ROSH HASHANAH 26-30 - Dedicated Dr. Shalom Kelman of Baltimore, MD. May the Zechus of helping thousands study the Torah provide a Refu'ah Sheleimah for his father, Dr. Herbert (Isser Chayim ben Itta Fruma) Kelman.

[30 - 49 lines; 30b - 42 lines]

1)[line 4]כדקתניKED'KETANI- as it is taught [in our Mishnah, which implies that there was one area in which Yerushalayim had an advantage over Yavneh]

2)[line 5]תוקעין יחידיןTOK'IN YECHIDIN- individuals [other than those appointed by Beis Din] may blow [Shofar]

3)[line 8]לא שמע איניש קל אוניה מקל תקועיא דיחידאיLO SHAMA INISH KAL UNEI MI'KAL TEKI'ASA [D'YECHIDA'EI]- one was unable to hear his own voice (lit. the sound of his ears) due to the sound of [Shofar] blasts [blown by individuals]

4)[line 10]בזמן בית דיןBI'ZMAN BEIS DIN- when Beis Din is in session [which is the first half of the day]

5)[line 16]"ביום הכפורים תעבירו שופר בכל ארצכם""B'YOM HA'KIPURIM TA'AVIRU SHOFAR B'CHOL ARTZECHEM"- "... on Yom ha'Kipurim [of the Yovel year] you shall blow a Shofar all throughout your land." (Vayikra 25:9)

6)[line 17]בזמן בית דיןBI'ZMAN BEIS DIN- when Beis Din is in session. Acording to this version, it is impossible to explain that the statement of Rav Huna refers to the presence of Beis Din, since regarding Yom ha'Kipurim of Yovel the verse specifies "all throughout your land."

7)[line 19]בגבוליןGEVULIN- the boundaries [of Eretz Yisrael; namely, anywhere other than the Beis ha'Mikdash]

8)[line 20]איתתאITESA- a woman

9)[line 20]וכל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא נשים פטורותKOL MITZVAS ASEH SHEHA'ZMAN GERAMA NASHIM PETUROS

Mitzvos that must be performed at a specific time, such as of the day (e.g. daytime only, such as Tzitzis) or year (e.g. Sukah, Lulav, and Shofar), are called Mitzvos Aseh sheha'Zman Gerama. Women are exempt from these Mitzvos, with the exception of Kidush on Friday night, Matzah on Pesach night, the Korban Pesach, Hakhel, and Simchah on Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos.

10)[line 22]שוה היובל לראש השנה לתקיעה ולברכותSHAVEH HA'YOVEL L'ROSH HASHANAH L'TEKI'AH VELA'BERACHOS- see Mishnah 26b and Background there, #64-65

11)[line 24]לא היו תוקעין אלא בבית דין שקידשו בו את החדשLO HAYU TOK'IN ELA B'VEIS DIN SHE'KIDSHU BO ES HA'CHODESH- they would blow [the Shofar] only in the court in which the month was declared. This Beraisa follows the opinion of Rebbi Elazar in our Mishnah, who maintains that Raban Yochanan ben Zakai decreed to blow Shofar on Shabbos in Yavneh only.

12)[line 33]אין תוקעיןEIN TOK'IN- [individuals] may not blow [the Shofar on Yom ha'Kipurim of Yovel (or on Rosh Hashanah, even in the presence of Beis Din; TOSFOS DH Ein)]

13)[line 34]ננערו לעמודNIN'ARU LA'AMOD- if [Beis Din] moved [in such a way that signified that they were about] to stand

14)[line 36]פרט ליושבת בנחלPRAT L'YOSHEVES B'NACHAL- to the exclusion of [a town] that resides in a valley [close to Yerushalayim, and yet is unable to actually see it due to the slope of the mountain upon which Yerushalayim is built]

15)[line 37]ליושבת בראש ההרYOSHEVES B'ROSH HA'HAR- [a town] that resides atop a mountain [close to Yerushalayim, and yet is unable to hear a Shofar blown within it due to its elevation]

16)[line 37]חוץ לתחוםCHUTZ L'TECHUM (TECHUM SHABBOS)

(a)See Background to Rosh Hashanah 23:54.

(b)Rebbi Akiva maintains that there is a Torah source for this Halachah. All other Tana'im disagree and rule that this limitation is Rabbinic in origin.

17)[line 38]למפסיק לה נהראMAFSIK LAH NAHARA- [a town] separated [from Yerushalayim] by a river [which one may not cross on Shabbos or Yom Tov]

18)[line 38]היה הלולב ניטלHAYAH HA'LULAV NITAL (ARBA'AS HA'MINIM)

(a)Every adult Jewish male must hold four types of branches or fruits on the first day of Sukos. These four species consist of Pri Etz Hadar (an Esrog; a citron, which is closely related to the lemon), Kapos Temarim (a Lulav; a branch from a palm tree cut prior to the opening and spreading of its leaves), Anaf Etz Avos (Hadasim; myrtle branches) and Arvei Nachal (Aravos; willow branches) (Vayikra 23:40). It is customary to hold one Esrog, one Lulav, three Hadasim, and two Aravos. The Esrog is held in the left hand, whereas the other three species are held together in the right.

(b)According to Torah law, these species must be taken only on the first day of Sukos anywhere but in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Once the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed, Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai decreed that all of Klal Yisrael should take them for all seven days of Sukos in commemoration of the way in which they were taken in the Mikdash.

19a)[line 38]במקדש שבעהB'MIKDASH SHIV'AH- in (a) the Beis ha'Mikdash (RASHI, BARTENURA, VILNA GA'ON); (b) Yerushalayim (RAMBAM, RIVEVAN Shekalim 3b) for [all] seven [days of Sukos]

b)[line 39]ובמדינה יום אחדB'MEDINAH YOM ECHAD- (a) anywhere in Eretz Yisrael outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash (RASHI); (b) anywhere in Eretz Yisrael outside of Yerushalayim (RAMBAM, RIVEVAN Shekalim 3b, VILNA GA'ON); (c) in Yerushalayim (BARTENURA) for [just] the first day [of Sukos]

20)[line 40]יום הנף כולו אסורYOM HANEF KULO ASUR (KORBAN HA'OMER)

(a)It is a Mitzvah to offer the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall following the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is then baked and offered as a Korban Minchah on the sixteenth of Nisan, which is also known as the Yom Hanef (the day of waving). This is because Tenufah - waving in the four directions of the compass as well as up and down - is performed with this Minchah. (This Korban is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim - Vayikra 2:14-16). A lamb is offered as an Olah along with the Minchah (Vayikra 23:12).

(b)Chadash refers to grain that begins to take root after the Korban ha'Omer is brought on the second day of Pesach. This grain may not be eaten until the following year's Korban ha'Omer is offered, as the Torah states in Vayikra 23:14. When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, Chadash may not be eaten until after the second day of Pesach, which is when the Korban Omer would have been offered.

(c)The verse (Vayikra 23:14) appears to designate two time periods for when Chadash may not be eaten: "until the sixteenth day of Nisan," and "until the Korban ha'Omer is offered." The former applies when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash and therefore no Korban ha'Omer, while the latter is in effect when applicable. Whether Chadash is permitted at the beginning or end of the sixteenth of Nisan when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash depends on whether the word "Ad" ("until") is understood to include the target of the phrase or not. This is the subject of a Tanaic dispute (see below, entry #30).

21)[line 41]"כי אעלה ארכה לך וממכותיך ארפאך נאם ה' כי נדחה קראו לך ציון היא דרש אין לה""KI A'ALEH ARUCHAH LACH, UMI'MAKOSAYICH ERPA'ECH, NE'UM HASH-M; KI NIDACHAH KAR'U LACH, TZIYON HI, DORESH EIN LAH."-"For I will raise a cure for you, and I will heal you from your injures, by the word of HaSh-m; for they called you 'cast-off; she is Tziyon, none seek her!'" (Yirmeyahu 30:17) - The Navi prophesies that after a long and bitter exile, HaSh-m will "heal" us. Although the nations of the world were acting as messengers of Divine justice to punish Klal Yisrael, they were never given the authority to refer to Yisrael as "rejected." Furthermore, since there was no objection when they did so, they attempted to destroy Yisrael completely (MALBIM). HaSh-m therefore promises to punish them at the time of redemption, measure for measure.

22)[line 42]מכלל דבעיא דרישהMI'CHLAL D'BA'AYA DERISHAH- this implies that one should seek [Tziyon]

23a)[line 44]אשתקדESHTAKAD- last year

b)[line 44]מי לא אכלנו בהאיר מזרח?MI LO ACHALNU B'HE'IR MIZRACH?- did we not eat [Chadash] beginning with dawn (see above, entry #20)?

24)[line 45]דמיבני אימת?D'MIVNI EIMAS?- when will [the Beis ha'Mikdash] be [re]built [such that Chadash will be prohibited for the entire sixteenth of Nisan]?

25a)[line 46]בשיתסרSHITSAR- [the middle of] the sixteenth [of Nisan]

b)[line 46]בחמיסרCHAMEISAR- the fifteenth [of Nisan]

26)[line 47]הרחוקיןHA'RECHOKIM- those who live [too] far [from Yerushalayim to know when precisely the Korban ha'Omer is offered]

27a)[line 48]סמוך לשקיעת החמהSAMUCH L'SHKI'AS HA'CHAMAH- close to sunset [on the fifteenth of Nisan].

b)[last line]בליליאB'LEILYA- on [the] night [prior to the sixteenth, in which case it will not be possible to prepare it early enough to offer it before midday (see above, entry #20:a)]. This appears to be the same answer as the previous one, stated slightly differently; see Insights to Sukah 41a.


28)[line 1]בשיטת רבי יהודהB'SHITAS REBBI YEHUDAH- according to the opinion expressed by [the Tana] Rebbi Yehudah [who lived a number of generations after Raban Yochanan ben Zakai]

29)[line 1]"[ולחם... לא תאכלו] עד עצם היום הזה""[V'LECHEM... LO SOCHLU] AD ETZEM HA'YOM HA'ZEH..."- "[And do not eat bread, roasted flour, or roasted grain] until that very day..." (Vayikra 23:14)

30)[line 2]עד ועד בכללAD V'AD BI'CHLAL (AD V'AD BI'CHLAL / AD V'LO AD BI'CHLAL)

The word "Ad" - "until" - has two possible meanings. It may include the target of the phrase (Ad v'Ad bi'Chlal), or it may include everything up to but not including the target of the phrase (Ad v'Lo Ad bi'Chlal).

31)[line 10]דרש והתקיןDARASH V'HISKIN- he expounded [the verse, and concluded that Chadash is prohibited by the Torah for the entire sixteenth of Nisan when there is no Korban ha'Omer] and decreed [accordingly, so that no one should mistakenly eat Chadash after midday as they did when the Beis ha'Mikdash still stood]

32)[line 11]עדות החדשEDUS HA'CHODESH

See Background to 18:21.

33)[line 12]נשתהוNISHTAHU- delayed

34)[line 12]ונתקלקלו הלוים בשירNISKALKELU HA'LEVIYIM B'SHIR (SHIR SHEL YOM)

(a)Shir refers to the song of the day. The Leviyim sing chapters of Tehilim as the Nesachim (wine libations; see below, entry #43) of a Korban Tzibur are poured. Those chapters sang over the offering of the Korban Tamid (see below, entry #41), both morning and night, correspond to those chapters that we currently recite as the Shir Shel Yom (Tamid 6:7). Musical instruments are played by the Leviyim to accompany their singing.

(b)On festivals, other chapters of Tehilim whose subject matter was connected to the Chag were substituted for the regular Shir Shel Yom (Maseches Sofrim 18:2-3, 19:2).

(c)On the first day that could possibly have been Rosh Hashanah, no one performed any Melachah since it was likely that witnesses would arrive that day and it would be declared Yom Tov. However, the Leviyim always recited the regular Shir Shel Yom while the morning Tamid was offered, since the witnesses rarely arrived before it was offered. On the year that the witnesses came late on that day, the Leviyim had already recited the regular Shir Shel Yom over the offering of the afternoon Tamid as well. This was a bungling of the special Rosh Hashanah Shir that should have been recited for the afternoon Tamid of Rosh Hashanah.

35)[line 13]עד המנחהAD HA'MINCHAH- until the offering of the afternoon Korban Tamid (see Background to Sukah 42:11)

36)[line 15]נוהגין אותו היום קודש ולמחר קודשNOHAGIN OSO YOM KODESH UL'MACHAR KODESH- they would treat both that day and the next as Rosh Hashanah. Since the witnesses were not accepted until the next day, the first day of Tishrei did not start until then. Furthermore, since Beis Din was fully aware that the day upon which the witnesses arrived would be the thirtieth of Elul, the remainder of that day (and for that matter, the whole day, retroactively) should not have been Kodesh. Yet, the decree of the Chachamim was that it should be treated as Rosh Hashanah along with the next day.

37)[line 17]שיהו מקבלין עדות החדש כל היוםSHE'YEHU MEKABLIN EDUS HA'CHODESH KOL HA'YOM- that [the original protocol should be followed and] they should accept witnesses the entire day [since there was no longer a Korban Tamid whose Shir could be bungled]

38)[line 18]הכאHACHA- here [in Bavel]

39)[line 22]פוק תני להוPUK TANI LEHU- go out and teach them [the following Beraisa]

40)[line 23]שהותSHAHUS- time

41)[line 24]תמידיןTEMIDIM (KORBAN TAMID)

The Korban Tamid consists of two male sheep which are less than one year old. One sheep is offered in the morning, known as the Tamid Shel Shachar, and the second - called the Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim - is offered in the afternoon. One tenth of an Eifah (approx. two quarts) of flour, mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approx. one quart) of hand-pressed olive oil, is offered with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering). One quarter of a Hin of wine is offered with each sheep as a wine libation. (Bamidbar 28:5).

42)[line 24]ומוספיןMUSAFIN (KORBAN MUSAF)

(a)Following the Korban Tamid, The Torah requires additional (Musaf) animals to be offered as public offerings on Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh, and the festivals. These are purchased with public funds, and are generally Korbenos Olah. Many of them atone for specific sins.

(b)The Tana'im disagree as to whether a Korban Musaf may be offered at any time of day, or whether it may be offered only through the seventh hour of the day (see Berachos 26b). It is generally offered during the sixth hour (see Rashi to Pesachim 58a DH Rebbi Yishmael).

(c)The Korban Musaf specified by the Torah to be offered on Rosh Hashanah consists of one bull, one ram, and seven sheep as Korbenos Olah, and one goat as a Korban Chatas. This is aside from the Korbanos Musaf offered on every Rosh Chodesh, which consists of two bulls, one ram, and seven sheep as Korbenos Olah, and one goat as a Korban Chatas.

43)[line 24]ונסכיהםNISKEIHEM (NESACHIM)

(a)Nesachim are wine libations offered along with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether these Korbanos are offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). All Nesachim are offered along with a meal offering known as a Minchas Nesachim.

(b)The amount of wine necessary for the libation, as well as the amount of flour and oil mixed together for the Minchas Nesachim, varies depending upon what kind of animal is being offered:

(c)The Minchah offering of a bull or cow uses 6 Lugin (1/2 Hin) of wine, 3 Esronim of flour and 6 Lugin (1/2 Hin) of oil. For a ram at least 13 months old, 4 Lugin (1/3 Hin) of wine, 2 Esronim of flour and 4 Lugin (1/3 Hin) of oil. For a lamb or goat within the first year of its life 3 Lugin (1/4 Hin) of wine, 1 Isaron of flour and 3 Lugin (1/4 Hin) of oil.

44)[line 25]שלא בשיבושSHE'LO B'SHIBUSH- in a non-bungled manner

45)[line 30]כהלכתוK'HILCHASO- as per its normal [weekday] procedure

46)[line 31]"הרנינו לאלהים עוזנו הריעו לאלהי יעקב""HARNINU LE'LOKIM, UZEINU; HARI'U LE'LOKEI YAKOV!"- "Let us praise HaSh-m, our strength; let us blow a Shofar to the G-d of Yakov!" (Tehilim 81:2)

47)[line 32]במנחהB'MINCHAH- during the offering of the Tamid Bein ha'Arbayim (see above, entry #41)

48)[line 32]"קול ה' יחיל מדבר""KOL HASH-M YACHIL MIDBAR"- "The voice of HaSh-m causes the desert to tremble...." (Tehilim 29:8) - This is reminiscent of the Shofar that was sounded when the Torah was given.

49)[line 34]שהשירה שלו הרנינו לאלהים עוזנוSHEHA'SHIRAH SHE'LO HARNINU LE'LOKIM UZEINU- for its Shir [sung during the morning Korban Tamid] is [always] "Harninu le'Lokim Uzeinu"

50)[line 36]וכופלKOFEL- repeat

51)[line 37]"הסירותי מסבל שכמו""HASIROSI MI'SEVEL SHICHMO"- "Who removes the burden [of servitude] from his shoulder...." (Tehilim 81:7) - This is reminiscent of Yosef ha'Tzadik's release from prison in Mitzrayim on Rosh Hashanah (see Daf 11a).