REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS OF OTHER MITZVOS (cont.)
Robbery is punished by locusts, which causes hunger; people eat the flesh of their children - "...Ha'Oshkos Dalim ha'Rotzetzos Evyonim"...
Interjection (Rava): This refers to women of Mechuzah (Rava's city), who eat and do not work [thereby stealing from their husbands].
Shortly after this it says "Hikeisi Eschem...Ganoseichem...Yochal ha'Gazam";
It also says "Yeser ha'Gazam Ochal ha'Arbeh v'Yeser ha'Arbeh Ochal ha'Yelek v'Yeser ha'Yelek Ochal he'Chasil"; "Va'Yigzor Al Yamin v'Ra'ev...Besar Zero'o Yochelu" - we read this Besar Zar'o (flesh of his children).
The punishment for delay of judgment, perversion of judgment b'Mezid or due to haste, and Bitul Torah is the sword (war), massive looting, pestilence, and famine;
People eat but are not satiated, they eat their bread by weight (it breaks in the oven, everyone takes a weight of crumbs according to how much dough he put in) - "V'He'veisi Aleichem Cherev Nokemes Nekam Bris v'Shilachti Dever b'Sochachem v'Nitatem b'Yad Oyev; V'Afu Eser Nashim [Lachmechem b'Sanur Echad v'Heshivu Lachmechem ba'Mishkal va'Achaltem v'Lo Sisba'u]".
Bris refers to Torah - "Im Lo Vrisi Yomam va'Laylah".
The punishment is also for improper judgment - "Ya'an uv'Ya'an b'Mishpatai Ma'asu".
The punishment for vain or false oaths, Chilul Hash-m (desecration of His name, causing a decreased in people's respect for Torah or Mitzvah observance) or Chilul Shabbos, vicious animals are increased, Behemos cease, people are diminished, roads are desolate - "V'Im b'Eleh Lo Sivasru Li..." - we read this 'V'Im b'Alah' (on account of oaths);
The previous verse says "V'Hishlachti Vachem Es Chayas haSadeh...";
We learn that the same punishment comes for Chilul Hash-m and Chilul Shabbos from a Gezerah Shavah "Chilul-Chilul" - regarding false oaths it says "V'Chilalta Es Shem Hash-m Elokecha", regarding Chilul Hash-m it says "V'Lo Sechalelu Es Shem Kodshi", regarding Chilul Shabbos it says "Mechaleleha Mos Yumas".
The punishment for murder is Churban Beis ha'Mikdash and the departing of the Shechinah from Yisrael - "V'Lo Sachanifu...v'Lo Setamei Es ha'Aretz Asher Atem Yoshvim Bah Asher Ani Shochen b'Sochah";
This implies that if you will Metamei the land, you will not dwell in it and the Shechinah will leave.
The punishment for Giluy Arayos, idolatry and working the land in Shemitah or Yovel is exile - other nations will dispossess Yisrael;
[Regarding Arayos] it says "Ki Es Kol ha'To'evos ha'El Asu Anshei ha'Aretz... Va'Titma ha'Aretz", and it says "V'Lo Saki ha'Aretz Eschem b'Tama'achem Osah";
Regarding idolatry it says "V'Eschem Ezareh va'Goyim".
Regarding working the land in Shemitah or Yovel it says "Az Tirtzeh ha'Aretz Es Shabsoseha...v'Atem b'Eretz Oyveichem".
The punishment for foul language is many afflictions; harsh decrees come, youths of [haters of - this is a euphemism] die, orphans and widows cry and are not answered - "Al Ken Al Bachurav Lo Yismach Hash-m v'Es Yesomav v'Es Almenosav Lo Yerachem...v'Chol Peh Dover Nevalah".
Question: The verse ends "V'Od Yado Netuyah - what does this mean?
Answer (Rav Chanan Bar Rav): All know why a bride enters the Chupah, but one who fouls his mouth to discuss it, even if 70 good years had been decreed for him, they are changed for evil.
(Rabah bar Shila): Gehinom is made deeper for one who fouls his mouth - "Shuchah Amukah Pi Zaros".
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): This applies even to one who hears it and is silent - "Ze'um (one who bears the wrath of) Hash-m Yipol Sham".
(R. Oshaya): If one is Mamrik (diverts himself) to sin, wounds come on him - "Chaburos Petza Tamruk b'Ra";
Further, he will be judged to receive Hadrokan (in which the stomach swells) - the verse ends "U'Makos Chadrei Vaten".
SICKNESSES SENT FOR PUNISHMENT
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Hadrokan shows that a person transgressed.
(Beraisa): There are three kinds of Hadrokan:
If it is punishment for sin, his skin becomes [hard and] thick;
If it is on account of hunger, his skin swells (it is soft underneath);
If it is on account of witchcraft, his skin is thin and weak.
Shmuel ha'Katan contracted Hadrokan - he beseeched Hash-m, 'People might think that it is on account of sin!' Hash-m healed him.
Abaye contracted Hadrokan; Rava said, this is because he starves himself (there is no suspicion that it is on account of sin).
Rava contracted Hadrokan.
Question: But surely, Rava avoided the causes of Hadrokan! (Rava said that Abaye starves himself, implying that he disapproves, and) Rava said that more people die from delaying bowel movements than from [Hadrokan] on account of hunger!
Rava had fixed times to learn with Talmidim, he was forced to delay bowel movements.
(Beraisa): Four maladies are signs - Hadrokan is a sign of sin, jaundice is a sign of Sin'as Chinam (groundless hatred), poverty is a sign of haughtiness, Askarah (croup) is a sign of Lashon ha'Ra.
(Beraisa): Croup comes to the world on account of [not giving] Ma'aser;
R. Elazar b'Rebbi Yosi says, it comes for Lashon ha'Ra.
(Rava): He learns from "...Ki Yisacher Pi Dovrei Shaker".
Question: Does R. Elazar teach that it comes only for Lashon ha'Ra, or also for Lashon ha'Ra?
Answer - Question (of R. Yehudah, R. Elazar b'Rebbi Yosi and R. Shimon): Why does croup begin with the intestines and end with the mouth?
Answer #1 (R. Yehudah, who is always first to speak): Even though the kidneys counsel, the heart understands and the tongue enunciates, it (Lashon ha'Ra) is finished through the mouth.
Answer #2 (R. Elazar b'Rebbi Yosi): It is because the mouth ingests Tamei food.
Objection: One is not killed for eating Tamei things!
Correction: Rather, it is because the mouth ingests Tevel (punishable by Misah bi'Dei Shamayim. This completes the answer, R. Elazar holds that croup also comes for Lashon ha'Ra; in any case, the entire Beraisa is brought.)
Answer #3 (R. Shimon): It is because the mouth is Batul from Torah.
Question #1: [If so,] why do women get croup?
Answer (R. Shimon): They cause Bitul Torah of their husbands.
Question #2: Why do Nochrim get croup?
Answer (R. Shimon): They cause Bitul Torah of Yisrael.
Question #3: Why do children get croup?
Answer (R. Shimon): They cause Bitul Torah of their fathers.
Question: Why do children learning from their Rebbi get croup?
Answer: This is on account of R. Guryon's teaching:
(R. Guryon): When there are Tzadikim, they are punished for sins of their generation; when there are no Tzadikim, children learning from their Rebbi are punished.
(R. Yitzchak bar Ze'iri): He learns from "Im Lo Sed'i (if you do not know to guard the Mitzvos)...Tze'i Lach b'Ikvei ha'Tzon u'Re'i Es Gediyosayich Al Mishkenos ha'Ro'im (request mercy in the merit of the Avos, so children will not be punished for the generation)".
REBBI SHIMON AND HIS SON IN THE CAVE
Question: Why does it say that R. Yehudah is always first to speak?
Answer: R. Yehudah, R. Yosi, R. Shimon and Yehudah ben Gerim were sitting together.
R. Yehudah: This kingdom (Romi) has done great deeds - they established markets, bridges and bathhouses!
R. Yosi was silent.
R. Shimon: Everything they did was for themselves! They established markets to seat harlots [to take revenue from them], they established bathhouses for their pleasure, they established bridges to collect taxes! (Avodah Zarah 2B - this is Hash-m's rebuttal of Nochrim who will request reward in the future. Maharsha - R. Yehudah agrees with R. Shimon, just he was careful not to say so lest the kingdom find out.)
Yehudah ben Gerim repeated these words; [without his intention,] the kingdom found out. They decreed that R. Yehudah, who praised them, will be elevated [to speak first everywhere]; R. Yosi, who was silent (perhaps they were upset that he did not rebuke R. Shimon), will be exiled to Tzipori; R. Shimon, who denounced them, will be killed.
R. Shimon and his son (R. Elazar) hid in the Beis Medrash the entire day; his wife brought bread and water to them.
When the decree [to kill him] was intensified, he feared lest Romi will torture her and find out his whereabouts, for women's minds are easily diverted. He and his son fled to a cave; miraculously, a carob tree and a spring of water were created for them.
To preserve their clothes, the entire day they learned sitting in sand up to their necks; they wore their clothes only at the time of prayer.
After 12 years, Eliyahu came to the entrance of the cave and informed him that the king died and the decree was cancelled. They came out and saw people plowing and planting.
R. Shimon: How can they abandon eternal life [Torah] and engage in temporary life! (One who fears Hash-m should learn, Hash-m will supply his needs!) Wherever they looked would burn up.
A voice from Heaven: Did you come out to destroy My world?! Return to your cave!
They returned to the cave for 12 months; they reasoned, this is how long Resha'im are punished in Gehinom, our punishment should be no longer! A voice from Heaven told them to leave the cave.
Wherever R. Elazar would strike [people engaging in this world], R. Shimon would repair it.
R. Shimon: It suffices that we (who properly engage in Torah) are in the world.
On Erev Shabbos, they saw an elder running Bein ha'Shemashos carrying two bundles of myrtle.
R. Shimon and R. Elazar: What is the myrtle for?
The man: They are [to smell,] to honor Shabbos.
R. Shimon and R. Elazar: One should suffice!
The man: One is for Zachor (the Ase to Mekadesh Shabbos), one is for Shamor (the Lav not to do Melachah).
R. Shimon: See how much Yisrael cherish the Mitzvos!
R. Shimon and R. Elazar were assuaged.
R. Pinchas ben Ya'ir, R. Shimon's son-in-law, heard that they left the cave; he came to greet R. Shimon, and brought him to the bathhouse. R. Shimon's skin was creased on account of the sand; R. Pinchas was smoothing it out and crying, 'Woe that I saw you like this!'
R. Shimon: You are fortunate to see me like this! (I grew greatly in Torah)! Beforehand, R. Shimon would ask a question and R. Pinchas would give 12 answers; now, R. Pinchas would ask and R. Shimon would give 24 answers.
R. Shimon: Since a miracle was done for me, I will fix something;
(Rav): "Va'Yavo Yakov Shalem Ir Shechem" - his body, his money and his Torah were intact.
(Rav): "Va'Yichan Es Penei ha'Ir" - he established coinage for the city;
(Shmuel): He established markets for them;
(R. Yochanan): He established bathhouses.