RAVA FORBIDS MUKTZEH
Inference: If it could not be eaten raw, Rava would forbid - this shows that he forbids Muktzeh, like R. Yehudah.
Question: But [on Yom Tov] Rava asked his servant to roast a goose and throw its intestines to a cat!
Answer: Since the intestines would spoil before nightfall, from before Yom Tov he intended to feed them to a cat.
Support: The following shows that Rava holds like R. Yehudah:
(Rava): [On Yom Tov] a woman may not enter a storehouse of wood to take a stick for a roasting spit (the wood is set aside for burning);
If a spit broke, one may not burn it, for we may burn Kelim on Yom Tov, but not broken Kelim.
SOMETHING THAT USED TO BE PART OF A FOOD
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): We may remove bones and peels from the table;
Beis Hillel say, we take the entire Tavla (a board placed over the table), and shake it (casting them off).
We remove from the table crumbs less than a k'Zayis, and the pods (Aruch - and chaff and sprigs) of peas and of lentils, for animals eat them.
If a sponge has a leather handle, one may clean with it; if not, not (he would surely squeeze between his fingers);
Version #1: In either case one may take it on Shabbos; it is not Mekabel Tum'ah.
Version #2: Chachamim say, in either case one may use and take it on Shabbos; it is not Mekabel Tum'ah.
(Gemara - Rav Nachman): The opinions in our Mishnah must be switched - Beis Shamai forbid Muktzeh like R. Yehudah, Beis Hillel permit like R. Shimon.
(Mishnah): We may remove crumbs [less than a k'Zayis] from the table.
Our Mishnah supports R. Yochanan:
Version #1 (our text, Rashi) (R. Yochanan): One may not ruin crumbs less than a k'Zayis (the Mishnah says that we remove them, it does not permit to throw them).
Version #2 (Tosfos) (R. Yochanan): One may ruin crumbs less than a k'Zayis (the Mishnah calls them animal food).
(Mishnah): Pods of peas...
Our Mishnah is like R. Shimon, who permits Muktzeh (at the start of Shabbos they were a useful part of food for people, now they are only fit for animals).
Question (Seifa): If a sponge has a leather handle, one may clean with it; if not, not (lest he squeeze).
This is like R. Yehudah, who forbids Davar she'Eino Miskaven!
Answer: The Seifa is even like R. Shimon;
(Abaye and Rava): R. Shimon agrees regarding a Pesik Reisha.
One may cast pits of bad dates to animals, by way of the date itself (Rashi - people feed bad dates to animals; Rashi (29A) - some of the fruit sticks to them, they are still fit for people; rch - the pits are soft, people can be eat them with the date);
One may not cast pits of good dates to animals.
Shmuel would move them via bread. (Tosfos - even he holds like R. Shimon, he was stringent, because he was important.)
This is like Shmuel taught elsewhere:
(Shmuel): One may use bread for anything [that will not make it repulsive].
Rabah would move them via a flask of water.
Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua piled them up in front of himself (so they would repulse him), making them like Geraf Shel Re'i (which may be removed).
Objection (Rav Ashi): One may not make Geraf Shel Re'i l'Chatchilah!
Rav Sheshes would throw them [across the table] with his tongue.
Rav Papa would throw them in back of his bed [on which he ate].
R. Zecharyah ben Avkulas would turn away and spit them out in back of his bed.
(Mishnah): If a barrel broke, one may save food for three meals; he may tell others to save for themselves, as long as he does not soak up.
We may not squeeze fruit to extract the juice; if the juice came out by itself, it is forbidden [on Shabbos];
R. Yehudah says, if the owner planned to eat the fruit, the juice is permitted; if he planned to extract the juice, it is forbidden.
If cakes of honey were crushed before Shabbos and the honey flowed out on Shabbos, it is forbidden;
R. Elazar permits.
(Gemara - Beraisa): One may not soak up wine, one may not wet his hand in oil [and scrape the oil into a Kli], for this is like one does on a weekday.
(Beraisa): If produce scattered in a Chatzer, he gathers it bit by bit and eats; he may not gather into a basket or box, for this is like one does on a weekday.
(Mishnah): We may not squeeze fruit.
(Rav Yehudah): R. Yehudah agrees regarding olives and grapes [that what flows from them is forbidden, even if he planned to eat them].
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: People normally squeeze them - even if he planned to eat them, he is pleased with the liquid that flowed from them.
(Ula): R. Yehudah argues even regarding olives and grapes.
(R. Yochanan): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah regarding other fruits, the Halachah follows Chachamim regarding olives and grapes.
(Rabah): R. Yehudah agrees to Chachamim regarding olives and grapes; Chachamim agree to R. Yehudah regarding other fruits.
Question (R. Yirmiyah): If so, what do they argue about?
R. Aba: Think about it, you will find the answer!
Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Presumably, they argue about strawberries and pomegranates:
Version #1 (Ri) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): If oil and wine were extracted from olives and grapes, and one stored them, whether to eat them or to get more juice from them, what exudes is forbidden [on Shabbos];
Version #2 (Rashi) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): If oil and wine flowed from olives and grapes, whether one [initially] stored them to eat them or to get more juice from them, what exudes is forbidden; (end of Version #2)
If juice and wine were extracted (Rashi - flowed) from strawberries and pomegranates, and one stored them to eat them, what exudes is permitted;
If he stored them for juice or Stam (without specific intent), what exudes is forbidden.
Chachamim say, in either case what exudes is forbidden.
Question: R. Yehudah does not forbid Stam!
(Mishnah): Human milk is Tamei whether it came out l'Ratzon (willingly) or Lo l'Ratzon; an animal's milk is Tamei only if it came out l'Ratzon.
R. Akiva: We learn from a Kal va'Chomer - human milk is only for babies, it is Tamei l'Ratzon and Lo l'Ratzon - an animal's milk is even for adults, all the more so it is Tamei l'Ratzon and Lo l'Ratzon!
Chachamim: No - a woman's milk is Tamei even Lo l'Ratzon, for blood of her wounds is [Lo l'Ratzon yet] Tamei (Rashi - a woman's milk is produced from her blood; Tosfos (Nidah 19B Kesiv) - we merely prove from her blood that some of her fluids are Tamei Lo l'Ratzon);
You cannot learn to milk of animals, blood of their wounds is Tahor!
R. Akiva: Milk is more stringent than blood, for milk milked for a cure is Tamei, but if one lets blood to heal, it is Tahor!
Chachamim: Baskets of olives and grapes disprove this - liquid that comes out l'Ratzon is Tamei, Lo l'Ratzon is Tahor!
Assumption: 'L'Ratzon' means, he wanted it to exude, 'Lo l'Ratzon' means, Stam;
Summation of question: Even though olives and grapes are normally squeezed, liquid that comes out Stam is Tahor - all the more so regarding strawberries and pomegranates, which are not normally squeezed! (If Chachamim of this Mishnah hold like R. Yehudah, this is a direct question; if these Chachamim hold like the Chachamim that argue with R. Yehudah, all the more so he is Metaher Stam, for they consider it a liquid, and he does not!)