12th CYCLE DEDICATIONS
 
ROSH HASHANAH 21-25 - Dedicated in memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and is missed dearly by his family and friends. His Yahrzeit is 5 Teves.

1)

(a)What did Levi say when he arrived in Bavel from Eretz Yisrael on the eleventh of Tishrei, and found the Bnei Bavel eating?

(b)Why did they then ask him to testify that today was Yom-Kippur in Eretz Yisrael?

(c)On what grounds did he decline to do so?

(d)Then how could he be certain that that day was indeed Yom-Kippur in Eretz Yisrael?

(e)In which months was it necessary to hear the declaration directly from the Beis-Din, in order to testify in Chutz la'Aretz?

1)

(a)When Levi arrived in Bavel from Eretz Yisrael on the eleventh of Tishrei and found the Bnei Bavel eating - he asked them whether the food that they were eating on the Yom Kippur of Eretz Yisrael tasted good.

(b)They then asked him to testify that today was Yom-Kippur in Eretz Yisrael - to ascertain that this was the case (and they would have stopped eating immediately).

(c)He declined to do so however - on the grounds that he had not heard directly from the Beis-Din of Eretz Yisrael that it was Rosh Chodesh.

(d)He was certain that that day was indeed Yom-Kippur in Eretz Yisrael - because Rosh Hashanah had fallen on the thirty-first day of Elul, and could not have been postponed by even another day.

(e)It was only necessary to hear the declaration directly from the Beis-Din - in the months of Nisan and Tishrei in order to testify.

2)

(a)What decree did Rebbi Yochanan issue with regard to places which the Sheluchim were able to reach in Nisan, but not in Tishrei?

(b)On what grounds did he have occasion to be angry with Rebbi Ayvu bar Nagri and Rebbi Chiya bar Aba in this regard?

2)

(a)Rebbi Yochanan issued a decree - that places which the Sheluchim were able to reach in Nisan, but not in Tishrei, had to observe two days even in Nisan, for fear that they will otherwise extend the concession of keeping one day, to Sukos.

(b)He became angry with Rebbi Ayvu bar Nagri and Rebbi Chiya bar Aba - when one Pesach they arrived in a place where the Sheluchim were able to reach in Nisan, but not in Tishrei, and despite the fact that they were his disciples, they said nothing when the residents of that place observed only one day Yom-Tov.

3)

(a)Why did Rava used to fast for two successive days on Yom Kippur?

(b)What happened one year?

(c)What did the man from Damharya inform Rav Nachman one Motzei Yom Kippur?

(d)What is the connection between this episode and Rav Nachman's ...

1. ... statement 'Dam Tehei Achariso'?

2. ... quoting of the Pasuk in Eichah "Kalim Hayu Rodfeinu"?

3)

(a)Rava used to fast for two successive days on Yom Kippur - in case the Beis-Din in Eretz Yisrael declared Rosh Chodesh (and Rosh Hashanah) only on the thirty-first day of Elul, in which case, Yom Kippur would fall one day later.

(b)One year he was vindicated - when that is precisely what happened.

(c)The man from Damharya informed Rav Nachman one Motzei Yom Kippur - that Beis-Din in Eretz Yisrael had declared Rosh Chodesh (and Rosh Hashanah) only on the thirty-first day of Elul.

(d)The connection between this episode and Rav Nachman's statement ...

1. ... 'Dam Tehei Achariso' (meaning that that man had endangered his life by making him fast for two consecutive days) lies in the fact that his town 'Damharya' was also the acronym of those three words.

2. ... quoting of the Pasuk "Kalim Hayu Rodfeinu" - lies in the implication that the man had testified so soon after nightfall that he hadn't even had a chance to break his fast.

4)

(a)Rav Huna bar Avin instructed Rava that, when the Tekufah of Teves lasts until the sixteenth of Nisan, he should declare a leap-year without hesitation. Why might he otherwise have hesitated?

(b)The Pasuk in Re'eh writes "Shamor es Chodesh ha'Aviv". What is meant by ...

1. ... "Chodesh"?

2. ... "Aviv"? Why is it referred to as 'Aviv'?

(c)What do we learn from the fact that they are placed together in the Pasuk?

(d)If the Tekufah fell on the fifteenth, it would not comply with the Pasuk's requirements, either. In that case, why would it not then be necessary to declare a leap-year?

4)

(a)Rav Huna bar Avin instructed Rava that, when the Tekufah of Teves lasts until the sixteenth of Nisan, he should declare a leap-year without hesitation. He might otherwise have hesitated - because that is the individual opinion of Acherim, with whom the Chachamim disagree.

(b)The Pasuk writes "Shamor es Chodesh ha'Aviv".

1. ... "Chodesh" - refers to the first fourteen days of the month (as long as the moon is still 'new').

2. ... "Aviv" - refers to the day of the Tekufah (the spring equinox), which is referred to as 'Aviv', to indicate that it is speaking about the Tekufah of the sun, on which the ripening of the corn fully depends.

(c)From the fact that they are placed together in the Pasuk - we learn that if the day of the Tekufah falls after that (from the sixteenth of Nisan and onwards), it is necessary to fix a leap-year.

(d)If the Tekufah fell on the fifteenth, it would not comply with the Pasuk's requirements, either. Nevertheless, it would not then be necessary to declare a leap-year - because one could still put things right by making Adar a full month (thereby delaying Nisan by one day).

5)

(a)What instructions did Rav Nachman give the sailors with regard to burning their Chametz? How would they know when to perform this Mitzvah?

(b)Until which day in the month is the moon not normally visible after sunrise?

(c)How could Rava instruct the sailors to destroy their Chametz on the first day of Pesach?

5)

(a)Rav Nachman instructed the sailors - that as soon as they saw the moon still shining at sunrise, they should burn their Chametz.

(b)The moon is not normally visible after sunrise - until the fifteenth of Nisan.

(c)Nevertheless, Rava was not telling the sailors to destroy their Chametz on the first day of Pesach - because in mid-ocean, where visibility is unobstructed, everything is clearer, and the moon can be seen at sunrise already from the fourteenth.

21b----------------------------------------21b

6)

(a)On which months were the witnesses permitted (even obligated, if necessary) to desecrate the Shabbos min ha'Torah?

(b)Seeing as Chazal permitted the breaking of Shabbos in Nisan and Tishrei, because the Sheluchim went out to Surya (a sign that these months were important - see Tiferes Yisrael), why did they not also incorporate the other four months listed in the previous Mishnah (regarding the Sheluchim) in this ruling?

(c)Why, when the Beis Hamikdash stood, did the Chachamim not forbid Chilul Shabbos on all the other months, like Raban Yochanan ben Zakai did after the Churban?

6)

(a)The witnesses were permitted (even obligated, if necessary) to desecrate the Shabbos - on all months min ha'Torah (see Tosfos DH 'Al').

(b)Chazal confined the breaking of Shabbos to Nisan and Tishrei however, because the Sheluchim went out to Surya (a sign that these months were important). They nevertheless declined to incorporate the other four months listed in the previous Mishnah (regarding the Sheluchim) in this ruling - because their main consideration was the fact that the entire institution of Yom-Tov depends on Nisan and Tishrei (but not on the other four months).

(c)When the Beis Hamikdash stood, the Chachamim did not forbid Chilul Shabbos on all the other months, like they did after the Churban - because of the Musaf offering, which had to be brought in its right time.

7)

(a)In which way would the Chilul Shabbos of the witnesses affect the time that the Sheluchim had to travel in Nisan and Tishrei?

(b)Why was this not the case with regard to their departure in the other months?

(c)Regarding the other months, in which case, besides the one that we just described, were the Sheluchim permitted to leave even before hearing the declaration of Beis-Din?

7)

(a)The Chilul Shabbos of the witnesses affected the time that the Sheluchim had to travel in Nisan and Tishrei - because, had the witnesses not broken Shabbos, Beis-Din would only be able to declare Rosh Chodesh on the following day, and the Sheluchim would not be able to leave until Sunday (after they had heard Beis-Din's declaration), thereby delaying their departure by at least one night.

(b)This was not the case with regard to their departure in the other months - because the Sheluchim did not need to hear the Beis-Din's declaration before leaving, as we already learned. Consequently, had the witnesses not been permitted to break Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh would have had to have occurred on Sunday, the thirty-first, and the Sheluchim would anyway have been permitted to leave immediately on Motzei Shabbos.

(c)Regarding the other months, besides the case that we just described, the Sheluchim were permitted to leave even before hearing the declaration of Beis-Din - if the moon was seen on the thirtieth of the month, in the middle of the sky, and it was obvious that Rosh Chodesh would be declared that day.

8)

(a)In the Pasuk in Emor "Eileh Mo'adei Hash-m Asher Tikre'u Osom b'Mo'adam, what do we learn from ...

1. ... "b'Mo'adam"

2. ... "Tikre'u"?

(b)Who was the one to initiate stopping the Chilul Shabbos of the witnesses with regard to the other ten months?

8)

(a)From the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Eileh Mo'adei Hash-m Asher Tikre'u Osom b'Mo'adam ..." - we learn that to ensure that Rosh Chodesh is declared in its right time, one may even break Shabbos (as is always implied when various forms of the word "Mo'ed" are used).

2. ... "Asher Tikre'u Osom" - we learn that it is only to ensure that the months are declared on time (i.e. for the witnesses to go to Beis-Din) that over-rides Shabbos, but not their fulfillment (i.e. regarding the Sheluchim going to Chutz la'Aretz).

(b)The one to initiate stopping the Chilul Shabbos of the witnesses by the other ten months was - Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai.

9)

(a)According to the Tana Kama of our Mishnah, the witnesses would break the Shabbos, even if the moon was seen in the middle of the sky. Why might we have thought otherwise?

(b)What does Rebbi Yosi Hagelili say?

(c)What did Rebbi Akiva once do when forty pairs of witnesses arrived in Lud on their way to Yerushalayim?

(d)What message did Raban Gamliel send him?

9)

(a)According to the Tana Kama of our Mishnah, the witnesses would break the Shabbos, even if the moon was seen in the middle of the sky. We might have thought otherwise - because seeing as there will be plenty of witnesses in Yerushalayim itself, where breaking the Shabbos is not necessary, why should one break Shabbos unnecessarily?!

(b)Rebbi Yosi Hagelili says - that if the moon was seen in the middle of the sky, one may not break Shabbos.

(c)When forty pairs of witnesses once arrived in Lud on their way to Yerushalayim - Rebbi Akiva stopped them from proceeding further, because he considered the Chilul Shabbos unnecessary.

(d)Raban Gamliel sent him a message - that by stopping all those people from going to Yerushalayim, he would cause them to abstain from going on subsequent occasions (when they might be needed), thereby causing them to sin.

10)

(a)What does the Pasuk in Tehilim mean when it describes the words of Hash-m as "ba'Alil la'Aretz Mezukak Shiv'asayim"?

(b)What does Rebbi Avahu prove from this Pasuk?

(c)How many 'Gates of Understanding' are there?

(d)Rav and Shmuel argue over the Pasuk in v'Zos ha'Berachah "v'Lo Kam Navi Od k'Moshe" (as we shall see shortly). What does one of them learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim "va'Techasreihu Me'at me'Elokim"? To whom does this Pasuk refer?

(e)What is the connection between this and the Pasuk in Tehilim quoted by Rebbi Avahu?

10)

(a)When the Pasuk in Tehilim describes the words of Hash-m as "ba'Alil la'Aretz Mezukak Shiv'asayim" it means - that they are 'clear for all to see'.

(b)Rebbi Avahu proves from this Pasuk - that 'ba'Alil' in our Mishnah means that the moon was in the middle of the sky, 'clear for all to see'.

(c)The 'Gates of Understanding' number - fifty.

(d)Rav and Shmuel argue over the Pasuk in v'Zos ha'Berachah "v'Lo Kam Navi Od k'Moshe" (as we shall see shortly). One of them learns from the Pasuk "va'Techasreihu Me'at me'Elokim" - that Hash-m gave Moshe forty-nine of those gates.

(e)The connection between this and the Pasuk in Tehilim quoted by Rebbi Avahu - lies in the last two words "Mezukak Shiv'asayim" which also hint at the forty-nine levels attained by Moshe (since "Shiv'asayim" implies seven x seven).

11)

(a)Who was Koheles?

(b)According to the above explanation, what did Shlomo ha'Melech mean when he wrote "Bikesh Koheles Limtzo Divrei Chefetz"?

(c)What did a Bas-Kol answer him ("v'Chasuv Yosher Divrei Emes")?

(d)According to the other opinion, (who says 'bi'Nevi'im lo Kam, bi'Melachim Kam') what was Shlomo's request?

(e)And what did the Bas-Kol then answer him?

11)

(a)Koheles was - Shlomo.

(b)According to the explanation of either Rav or Shmuel, Shlomo ha'Melech requested of Hash-m to allow him to attain the level of Moshe Rabeinu ("Bikesh Koheles li'Metzo Divrei Chefetz").

(c)A bas-Kol answered him - "v'Lo Kam Navi Od b'Yisrael k'Moshe".

(d)According to the other opinion, (who says 'bi'Nevi'im Lo Kam, bi'Melachim Kam') - Shlomo asked to be able to judge straight from the heart (without witnesses and without warning).

(e)They answered him - with the Pasuk "al Pi Shenayim Eidim ... Yakum Davar".

12)

(a)According to Rebbi Yehudah in a Beraisa, it is inconceivable for Rebbi Akiva to have held back the forty pairs of witnesses in Lud. According to him, it was Zefer. Who was Zefer?

(b)And how did Raban Gamliel react, according to Rebbi Yehudah?

12)

(a)According to Rebbi Yehudah in a Beraisa, it is inconceivable for Rebbi Akiva to have held back the forty pairs of witnesses in Lud. According to him, it was Zefer - the mayor of Lud who did it.

(b)Raban Gamliel reacted - by deposing Zefer from his important position.

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