ROSH HASHANAH 23 (2 Sivan) - This Daf has been dedicated in memory of Harry Bernard Zuckerman, Baruch Hersh ben Yitzchak (and Miryam Toba), by his children and sons-in-law.
 
12th CYCLE DEDICATIONS
 
ROSH HASHANAH 21-25 - Dedicated in memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and is missed dearly by his family and friends. His Yahrzeit is 5 Teves.

1)

(a)Rav Yehudah lists four species of cedars: cedar, Afarsemon-wood, box-wood and Kasros. Rav interprets Kasros as Adra. What is 'Adra'?

(b)d'Bei Rav Shilo say 'Mavliga', whilst others say 'Gulmish'. What are they referring to?

1)

(a)According to Rav Yehudah, there are four species of cedars: cedar, balsam, box-wood and Kasros. Rav interprets Kasros as Adra - (a fruit-less tree with many branches).

(b)d'Bei Rav Shilo say 'Mavliga', whilst others say 'Gulmish' - two other suggestions as to what it might be.

2)

(a)According to Rabah bar Rav Huna quoting Amri Bei Rav there are many more species of cedar-trees. What is the common source for most of these?

(b)The Pasuk in Yeshayah lists Erez (cedar), Shitah (pine) and Hadas (myrtle), Brosh (box-wood) and Tidhar (fir). How many more trees does the Navi quote?

(c)Rav Dimi quotes the Rabanan as having added another three: Alonim (elm), Almonim (oak) and Almogim (coral). What is the significance of Aronim (laurel) and Armonim (chestnut), still mentioned in the Sugya?

2)

(a)According to Rabah bar Rav Huna quoting Amri Bei Rav, there are many more species of cedar-trees. The common source for most of these - is the Pasuk in Yeshayah, as we shall now see.

(b)The Pasuk in Yeshayah lists Erez (cedar), Shitah (pine) and Hadas (myrtle), B'rosh (box-wood) and Tidhar (fir) - plus another two: Etz-Shemen (Afarsemon [balsam]) and Te'ashur (seven, all in all).

(c)Rav Dimi quotes the Rabanan as having added another three - Alonim (elm), Almonim (oak) and Almogim (coral) - others add Aronim (laurel) and Armonim (chestnut) in place of the first two.

3)

(a)Rav explains how they would use a huge barge to procure the coral from the sea-bed. How did they set about doing that?

(b)Some maintain that such an operation required six thousand men working for twelve months. What do others say?

(c)How much more precious was coral than silver?

(d)Two Syrian ports dealt with coral. What type of cargo did the one Persian port deal with?

(e)The Persian port was called 'Parvasa d'Meshamhig'. What does this mean?

3)

(a)They would use a huge barge to procure the coral from the sea-bed. They set about doing that - by filling it with sand until it sunk to the sea-bed (in fairly shallow water). Then they would send strong swimmers into the water with ropes, which they would tie to the coral. Finally, they would empty the boat of all the sand, and it would rise to the surface, pulling the coral from its roots and raising it to the surface.

(b)Some maintain that such an operation required six thousand men working for twelve months. According to others - it required twelve thousand men working for six months.

(c)Coral was worth - twice as much as silver.

(d)Two Syrian ports dealt with coral - the Persian port dealt with pearls.

(e)The Persian port was called 'Parvasa d'Meshamhig' meaning 'the Royal Port.

4)

(a)In the Pasuk "Eten ba'Midbar Erez, Shitah ... ", what does "ba'Midbar" refer to?

(b)What does Rebbi Yochanan learn from this Pasuk?

(c)To what does he compare anyone who studies Torah but does not teach it?

(d)In the second version of Rebbi Yochanan's statement, what does he say about someone who learns Torah and teaches it to others in a place where there are no Talmidei-Chachamim?

4)

(a)In the Pasuk "Eten ba'Midbar Erez, Shitah ... " - "ba'Midbar" refers to Yerushalayim.

(b)Rebbi Yochanan learn from this Pasuk - that Hash-m will eventually return each and every tree that the Nochrim took out of Yerushalayim.

(c)He also compares anyone who studies Torah but does not teach it - to a myrtle in the desert (which is useless in its location).

(d)In the second version of Rebbi Yochanan's statement - he says that someone who learns Torah and teaches it to others in a place where there are no Talmidei-Chachamim is precious like a myrtle in the desert (which is rare).

5)

(a)What does Rebbi Yochanan ask after quoting the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Tachas ha'Nechoshes Avi Zahav ... "?

(b)And what does he learn from the Pasuk in Yoel "v'Nikeisi Damam Lo Nikeisi"?

5)

(a)After quoting the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Tachas ha'Nechoshes Avi Zahav ... ", Rebbi Yochanan asks - what will the Nochrim bring instead of Rebbi Akiva and his colleagues?

(b)And from the Pasuk in Yoel "v'Nikeisi Damam Lo Nikeisi" he learns - that even if Hash-m is willing to forgive the Nochrim for the other sins that they committed, He will never forgive them for spilling the blood of the martyrs.

23b----------------------------------------23b

6)

(a)The last mountain on which they waved the torches was Beis Biltin (also known as Biram). How long would the Sheluchei Beis-Din continue waving the it there?

(b)What is meant by 'the Golah'?

(c)What is the significance of Charim, Kayar, Geder and other towns mentioned by Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar, in a Beraisa?

(d)What are the two ways of understanding this Beraisa?

6)

(a)The last mountain on which they waved the torches was Beis Biltin (also known as Biram), where they would continue to wave it - 'until they saw the whole of the Golah before them resembling a bonfire' (because all the residents of the Golah would then climb onto their rooftops and do likewise.

(b)The Golah refers to - the border town of Pumbedisa.

(c)Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar, in a Beraisa - adds Harei Mechayar and Geder and other towns to the list of the mountains where they would wave the torches ...

(d)... according to some, these were mountains in between those listed in the Mishnah; according to others, they formed a line from a different part of Eretz Yisrael to the Golah.

7)

(a)What was the distance between any two mountains on the Tana's list?

(b)What do the Pesukim in Hoshea "Lachen Hineni Sach es Darkech b'Sirim ... " and in Eichah "Nesivosai Ivah" help us to understand?

7)

(a)The distance between any two mountains on this list - was eight Parsah (thirty-two Mil - a Mil is approximately a kilometer).

(b)The Pesukim in Hoshea "Lachen Hineni Sach es Darkech b'Sirim ... " and in Eichah "Nesivosai Ivah" help us to understand - why it is that nowadays, the distance between those spots is longer than thirty-two Mil.

8)

(a)When the witnesses arrived in Yerushalayim to testify, our Mishnah explains, they would all assemble in 'Beis Ya'azek'. What was Beis Ya'azek?

(b)When did the witnesses gather there, and why?

(c)Why did they organize large parties for them there?

8)

(a)All the witnesses who went to Yerushalayim to testify that they had seen the new moon would gather in 'Beis Ya'azek' - a large courtyard ...

(b)... where they would gather on Shabbos, waiting for the Beis-Din to cross-examine them (see 8a. See also Tosfos Yom-Tov).

(c)They organized large parties for them there - to encourage them to come again, should they see the new moon again.

9)

(a)Initially, the witnesses were not permitted to move from Beis Ya'azek all day. Why not?

(b)What Takanah did Raban Gamliel institute?

(c)Who else did this Takanah incorporate, other than the witnesses who came from outside the Techum to testify on the new moon?

9)

(a)Initially, the witnesses were not permitted to move from Beis Ya'azek all day - because, seeing as they had come from outside the Techum, they were forbidden to walk more than four Amos (the house or courtyard in which one is, is considered to be four Amos).

(b)Raban Gamliel instituted - that the witnesses should be allowed to go two thousand Amos in all directions.

(c)This Takanah extends - to a midwife who came to deliver a baby, and to someone who came to save someone from a fire, attackers, a river or from a building that collapsed.

10)

(a)Based on two Pesukim , we query as to whether the courtyard is called 'Beis Ya'zek' or 'Beis Yazek' (without an Ayin). What does the former mean (based on the Pasuk in Yeshayah "va'Ye'azkeihu va'Yesakleihu")?

(b)And what does the latter mean (based on the Pasuk in Yirmeyahu "v'Hu Asur ba'Zikim") - see Tosfos DH 'O Dilma'?

(c)How do we try and resolve the uncertainty from the fact that they arranged big feasts for them there?

(d)Why in fact, is there no proof from there?

10)

(a)Based on two Pesukim in Yeshayah and Yirmiyah, we are uncertain as to whether the courtyard is called 'Beis Ya'zek' or 'Beis Yazek' (without an Ayin). According to the Pasuk in Yeshayah "va'Ye'azkeihu va'Yesakleihu" - 'Beis Ya'zek' means encircled by a circular wall.

(b)And based on the Pasuk in Yirmeyahu "v'Hu Asur ba'Zikim" - it means chained (because they were confined to such a small space).

(c)We try and resolve the uncertainty from the fact that they arranged big feasts for them there - implying that their environment was not unpleasant.

(d)We conclude that there is no proof from there however - because who says that both facts are not correct?! They were hemmed in on the one hand, and enjoyed fine parties on the other.

11)

(a)In which order did Beis-Din question ...

1. ... the pairs of witnesses?

2. ... each individual pair of witnesses? Were the two witnesses both present at the cross-examination?

(b)If the first pair of witnesses was accepted, what was the point of continuing to question the other pairs?

(c)Why is the new moon never seen in the middle of the day?

(d)They would ask the witnesses whether they had seen the moon in front of the sun or behind it, and whether it was to the north of the sun or to the south. Which other three questions would they ask them?

11)

(a)Beis-Din questioned ...

1. ... the pairs of witnesses - on the basis of 'first come, first served'.

2. ... the senior witness in each pair of witnesses was questioned first. Whilst the first witness was being cross-examined, the second one was sent out of court.

(b)Even if the first pair of witnesses was accepted, they would continue to ask the other witnesses key questions about their testimony - in order that they should not become despondent (at having come all that way for nothing).

(c)The new moon is never seen in the middle of the day - because it is so small and so pale, that the glare of the sun renders it invisible.

(d)They would ask the witnesses whether they had seen the moon in front of the sun or behind it, whether it was to the north of the sun or to the south - how high in the sky it was, in which direction it was pointing and how wide it was.

12)

(a)How do we initially understand the question (that they asked the witnesses) 'in front of the sun or behind it'?

(b)What problem do we have with this?

12)

(a)Initially, we understand the question (that they asked the witnesses) 'in front of the sun or behind it' - to mean 'whether the moon reached the north ahead of the sun, or whether it got there only after it'.

(b)The problem with this is - that it is merely a repetition of the question whether it is to the north of the sun or to the south.

13)

(a)How does Abaye explain the question (to solve the problem)?

(b)What is the purpose of the question? What if the witnesses reply 'in front of the moon'?

(c)And he bases this on a statement of Rebbi Yochanan. What does Rebbi Yochanan learn in this regard, from the Pasuk in Iyov "Hamshel va'Fachad Imo, Oseh Shalom bi'Meromav" regarding the sun and ...

1. ... the moon?

2. ... the rainbow?

13)

(a)To solve the problem, Abaye explains the question as - whether the P'gam (the broken [i.e. the dark]part of the moon) was facing towards the sun, or away from it.

(b)'The purpose of the question is - to ascertain whether the witnesses are telling the truth; because if they say 'in front of the moon', his testimony is thrown out of court.

(c)And he bases this on a statement of Rebbi Yochanan, who learns in this regard, from the Pasuk in Iyov "Hamshel va'Fachad Imo, Oseh Shalom bi'Meromav", that the sun never saw the broken part ...

1. ... of the moon - (in order not to embarrass the latter).

2. ... the rainbow (so that nobody will be able to say that the sun is shooting arrows at those who do not believe in its divine powers).

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