MOVING ISUR WITH HETER
(R. Yochanan): R. Rumnus said that Rebbi permitted him to move [in Rebbi's house] an incense pan with ashes in it (the pan has permitted uses; we are thinking that the ashes were forbidden).
Question (R. Zeira): But R. Yochanan forbids this!
(Mishnah): One may carry his son while his son is holding a rock, or a basket with a rock in it.
(R. Yochanan): The case is, there are fruits in the basket.
Inference: If there are no fruits inside, it is forbidden!
Answer #1 (R. Asi): The case is, [in addition to the ashes] there are sticks of frankincense left in the pan [that did not burn, one can smell them - therefore, this is like a basket with fruits and a rock].
Objection: Sticks of frankincense are of no significance in the house of Rebbi (he was very rich)!
Suggestion: Perhaps because they are significant for Aniyim (poor people), they are significance for everyone!
Rejection: Aniyim may move cloths of Aniyim (they are three by three fingers, they can be used for a patch), Ashirim may move clothes of Ashirim (e.g. three Tefachim by three Tefachim), but not of Aniyim.
Answer #2 (Abaye): It may be moved, just like a privy may be removed (because it disgusts one).
Objection #1 (Rava): A privy disgusts people, ashes do not!
Objection #2 (Rava): A privy is exposed, the ashes are covered!
Answer #3 (Rava): In Rav Nachman's house, they would move a pan on account of ashes (which can be used to cover spit or excrement), even though there are broken pieces of wood inside. (Rebbi gave this same Heter to R. Rumnus.)
Question (Beraisa): All agree that if there are broken wicks inside [the Ner, one may not move it].
Answer (Abaye): The Beraisa refers to Galil [where oil is abundant (Rashi - wicks are scarce), therefore the wicks are not Betelim].
ASSEMBLING THINGS THAT COME APART
Question (Levi bar Shmuel): May one assemble a bed of Tarsim? (These are traveling craftsmen. The bed comes apart.)
Answer (R. Aba and Rav Huna bar Chiya): It is permitted.
Rav Yehudah: Rav and Shmuel say that one who assembles such a bed is liable!
Question (against R. Aba and Rav Huna - Beraisa): One who assembles a Menorah of rings [that come apart] is liable;
One may not assemble a plasterer's rod - if he did so, he is exempt.
R. Simai says, one who inserts [a flute] in a round horn [a musical instrument with holes] is liable [for it must be wedged in tightly]; one who inserts it in a straight horn is exempt (it goes in loosely).
Answer: R. Aba and Rav Huna hold like R. Shimon ben Gamliel:
(Beraisa): One may not return Malbenos (coverings for legs) of beds, legs of beds, or the wood on a bow (on which the arrow rests) - if he did so, he is exempt;
He may not bang them in tightly - if he did, he brings a Chatas;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, if they fit loosely, it is permitted. (Tosfos - Rav and Shmuel discussed a tight fitting bed.)
There was a Gelalnisa bed (like of Tarsim) in Rav Chama's house, he would assemble it on Yom Tov.
Question (a Chacham, to Rava): Do you [not rebuke him because you] hold that [it is not wedged in tightly, so] this is like building non-professionally? Granted, it is permitted mid'Oraisa, but it is forbidden mid'Rabanan!
Answer (Rava): I hold like R. Shimon ben Gamliel, who permits if it fits loosely.
CATCHING SPARKS IN A UTENSIL
(Mishnah): One may put a Kli under a Ner to catch sparks; one may not put water in it, for this extinguishes.
(Gemara) Question: The Kli will become Muktzeh (Rav Chisda forbids to make a Kli Muktzeh on Shabbos)!
Answer (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): Sparks have no substance (one may move the Kli).
(Mishnah): One may not put water in it, for this extinguishes.
Suggestion: Our Stam Mishnah is like R. Yosi, who forbids causing to extinguish.
Objection: R. Yosi forbids causing to extinguish on Shabbos, he does not forbid before Shabbos something that will cause extinguishing on Shabbos!
Answer: Perhaps our Mishnah only discusses [putting water on] Shabbos.
Rejection (Beraisa): One may put a Kli under a Ner to catch sparks on Shabbos, there is no need to say that one may do so from before Shabbos;
One may not put water in the Kli [from before Shabbos], there is no need to say that this is forbidden on Shabbos.
Conclusion (Rav Ashi): Our Mishnah is even like Chachamim [who permit causing to extinguish] - here it is forbidden, lest one [directly] make a spark extinguish earlier (put in water or lift the Kli with water when a spark is falling; we forbid Erev Shabbos on account of Shabbos).
IN WHAT IS HATMANAH PERMITTED?
(Mishnah) Question: In what may one do Hatmanah (wrap things to keep them warm), in what is it forbidden [because it adds heat - this is a decree on account of Hatmanah in hot coals]?
Answer - part 1: Hatmanah is forbidden in the following, whether they are moist or dry
Gefes (waste of olives or sesame after the oil was extracted), manure, salt, plaster, and sand;
Hatmanah in the following is permitted if they are dry and forbidden if they are moist - straw, grape skins or pits, tufts, and grass.
(Gemara) Question: Does the Mishnah refer to Gefes of olives, but that of sesame is permitted (it does not give as much heat);
Or does it refer to Gefes of sesame, all the more so Gefes of olives is prohibited?
Answer: R. Zeira taught, if Hatmanah was done in a pot, one may not leave it on Gefes of olives.
This shows that the Mishnah refers to Gefes of olives.
Rejection: No - perhaps Hatmanah in Gefes of sesame is forbidden, but one may leave a pot Tamun in something else on top of sesame, for its meager heat will not reach the pot.