Rosh Hashanah Chart #7
Chart for Rosh Hashanah Daf 33b
THE LENGTH OF THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF SHOFAR SOUNDS (1)
|1||THE TERU'AH||3||9 (2)||9 (6)||3|
|3||9||4.5 (5)||9 (7)|
(1) The length of the Shofar sounds is measured by "Turmitin." A "Turmit" is one brief blast of the Shofar, or a "Yevava" as the Gemara calls it. Thus, if a "Teki'ah" sound has to be 9 "Turmitin" long, for example, that means that it is one long blast that lasts the same amount of time that it would take to blow 9 short sounds. If a "Teru'ah" has to be 9 "Turmitin" long, that means that it is actually 9 brief blasts.
(2) These Rishonim maintain that a "Yevava" is 3 "Turmitin," and not 1 "Turmit" as Rashi says.
(3) Each single Shever must be longer than a single Teru'ah, for the Shever resembles a drawn out cry and not a short whimper. However, one cannot prolong each Shever as long as 3 "Turmitin," because then it would be called a Teki'ah, since it would be the same length as the Teki'ah which precedes the Teru'ah (3 Turmitin). Therefore, each Shever must be only 2 "Turmitin," making the total length of the three Shevarim 6 "Turmitin." This is the opinion of TOSFOS. However, the HAGAHOS ASHRI permits blowing Shevarim which are each 3 "Turmitin" long, since the Shevarim are not longer than the Teki'os that accompany them, which are each 9 "Turmitin." The RAMBAN in Derashos also permits blowing a Shever of 3 "Turmitin," since he holds that the Shevarim blasts are broken (i.e., they have two tones, one high and one low, in each) which makes it clear that they are not a Teki'ah (see Insights)
(4) One must blow at least three SHevarim. One who wishes to add more Shevarim may do so (RABEINU CHANANEL, TOSFOS). So, too, one may blow extra Teru'os and longer Teki'os.
(5) This is because the Rambam holds that when the Mishnah says that the "length of a Teki'ah is like a Teru'ah," it refers to the combined length of the two Teki'os -- the one before the Teru'ah and one after. The Mishnah is saying that together the two blasts of Teki'ah are equal to the length of a Teru'ah.
(6) The Rambam does not explicitly mention the length of a Teru'ah. The MAGID MISHNAH, though, writes that the Rambam premusably holds that the Teru'ah is 9 "Turmitin." However, the RAMBAN (in Derashos) understands that according to the Rambam, the Teru'ah is 3 "Turmitin," for, as RASHI explains, a Yevava is one "Turmit" and a Teru'ah is 3 Yevavos. According to this, the Teki'ah that precedes the Teru'ah, according to the Rambam, is only 1.5 "Turmitin!" (See previous footnote, #5.) Furthermore, it is worth noting that the Rambam does not clearly write how many Teru'os must be blown. He mentions "three Shevarim," but does not mention any number when he mentions "Teru'ah." Indeed, Yemenite Jews make no break in their Teru'ah; rather, it is one continuous blast that quivers -- "Yeluli Yalil" (whimpering). This is also the way the ITUR explains (cited in the TUR 590). This might be the intention of RABEINU CHANANEL here when he writes that the difference between the Teru'ah and the Shevarim is that between each of the Shevarim there is a break, while between the sounds of the Teru'ah there is no break (see Insights).
(7) According to the Ra'avad, the conclusion of the Gemara is that the length of the Teki'ah is not like the Teru'ah, except according to the opinion that says that the Teru'ah mentioned in the verse is that of Genuchi (drawn out cries, like our Shevarim). According to the opinion that says that the Teru'ah in the verse is "Yeluli" (whimpers, like our Teru'ah), the length of a Teki'ah is equal to the length of 3 Teru'os.
(8) According to RABEINU TAM (TUR 590), we interrupt with a breath between the Shevarim and the Teru'ah of the Shevarim-Teru'ah sound (that is why a full, single set of Teki'os is said to contain 30 sounds, and not just 27). However, according to the RAMBAN (in Derashos) and the ROSH here, we make no break between them, and they both are blown with a single breath. In practice, the SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 590:4) rules that we should do a compromise. We blow the Shevarim-Teru'ah sets of the first blowing ("d'Meyushav") with one breath, and we blow the Shevarim-Teru'ah sets of the second blowing ("d'Me'umad") with two separate breaths. According to the REMA, both sets are blown with two breaths. (In this case, the common practice even among Ashkenazi communities is like the Shulchan Aruch's ruling.)