavitin to do so [before dawn]
65)[line 27]חַמִין לִרְבוּכָהCHAMIN LI'REVUCHA- hot water necessary for boiling [the dough of the Minchas Chavitin]
66)[line 28]מְטַגְּנָהּMETAGENAH- he fries it
67a)[line 29]תֵּאָפֶינָה נָאTE'AFENAH NA- bake it when it is partly cooked (i.e. fried, since the frying process cooked the outside of the thick rolls but not their inside)
b)[line 30]תֵּאָפֶינָה נָאֶהTE'AFENAH NA'EH- bake it when it is nice to look upon (as opposed to blackened from the frying pan)
c)[line 30]תֵּאָפֶינָה (רִיבָּה) [רַבָּה]TE'AFENAH RABAH- (a) bake it many times; it should be baked, fried and then baked again. This is not a derivation from the wording of the Pasuk like the previous two; rather, Rebbi Dosa understands "Tufinei" according to the understanding if both "Na" and "Na'eh." (RASHI to Menachos 50b, 1st explanation); (b) bake it when it is large (spread out from the frying pan, which is what constitutes "Na'eh"); i.e., after frying (RASHI to Menachos 50b, 2nd explanation); (c) according to the Girsa תֵּאָפֶינָה רַכָּה TE'AFENAH RAKAH - bake it when it is soft [from the large quantity of oil in the frying pan, which is what constitutes "Na'eh"]; i.e., after frying (RASHI to Menachos 50b, 3rd explanation)
68)[line 31]אַתְיָין אִלֵּין פְּלַגְוָותָא, כְּהִינֵין פלגוותאASYAN ILEIN PELAGVASA K'HINEN PELAGVASA- the Machlokes of these Amora'im follows that of those Amora'im
69)[line 33]לא סוף דבר שמתLO SOF DAVAR SHE'MES- these laws (that a whole Isaron must be prepared for the second half of the Minchas Chavitin) apply not only when the Kohen Gadol has passed away
70a)[line 34](אלא) אפילו נטמאAFILU NITMA- (a) but even when he has become Tamei (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) [does the previous statement apply] even when he has become Tamei [and will return to the Avodah]? (TIKLIN CHADTIN, according to the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON, who is not Gores the word "Ela")
b)[line 34]ואפילו נִדְחֶה מִמוּםAFILU NIDCHEH MI'MUM- (a) [does the previous statement apply] even when he has developed a permanent blemish that renders him forever unfit to perform the Avodah? (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) or only when he has developed a permanent blemish that renders him forever unfit to perform the Avodah? (TIKLIN CHADTIN, according to the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON)
71)[line 35]דבר דליה (דְּבַּרְדְּלַיָּה)D'BAR DELAYA- from Bardilaya, a place near Lydda
72)[line 40]מִמִּי שֶׁהַבְּרִיוֹת שלוMI'MI SHE'HA'BERIYOS SHELO- from He to whom all creatures belong (see Girsa Section #2)
73)[line 42]כָּלִיל לְהַקְטָרָהKALIL L'HAKTARAH- it is completely burned
74)[line 43]מְחַלְּפָה שִׁיטְתֵיהּ דר"שMECHALEFAH SHITESEI D'REBBI SHIM'ON- Rebbi Shimon has [apparently] changed his opinion!
75)[line 43]תמן אמר משל יורשיןTAMAN AMAR MI'SHEL YORESHIN- (a) in our Mishnah he said that [as a result of a Rabbinic decree, the Korban must be paid for by public funds — which implies that mid'Oraisa it is paid for] by the late Kohen Gadol's inheritors (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on is: תמן אמר משל צבור דבר תורה - in the Beraisa quoted above he said that the Korban is paid for by public funds mid'Oraisa (TIKLIN CHADTIN)
76)[last line]והכא אמר משל ציבור?V'HACHA AMAR MI'SHEL TZIBUR?- (a) and in the Beraisa quoted above, he said that the Korban is paid for by public funds [mid'Oraisa]? (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on is: והכא אמר מתנאי בית דין? - and in our Mishnah he said that it is a result of a Rabbinic decree? (TIKLIN CHADTIN)