12th CYCLE DEDICATIONS
 
ROSH HASHANAH 31-33 - Dedicated Dr. Shalom Kelman of Baltimore, MD. May the Zechus of helping thousands study the Torah provide a Refu'ah Sheleimah for his father, Dr. Herbert (Isser Chayim ben Itta Fruma) Kelman.

1)

(a)Our Mishnah refers to cutting the Shofar in a way that is Asur mid'Rabanan, and in a way that is Asur mid'Oraisa. When is cutting a Shofar Asur mid'Rabanan, and when is it Asur mid'Oraisa?

(b)The author of our Mishnah, which permits pouring water or wine exclusively into the Shofar, is Aba Shaul. What does Aba Shaul say?

1)

(a)Our Mishnah refers to cutting the Shofar in a way that is Asur mid'Rabanan, and in a way that Asur mid'Oraisa - the former, refers to cutting it with a scythe, which is an unusual way of doing it (and therefore Asur only mid'Rabanan); the latter, with a knife.

(b)The author of our Mishnah, which permits pouring water or wine exclusively into the Shofar, is Aba Shaul - who forbids the use of urine for the same purpose, because it is not respectable to place urine inside a Shofar.

2)

(a)Our Mishnah permits children to blow the Shofar, but not women. Why not?

(b)The author of the Beraisa which permits women to blow the Shofar must be Rebbi Shimon. What does Rebbi Shimon say with regard to women making Semichah on their Korban? What is Semichah?

(c)Who then, will be the co-authors of our Mishnah? What do they say with regards to women making Semichah?

2)

(a)Our Mishnah permits children to blow the Shofar but not women - because, since women are exempt from the Mitzvah of Shofar, to blow for the sake of the Mitzvah constitutes 'Bal Tosif' (or because the Rabanan forbade blowing the Shofar on Yom-Tov unnecessarily - see Maharsha).

(b)The author of the Beraisa which permits women to blow the Shofar, must be Rebbi Shimon - who permits women to make Semichah (leaning one's hands on their sacrifices), should they so wish, (despite the prohibition of making personal use of Kodshim (in this case by being supported by the animal).

(c)The co-authors of our Mishnah (which forbids it) are Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yosi (who also forbid women to perform Semichah).

3)

(a)The Tana of our Mishnah permits blowing with children to encourage them to learn how to blow? Does this concession extend to Shabbos as well?

(b)How do we reconcile the Reisha of our Mishnah, which permits actually blowing with them, with the Seifa, which only speaks about allowing them to blow, but no more?

3)

(a)The Tana of our Mishnah permits blowing with children - even on Shabbos, to encourage them to learn how to blow.

(b)The Reisha of our Mishnah (which permits actually blowing with them) - is speaking about children who have reached the age of 'Chinuch' (i.e. they understand the basics of Shofar, at which stage their father is obligated to educate them in this particular Mitzvah); whereas the Seifa (which only allows them to blow, but no more) - speaks about children who have not yet reached the age of Chinuch.

33b----------------------------------------33b

4)

(a)How do we initially interpret 'Mis'asek' (in 'ha'Mis'asek Lo Yatza')?

(b)How is this a proof for Rava's ruling in the previous Perek 'ha'Tokei's l'Shir Yatza'?

(c)On what grounds do we refute it? What are the alternative connotations of 'Mis'asek'?

4)

(a)Initially, we interpret 'Mis'asek' (in 'ha'Mis'asek Lo Yatza') to mean that he did not intend to blow at all.

(b)In that case, we could deduce that someone, who (deliberately) blew for the musical experience, would be Yotzei - a proof for Rava who said above 'ha'Tokei'a l'Shir Yatza'.

(c)We refute this proof on the grounds that 'Mis'asek' also has connotations of blowing for any reason other than the Mitzvah, including 'Tokei'a l'Shir', who will now not be Yotzei).

5)

(a)What can we infer from our Mishnah 'ha'Shomei'a min ha'Mis'asek Lo Yazta' that will pose a Kashya on Rebbi Zeira (who, as we learned in the previous Perek, requires the blower to have Kavanah as well as the listener)?

(b)On what grounds do we refute this proof?

5)

(a)From our Mishnah 'ha'Shomei'a min ha'Mis'asek Lo Yazta' - we can infer that, if someone hears from someone who is not a Mis'asek, but who is blowing with the Kavanah to render himself Yotzei, he will be Yotzei (even though the blower did not have him in mind), a Kashya on Rebbi Zeira, who maintains that the blower must have the listener in mind for the latter to be Yotzei.

(b)We refute this proof however - on the grounds that the Seifa of the Mishnah may well use an expression of 'Mis'asek' (not to preclude the need for the blower to have Kavanah as well, but) because the Reisha said 'Mis'asek.

6)

(a)The order of blowing, our Mishnah says, is three consisting of three by three. What is the meaning of ...

1. ... 'three'?

2. ... 'three by three'?

(b)What is the minimum length of ...

1. ... a Teki'ah?

2. ... a Teru'ah?

(c)If one blew a double-length Teki'ah at the end of one set of notes, intending the prolonged note to serve as the first Teki'ah of the next set as well as the last Teki'ah of the last one, how many Teki'os will one actually have blown?

(d)According to our Mishnah, what would one do if a Shofar became available only after one had Davened Musaf?

6)

(a)'The order of blowing, our Mishnah says, is three consisting of three by three'. The meaning of ...

1. ... three - is three sets, one for Malchuyos, one for Zichronos and one for Shofros.

2. ... three by three - is three notes (for each set), Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah.

(b)The minimum length of ...

1. ... a Teki'ah - is the same as that of a Teru'ah.

2. ... a Teru'ah - is three minimal blasts. (Note: this is Rashi's opinion. According to Tosfos and many other Rishonim, who describe a Yebava as, not just one minimal blast, but a set of three minimal blasts, both a Teru'ah and a Teki'ah need to comprise at least nine minimal notes - see Tosfos).

(c)Someone who blows a double-length Teki'ah at the end of one set of notes, intending the prolonged note to serve as the first Teki'ah of the next set as well as the last Teki'ah of the last one - will be Yotzei the latter, but not the former.

(d)According to the our Mishnah, if a Shofar became available only after one had Davened Musaf - then one would blow the nine notes of Chiyuv then.

7)

(a)According to the Tana Kama, every individual is obligated to Daven himself. What does Raban Gamliel say?

7)

(a)According to the Tana Kama, every individual is obligated to Daven himself (because it is logical, explains the Ran, that Tefilah must be a personal experience, and not that one relies on someone else to render one Yotzei). Raban Gamliel says that the Shatz may nevertheless render everyone Yotzei.

8)

(a)How do we reconcile our Mishnah (which gives the Shi'ur Teki'ah as being the equivalent of three Teru'os) with the Beraisa, which says 'Shi'ur Teki'ah k'Shi'ur Teru'ah'?

(b)Our Mishnah gives the Shi'ur Teru'ah as being three Yebavos. What does the Beraisa say?

(c)Their Machlokes is based on the Targum Onkelos on the Pasuk "Yom Teru'ah Yihyeh Lachem". How does Onkelos translate it?

(d)The interpretation of the Targum is based, in turn, on the Pasuk in Shoftim "b'Ad ha'Chalon Nishkefah va'Teyabev Em Sisra". What are the two possible translations of "v'Teyabev"?

8)

(a)We explain our Mishnah (which gives the Shi'ur Teki'ah as being the equivalent of three Teru'os) - to really mean that the Shi'ur of three (out of the six) Teki'os in one set is the equivalent of the three Teru'os of that set. In effect, that is what the Beraisa says 'Shi'ur Teki'ah k'Shi'ur Teru'ah'.

(b)Our Mishnah gives the Shi'ur Teru'ah as being three Yebavos. The Beraisa says that it is the same as the length of three Shevarim (which are slightly longer than the three minimal Teru'os.

(c)Their Machlokes is based on the Targum Onkelos' translation of the Pasuk "Yom Teru'ah Yiheyeh Lachem", which is - "Yom Yebava Yehei Lachem".

(d)The interpretation of the Targum is based, in turn, on the Pasuk in Shoftim "b'Ad ha'Chalon Nishkefah va'Teyabev Em Sisra" - meaning either slightly longer sighs (Shevarim), or slightly shorter 'staccato-like' sobs (Teru'ah. [We will elaborate further on the following Amud]).

9)

(a)In what connection does the Torah write in Behar "v'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah ba'Chodesh ha'Shevi'i"?

(b)How do we learn from there that one must also blow the Shofar on Rosh Hashanah?

(c)And how do we learn from there that a Teru'ah must be ...

1. ... preceded by a Teki'ah on Yom Kippur of the Yovel?

2. ... followed by a Teki'ah?

(d)And how do we know that both of these apply to the blowing on Rosh Hashanah, too?

9)

(a)The Torah writes in Behar "v'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah ba'Chodesh ha'Shevi'i" - in connection with Yom Kippur of the Yovel?

(b)We learn that one must also blow the Shofar on Rosh Hashanah - from the Hekesh of "ba'Chodesh ha'Shevi'i" (which implies that all blowing of the seventh month is done in the same way).

(c)We learn from there that a Teru'ah must be ...

1. ... preceded by a Teki'ah on Yom Kippur of the Yovel - from the Pasuk there "v'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah", since "v'Ha'avarta" implies a long note).

2. ... followed by a Teki'ah - from the Pasuk that follows "Ta'aviru Shofar".

(d)We know that both of these apply to the blowing on Rosh Hashanah too - from the same Hekesh (of "ba'Chodesh ha'Shevi'I").

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