DECREES TO PREVENT SIN
(Mishnah): However, a teacher...[he himself may not read].
Question: But the Reisha permits him to see where they are reading;
Suggestion: He also reads!
Answer: He only reviews the beginning of the Parshiyos (he remembers the rest).
Question: He may read the entire Parshah [just like children]!
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): Children in the house of their Rebbi may arrange the Parshiyos and read by light of a lamp.
Answer #1: Also children may read only the beginning of the Parshiyos.
Answer #2: We are more lenient about children, for the fear of their Rebbi is on them.
(Mishnah): Similarly, a Zav may not eat [with a Zavah...]
(Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): People are very careful about Taharos!
Even though there is no prohibition for a Zav to have relations, the Mishnah did not need to forbid a Tahor to eat with a Teme'ah (for he would not eat with her anyway, lest she Metamei his food)!
Rather, it only needs to forbid a Zav from eating with a Zavah, lest they come to have relations.
Similarly - a Zav Parush (he is meticulous about Taharah) should not eat with an ignoramus Zav, lest he will cause the latter to come frequently.
Question: What is wrong if the ignoramus come frequently (the Parush is Tamei anyway)!
Answer #1: Rather, we are concerned that the ignoramus will give Tamei food to the Parush to eat.
Objection: The Parush is eating Tamei food in any case when he is a Zav!
Answer #2 (Abaye): Rather, we are concerned that the ignoramus will give untithed food to the Parush to eat.
Objection (Rava): Most ignoramuses tithe properly (we would not decree on account of the minority)!
Answer #3 (Rava): Rather, we are concerned that when the Parush is Tahor, the ignoramus will give Tamei food to him to eat.
MAY ONE SLEEP IN THE SAME BED WITH A NIDAH?
Question: May a Nidah sleep [in the same bed] with her husband, when each is in his or her own garment?
Answer #1 (Rav Yosef -- Mishnah - Beis Shamai): Fowl may be put on the same table as cheese, but they may not be eaten together;
Beis Hillel say, they may not be put on the same table nor eaten together. (Likewise, we decree regarding a Nidah - the Halachah follows Beis Hillel. Also, perhaps even Beis Shamai would agree that we decree concerning Nidah, it is mid'Oraisa.)
Rejection: Perhaps we need not decree about Nidah, since there are two people (if one forgets, the other will remind him).
Version #1 - Support of Rejection: The Seifa of that Mishnah shows that we need not decree when there are two people!
(Mishnah - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): Two lodgers may eat at the same table, one meat and the other cheese, we are not concerned.
Objection: R. Chanan bar Ami taught, this is only if they do not know each other, but if they know each other, it is forbidden;
Here also, the husband and wife know each other, it should be forbidden!
Answer: Lodgers that know each other are forbidden, for even though there are two of them, there is no Shinuy (something different to remind them not to share food);
Here, the question is if they may sleep together with a Shinuy, i.e. each is clothed (normally, they sleep unclothed).
Version #2 - Support (of Rav Yosef - Mishnah - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): Two lodgers may eat at the same table, one meat and the other cheese, we are not concerned;
(R. Chanan bar Ami): This is only if they do not know each other, but if they know each other, it is forbidden.
Here also, the husband and wife know each other, it is forbidden!
Rejection: Lodgers that know each other are forbidden, for even though there are two of them, there is no Shinuy - here, there is a Shinuy! (end of Version #2)
Support (for Rav Yosef - Mishnah): Similarly, a Zav may not eat [with a Zavah...]
Rejection: There also, there are two people, but there is no Shinuy!
Support (for Rav Yosef - Beraisa): "...V'Es Eshes Re'ehu Lo Timei v'el Ishah Nidah Lo Yikrav" - the verse equates a Nidah to another man's wife:
Just like one may not sleep [in the same bed] with another man's wife (even seclusion with her is forbidden), even if both are clothed, the same applies to one's own wife when she is Nidah.
Rav Yosef argues with R. Pedas:
(R. Pedas): (It says "Lo Sikrevu Legalos Ervah" -) the Torah forbids only actual relations with Ervah.
When Ula would come home from learning, he would kiss his sisters on the [garment over their] chest; some say, on the arm. (Tosfos - he was a total Tzadik, he was sure that this would not have cause him to have lust. Chasam Sofer - this is a Mashal for the way he embraced Chachmah - nevertheless, the Gemara challenges this [immediately], for one should not use a Mashal of doing an Isur.)
Ula contradicts himself!
(Ula): Even approaching Arayos is forbidden - 'Lech Lech Amri Nezira...' (one must distance himself from sin).
(Tana d'vei Eliyahu): A case occurred, a Talmid who had learned and served Chachamim greatly died very young. His wife took his Tefilin around to Batei Medrash and synagogues, and asked:
It says "Ki Hi Orech Yamecha" - my husband learned and served Chachamim greatly, why did he die young?!
No one answered her. Once, I (Eliyahu) stayed by her - she told the story to me.
Eliyahu: How did he act with you when you were Nidah?
The widow: He didn't even touch my pinky!
Eliyahu: How did he act with you when you were counting seven clean days? (Rashi - after Zivah, she is still like a Nidah until immersing; R. Tam - she already immersed and was Tehorah mid'Oraisa, but all Benos Yisrael are concerned for Zivah, to require seven clean days before immersing after any sighting of blood.)
The widow: He would eat and drink with me and sleep [in the same bed] without clothes [on either of us], but he never even considered relations!
Eliyahu: Blessed is Hash-m who killed him, and did not show partiality [to overlook his Mezid transgression] on account of his Torah! It says "V'El Ishah b'Nidas Tum'asah Lo Sikrav"!
(Rav Dimi): The Talmid had one [wide] bed (and would not contact her, therefore he was lenient to sleep with her).
(Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef): She used to wear a garment over her Ervah (therefore he was lenient).
THE EIGHTEEN DECREES
(Mishnah): These are among the Halachos said in the attic of Chananyah ben Chizkiyah when Chachamim came to visit him (this will be explained);
They counted, and found that Beis Shamai outnumbered Beis Hillel; they decreed 18 things that day.
(Gemara - Abaye) Question: Does the Mishnah say 'Elu' (these, i.e. the following) Halachos, or 'v'Elu' (the previous) Halachos?
Answer (Rav Yosef - Beraisa): One may not delouse clothing nor read by light of a lamp - these are among the Halachos said in the attic of Chananyah.
This shows that the text is 'v'Elu'.
(Beraisa) Question: Who wrote Megilas Ta'anis (days when it is forbidden to fast or eulogize, on account of miracles done for Yisrael)?
Answer: Chananyah ben Chizkiyah and his colleagues wrote it, they afflictions [and the salvation from them] were very dear to them;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, afflictions are dear to us also - but if we would write them all, we would not finish (alternatively - we could not make every day a Yom Tov)!
Also - a fool does not recognize when he is stricken (we do not know many of the miracles done for us)!
Also - flesh of a Mes does not feel when it is cut (we have suffered so much, we barely feel the afflictions and salvations).
Question: But R. Yitzchak taught, "Ach Besaro Alav Yich'av v'Nafsho Alav Te'eval" - worms [consuming a Mes] hurt it like a needle hurts live flesh!
Correction: Dead flesh of a live person does not feel when it is cut.
(Rav Yehudah): Blessed is Chananyah ben Chizkiyah - if not for him, Sefer Yechezkeil would have been Nignaz (buried), for it [seemingly] contradicts the Torah!
Chananyah brought 300 barrels of oil up to his attic [to enable learning at night] and resolved the difficulties.
(Mishnah): They decreed 18 things.
Question: What are other decrees [among the 18]? (We already mentioned (1) delousing and (2) reading by light of a lamp. The Gemara will complete the count of 18 on Daf 17B. We count according to Rashi (17B).)
Answer (Decrees #3-11) (Mishnah): The following Posel Terumah (make it a Shelishi l'Tum'ah) - one who eats a Rishon (3) or Sheni l'Tum'ah (4), or drank Tamei liquids (5) (all of the decrees will be explained);
[A Tevul Yom, i.e. one who immersed from Tum'ah today] who entered his head or the majority of his body in Mayim She'uvim (water that was in a Kli) (6) (even after nightfall, he is Posel Terumah until he immerses again) or even one who is [fully] Tahor who had three Lugim of Mayim She'uvim poured on his head (7);
One who touched a Sefer [Torah, Nevi'im or Kesuvim] (8), [Stam] hands (9) (they have not been guarded in Taharah);
A Tevul Yom (9), food (10) or vessels (11) that became Tamei through liquids,