SPECIAL LAWS THAT WERE OBSERVED IN REBBI'S HOUSE
(R. Aba bar Kahana): Candlesticks of Rebbi's house may be moved on Shabbos.
Question (R. Zeira): Is this only if they can be moved with one hand, or even if they require two hands?
Answer (R. Aba): They are like those of your father's house (Rashi - small, but one fixes a place for big ones; Tosfos - they are large, or are small and have grooves and look like they must be assembled (but small ones without grooves are obviously permitted). Ramban - R. Zeira's father was the king's overseer, it was known that his are big.)
(R. Aba bar Kahana): Wagons of Rebbi's house may be moved on Shabbos.
Question (R. Zeira): Is this only if one person can move them, or even if they require two people?
Answer (R. Aba): They are like those of your father's house (they require two).
(R. Aba bar Kahana): R. Chanina permitted Rebbi's house to drink wine (R. Chananel - brought) in wagons of Nochrim with one seal [on the barrel].
I do not know if this was because he holds like R. Eliezer (who requires only one seal for wine), or because Nochrim feared Rebbi (the kingdom backed him).
SOMETHING A NOCHRI DID FOR HIMSELF ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): If a Nochri lit a Ner, a Yisrael may use it;
If he lit it for the Yisrael, it is forbidden.
If a Nochri drew water [from a well in Reshus ha'Rabim] for his animals, a Yisrael may use it;
If he drew for the Yisrael, it is forbidden.
If a Nochri made a ramp [to descend from a ship], a Yisrael may descend on it;
If he made it for the Yisrael, it is forbidden.
Once, R. Gamliel and Chachamim were on a ship, and a Nochri made a ramp to descend - R. Gamliel and Chachamim descended on it.
(Gemara): We must teach all the clauses;
If we only taught about a Ner, one might have thought that this is because a Ner for one person is also good for 100, but we forbid regarding water, lest he draw extra for the Yisrael.
Question: Why do we need the clause about the ramp?
Answer: This is taught in order to bring the episode with R. Gamliel and Chachamim.
WHEN WE ARE CONCERNED THAT IT WAS DONE FOR A JEW
(Beraisa): If a Nochri gathered grass [for his animals to eat], a Yisrael may let his animals eat it afterwards;
If he gathered for the Yisrael, it is forbidden.
If he drew water for his animals, a Yisrael may use it; if he drew for the Yisrael, it is forbidden.
This is if he does not know the Yisrael - but if he recognizes him, it is forbidden.
Question: But Rav Huna taught that one may lead his animal to eat from [attached] grass on Shabbos (we are not concerned lest the Yisrael will detach it), but not to eat from Muktzeh (grass detached on Shabbos, lest the Yisrael will give it to the animal - what the Nochri gathered is Muktzeh)!
Answer: The Beraisa does not permit the Yisrael to lead his animal there, rather, he stands in front of it [and does not let it go anywhere else] so it goes by itself and eats.
(Beraisa): This is if he does not know the Yisrael - but if he recognizes him, it is forbidden.
Question: The Nochri who made a ramp for R. Gamliel knew him!
Answer #1 (Abaye): R. Gamliel was not there at the time.
Answer #2 (Rava): Even if R. Gamliel was there at the time, it is permitted - a Ner for one person is also good for 100 (the same applies to a ramp. Tosfos - Abaye normally agrees with this - however, because R. Gamliel was so important, if it was made in front of him we would assume that it was made primarily for him.)
Question (Beraisa - R. Gamliel): Since he made it when we were not there, we may descend on it.
Answer: He means, since he made it, we may descend on it. (R. Gamliel happened to mention 'We were not there at the time', but the Heter does not depend on this.)
Question (against Abaye and Rava - Mishnah): If Yisraelim and Nochrim are in a city, and there was a bathhouse open on Shabbos:
If the majority [of the residents] are Nochrim, one may bathe in the bathhouse immediately [on Motzei Shabbos];
If the majority are Yisraelim, one must wait the time needed to heat the water [after Shabbos, even though it was not done in front of Yisraelim, and heating the bath for one heats it for everyone]!
Answer: The bath is heated for the majority of residents.
Question (against Abaye and Rava - Beraisa): If a Ner was lit at a party:
If the majority are Nochrim, one may use the light;
If the majority are Yisraelim, or even half, it is forbidden.
Answer: There also it is lit for the majority.
Shmuel visited the house of Avin Torin; a Nochri came and lit a lamp, and Shmuel turned away;
Shmuel saw the Nochri read a document, and realized that he lit it for himself - Shmuel faced the lamp.
MOVING DOORS OF KELIM ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): All Kelim may be moved on Shabbos, and their doors may be moved with them, even if the doors came off;
Doors of the house [that came off on Shabbos] are different, for they are not prepared [to be moved].
One may take a hammer to break nuts, an axe to break a ring of figs (it is hard and thick), a saw to cut cheese, a shovel to sweep figs, a pitchfork to feed a child, a spindle or Karkar (Kli used to separate threads on a loom) to insert into food [for eating], a hand needle (used to sew garments) to remove a thorn, or a thick needle (used to sew sackcloth, to substitute for a key) to open a door.
(Gemara): It means, all Kelim may be moved [with their doors], even if the doors came off on Shabbos (some forbid Kelim that broke on Shabbos on account of Nolad), all the more so if they came off on a weekday!
Rejection: Just the contrary! If they came off on Shabbos, at the start of Shabbos they were Muchanim (prepared for use) as part of the Kelim, but not if they came off before Shabbos!
(Abaye): Indeed, it means, all Kelim may be moved with their doors; even if the doors came off on a weekday, they may be moved on Shabbos.
(Beraisa): One may take the door of a chest, box or cupboard, but may not return it;
One may not take nor return the door of a chicken coop.
Question: We understand why the Tana forbids the coop - he holds that since it is attached to the ground, building and destroying apply to it;
Why does he forbid returning the door of a Kli?
If he holds that building applies to Kelim, destroying should also apply (it should also be forbidden to take it); if he holds that destroying does not apply to Kelim, building should not apply either!
Answer #1 (Abaye): He holds that building and destroying apply to Kelim - the Beraisa means, if the door was removed, one may not return it.
Objection #1 (Rava): It says 'One may take'!
Objection #2 (Rava): It says '...but [one may not return]'!
Answer #2 (Rava): He holds that building and destroying do not apply to Kelim - he decrees to forbid returning, lest one will firmly insert it [and be liable for Makeh b'Patish].
KLI SHE'MELACHTO L'ISUR
(Mishnah): One may take a hammer [to break nuts].
(Rav Yehudah): One may take a hammer special for breaking nuts to break nuts, but not a smith's hammer;
He holds that Kli she'Melachto l'Isur (it is used for something forbidden on Shabbos) may not be moved, even if it itself is needed [for something permitted].
Objection (Rabah - Seifa): ...A pitchfork to feed a child.
People do not designate these to feed children!
(Rabah): The Mishnah permits a smith's hammer to break nuts.
He permits moving Kli she'Melachto l'Isur if it itself is needed.