[70a - 38 lines; 70b - 34 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 70b [line 11]:

"v'Iy Mishum Melachah ka'Parish ואי משום מלאכה קפריש

(a) This is the Girsa of RI (Tosfos DH Chazinan); Rashi's Girsa is

"v'Iy Mishum Melachos Halalu ka'Parish ואי משום מלאכות הללו קפריש

(b) The Girsa of the Gemaras that were used by Rashi and Tosfos was

"v'Iy Ki Moda'as Lei a'Shabbos, Akati Tzarich l'Odu'ei a'Melachos ואי כי מודעת ליה אשבת אכתי צריך לאודויי אמלאכות (see Tosfos ibid. who cites Rashba for an explanation of this Girsa)


1)[line 2]מידיעת שבת הוא פורשMI'YEDI'AS SHABBOS HU PORESH- when he is informed that it is Shabbos, he refrains from doing the forbidden Melachah

2)[line 8]?חילוק מלאכות מנלןCHILUK MELACHOS, MENALAN?- from where do learn that Melachos are differentiated (that for each Melachah one must bring a separate Korban)?

3)[line 10]על חילול אחדAL CHILUL ECHAD- for the desecration of one Shabbos

4)[line 13]יומת בממוןYUMAS B'MAMON- he will die through his money, i.e. he will have to buy many animals to offer as Korban Chata'os

5)[line 26]להקיש אליהL'HAKISH ELEHA - to compare [the other Melachos of Shabbos] to it (KOL DAVAR SHE'HAYAH BI'CHLAL V'YATZAH MIN HA'KLAL L'LAMED)

(a)If an action or object was included in a general category of Halachah and was then singled out by the verse in order to tell us that certain Halachos apply to it, the Halachos which apply to that object are applicable to everything in the general category. There are three applications of this rule:

1.When a new Halachah is explicitly written in the Parshah discussing the object that was singled out

2.When there is no new Halachah written there, then we look for some new law that the Torah may be teaching us by the fact that it singled it out (for example, l'Chalek, to differentiate all of the actions so that each one will be Mechayav a separate Korban)

3.If we cannot say that the object was singled out to teach us l'Chalek, we say that it comes to limit the general category only to those members that are similar to and share the characteristics of the object that was singled out (this is similar to the rule of "Klal u'Frat u'Chlal).

(This rule should not be confused with Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatzah li'Don b'Davar he'Chadash, which refers to a case where the new law that is mentioned with regard to the object that was singled out is in contradiction to the general rule of the Klal.)

6)[line 30]הבערה ללאו יצאת /הברעה לחלק יצאתHAV'ARAH L'LAV YATZAS / HAV'ARAH L'CHALEK YATZAS

(a)All 39 of the Avos Melachos of Shabbos (major categories of creative acts) and Toldos (secondary categories) are included in one prohibition by the Torah with the words, "... Shabbos Shabbason la'Sh-m, Kol ha'Oseh Vo Melachah Yumas" — "... it is a day of complete rest to HaSh-m, whoever does work on it will be put to death" (Shemos 35:2). The next verse states, "Lo Seva'aru Esh b'Chol Moshevoseichem, b'Yom ha'Shabbos" - "You shall not kindle a fire in any of your settlements on the day of Shabbos" (ibid. 35:3).

(b)Rebbi Yosi rules l'Lav Yatzas, that the Melachah of kindling was singled out in the Torah to teach that transgressing it involves only a Lav (and is not punishable with Sekilah, stoning, like the other Melachos, but with Malkus, lashes). Rebbi Nasan rules l'Chalek Yatzas, that the Melachah of kindling was singled out in the Torah to teach that transgressing it alone will require one to bring a Korban Chatas when the transgression was b'Shogeg. One does not have to transgress all of the Melachos in order to be obligated to bring one Korban. We then learn by application of the rule "Davar she'Hayah bi'Chlal v'Yatza Min ha'Klal l'Lamed" (see previous entry) that the same applies to all other Melachos of Shabbos; transgressing any single Melachah obligates the person to bring a Korban Chatas.

7)[line 34]"[נפש כי תחטא בשגגה מכל מצות ה' אשר לא תעשינה] ועשה מאחת מהנה""[NEFESH KI SECHETA BI'SHEGAGAH MI'KOL MITZVOS HASH-M ASHER LO SE'ASENAH,] V'ASAH ME'ACHAS ME'HENAH"- "[If an individual sins inadvertently by violating any of the negative commandments of HaSh-m,] and he does any one (lit. from any one) of these (lit. from these)" (Vayikra 4:2)

8)[line 37]אחת מאחת הנה מהנהACHAS ME'ACHAS, HENAH ME'HENAH- the Torah could have written "Achas" ("one") but instead wrote "me'Achas" ("from one"). Similarly, the Torah could have written "Henah" ("these") but instead wrote "me'Henah" ("from these"). We can learn certain laws from these additions. We learn that a person is Chayav for transgressing Achas (one Melachah) or me'Achas (part of an intended Melachah), and Henah (the Avos Melachos themselves) or me'Henah (Toldos, which are derived and come from the Avos).

9)[line 37]אחת שהיא הנה הנה שהיא אחתACHAS SHE'HI HENAH, HENAH SHE'HI ACHAS- That is, the Beraisa finds six teachings in the verse: (a) the word "Achas," (b) the Mem that precedes it, (c) the fact that it is associated in the verse with the word "Henah" (TOSFOS DH Mai) — and then the same three inferences, but this time from the word "Henah."


10)[line 6]העלם זה וזה בידוHE'ELEM ZEH V'ZEH B'YADO- if he forgot that it was Shabbos and also that these Melachos are forbidden

11)[line 15]אלא לא שנאELA LO SHENA- Ravina claims that the fact that it is Shabbos is the main reason for not doing Melachos, therefore forgetting Shabbos is primary, and he is only Chayav one Chatas. (TOSFOS DH Amar Lei)

12)[line 27]דידע לה בתחומיןD'YADA LAH B'TECHUMIN- he knew that it was Shabbos with regard to the prohibition against walking beyond the Techum

13)[line 28]תחומיןTECHUMIN (TECHUMIN: D'ORAISA)

A person is only allowed to travel a distance of two thousand Amos from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos. Rebbi Akiva claims that this Halachah of "Techum Shabbos" is mentioned in the Torah. He compares two verses which specify the outer boundaries of the cities that were given to the Leviyim. One verse (Bamidbar 35:4) states that their cities' Migrashim (the open spaces outside of the cities) extend one thousand Amos from the wall of the city. The next verse (ibid. 35:5) specifies that the boundaries of the cities extend for two thousand Amos from the edges of the city. He explains that the first verse gives the cities' boundaries while the second verse sets the Techum Shabbos.

14)[line 29]כגרוגרתK'GROGERES- [grain which is] the size of a dry fig