(a)One should not drink two cups of wine and set out on a journey. What can one do, to make this possible?
(b)Which two activities are as dangerous as setting out on a journey?
(c)Since the danger does not exist if one remains at home, why did Rava keep count of the number of cups that he drank, and why did Abaye's stepmother hold two cups at the ready whenever he drank one?
(a)It is safe to set out on a journey after having drunk two cups of wine - provided one went out to the main road between the first and second cup.
(b)Going to sleep and relieving oneself after two cups of wine are just as dangerous as setting out on a journey.
(c)Rava kept count of the number of cups that he drank, and Abaye's stepmother held two cups at the ready whenever he drank one (even when they remained at home) - because the demons will start up with Talmidei-Chachamim anyway.
(a)What does the Gemara prove from the fact that Chazal instituted ten cups of wine in the house of an Avel?
(b)What are ...
1. ... Rav Chisda and Rabah bar Rav Huna trying to prove when they say 'Shalom l'Tovah Mitztaref, v'Lo l'Ra'ah'
2. ... Rabah and Rav Yosef ... when they say the same about 'vi'Yechuneka', and
3. ... Abaye and Rava about 'v'Yishmerecha'?
(c)If drinking four cups of wine is not subject to Zugos (as some maintain), then why did Rava bar Liva'i come to harm after having drunk four cups of wine?
(a)The Gemara proves from the fact that Chazal instituted ten cups of wine in the house of an Avel - that Zugos goes only as far as the number eight, but not from ten and onwards.
1. ... When Rav Chisda and Rabah bar Rav Huna say 'Shalom l'Tovah Mitztaref, v'Lo l'Ra'ah' they are trying to prove that Zugos goes only as far as six, but not from eight and upwards (because 'Shalom', the seventh word in the final Pasuk of Birchas Kohanim, breaks the Zugos).
2. ... Rabah and Rav Yosef ... when they say the same about 'vi'Yechuneka' - are trying to prove that Zugos go only as far as four, and no further (because 'vi'Yechuneka' is the fifth word in the second Pasuk of Birchas Kohanim).
3. ... when Abaye and Rava say it about 've'Yishmerecha' - they are saying that Zugos stops at two, but does not apply to four or more (because 've'Yishmerecha' is the third word in the first Pasuk).
(c)Rava bar Liva'i came to harm, not because he drank four cups of wine - Rava maintains - but because he embarrassed him by querying him during his Derashah (Presumably, it is permitted to query the Darshan if it is to get a better understanding of what the Darshan said, but not if it is in order to catch him out).
(a)What did Ashmedai tell Rav Yosef about himself ...
1. ... according to the first Lashon?
2. ... according to the second Lashon?
(b)He also explained to Rav Papa the two distinctions between drinking two cups and four cups (even though he maintains that, on principle, Zugos does apply in both cases). What are they?
(a)Ashmedai told Rav Yosef ...
1. ... that he was King of the demons, that in that capacity, he was in charge of all cases of Zugos, and that a King is not a criminal (according to the first Lashon) - Perhaps he meant that he personally, would never do any damage .
2. ... according to the second Lashon, he told him quite the opposite: that he was a quick-tempered king, who did whatever he wished, since a king has the right to break down walls should they impede his progress.
(b)The demons will kill after two cups, Ashmedai told Rav Papa, but not after four; in addition, they will strike after two cups, even if one drank Zugos inadvertently, whereas after four cups, only if one drank them deliberately.
(a)What should someone who sets out on a journey after inadvertently drinking two cups of wine, do, and what does he say?
(b)And what does one then say if the demon responds 'You and I make four'?
(c)What happened once when a similar battle of wits took place?
(d)Rishtinhi gave Ameimar some tips on how to neutralize a witch's power, should he meet one. Part of the nullification entails getting rid of the objects with which they cast their spells. Which two objects, besides their hair and bread are involved here, and what would happen to all four objects?
(a)Someone who set out for a journey after inadvertently drinking two cups of wine - should take his right thumb in his left hand, and his left thumb in his right hand, and say 'You and I make three'.
(b)Should he hear the demon respond 'You and I make four' - he should reply 'You and I make five'.
(c)It happened once, when a similar battle of wits took place - that the person persevered until a hundred and one, and the Demon died.
(d)Rishtinhi advised Ameimar to say, when he met witches - 'Hot dung in torn baskets will go into your mouths. May your hair fall out, may the wind scatter your crumbs, may your spices be scattered and may the wind scatter your fresh saffron' ...
(a)In Eretz Yisrael, they took no notice of Zugos. Rav Dimi went to the other extreme. He was even fussy about barrels. What does this mean?
(b)How did his fears materialize?
(c)The Gemara says that the demons strike at those who are fussy, but not at those who are not. Then why does the Gemara not ignore the issue of Zugos altogether?
(a)Rav Dimi was fussy even about the notches that the purchaser would carve on the barrel to know how many Eifah they had purchased. He would not allow them to carve an even number of notches.
(b)It appears that someone once carved an even number of notches, and the barrel broke.
(c)When the Gemara says that the demons strike at those who are fussy, but not at those who are not - it does not mean that Zugos does not apply at all, but that the demons are easier going with those who are not fussy, but one still needs to be careful (otherwise, why does the Gemara not just ignore the issue altogether?).
(a)According to Rav Dimi, Zugos is Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai, but only with regard to four foods. Why then, do we apply it to all foods?
(b)Which three foods are for sure Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai?
(c)The Gemara tells the story of the divorced woman who killed her ex-husband through witchcraft. Why did she fail initially, and to what was her ultimate success attributed?
(d)How do those who say that from four cups and onwards Zugos does not apply, explain this incident?
(a)According to Rav Dimi, Zugos is Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai, but only with regard to four foods, three of which we do know, the fourth of which, we do not. Consequently, Chazal decreed all foods because of that one.
(b)The three foods that we do know are eggs, nuts and cucumbers.
(c)The divorced woman initially failed to bewitch her ex-husband, because he always took care not to drink an even number of cups, until one day, when he was drunk - and that was when she got him.
(d)Those who say that from four cups and onwards Zugos does not apply - explain that nevertheless, witchcraft does.
(a)Why are plates of food and loaves not subject to Zugos?
(b)Why should there be a distinction between natural foods and those that are manufactured?
(c)What does Rav Chinena mean when he adds that Zugos does not apply to ...
1. ... Chanus?
2. ... Nimlach?
3. ... Orei'ach?
4. ... Ishah?
(d)Is Zugos never applicable to a woman?
(a)Plates of food and loaves not subject to Zugos - because Zugos does not apply to any food that is manufactured, only to natural foods.
(b)The reason for this is because the three foods that we know to be subject to Zugos are all natural foods, and not manufactured, so we assume that the same will apply to the fourth food.
(c)When Rav Chinena adds that Zugos does not apply to ...
1. ... 'Chanus' - he means that Zugos does not apply if one drinks one cup of wine in one shop, and a second cup in another shop.
2. ... 'Ore'ach' - he means that by a guest, who never knows whether they will serve him any more cups or not, is constantly a Nimlach (which we are about to explain).
3. ... 'Nimlach' - he means that whenever someone changed his mind and decided to eat or drink a second one, Zugos does not apply.
4. ... 'Ishah' - he means that the danger of Zugos does not apply to a woman, because she is considered like a guest.
(d)Zugos does apply to an important woman.
(a)What does the Gemara mean when it says that Ispargus (a beverage made of cabbage and wine) is 'Mitztaref l'Tovah, v'Eino Mitztaref l'Ra'ah'?
(b)What makes Ispargus different in this regard?
(c)Some say that, by (Safek) Zugos, one goes l'Chumra; others say l'Kula. What do both of these mean?
(d)Is it considered Zugos if one drinks ...
1. ... two cups of wine and one of beer?
2. ... two cups of beer and one of wine? What is the Siman by which to remember this distinction?
(a)Ispargus (a beverage made of cabbage and wine) is 'Mitztaref l'Tovah, v'Eino Mitztaref l'Ra'ah' - means that if someone drinks a cup of Ispargus after having drunk two cups - it removes the danger of Zugos; whereas if one drinks it after having drunk one cup, it will not create Zugos.
(b)Ispargus is different in this regard - because it is drunk as a cure, and can therefore not have any harmful effects (much like the Kos shel Berachah, which we discussed earlier).
(c)Some say that, by (Safek) Zugos, one goes l'Chumra - meaning that someone who is uncertain as to how many cups he has drunk, should drink another one, which will have the effect of combining with the two or four cups that he already drank (since he intends it to do so; it will not however, combine with one or three cups (since he does not want it to). Others say that one goes Lekula, and refrains from drinking any more cups - because, as we learned earlier, if he is not fussy, perhaps the Demons will not bother with him either.
1. Two cups of wine and one of beer - is not considered Zugos.
2. Two cups of beer and one of wine - is. The Siman for this is 'Zeh ha'Klal: Kol ha'Mechubar Lo Min ha'Chamur Mimenu, Tamei (and wine, which is more precious than beer, is considered more Chamur), Min ha'Kal Mimenu, Tahor'.
(a)Rav Nachman quoting Rav differentiates between someone who drank two cups before the meal and one during the meal, and someone who drank one cup before the meal and two during the meal. What is the difference?
(b)What is Rav Mesharshaya's objection to that?
(c)From where does the Gemara know that, according to everybody (even Rav Mesharshaya), one cup after the meal will not rectify the two cups that one had during the meal?
(a)According to Rav Nachman quoting Rav, someone who drank two cups before the meal and one during the meal - the third cup combines with the first two, to remove the threat of Zugos; whereas if he drank one cup before the meal and two during the meal - the cup that he drank before the meal will not remove the threat of Zugos from the two cups that he drank during the meal (since he drank Zugos during the meal).
(b)We are concerned not about remedying the table, asks Rav Mesharshaya, but the person. Consequently, it makes no difference whether he drank the two cups before the meal and the third cup during the meal or vice-versa; either way, the third cup should remove the threat of Zugos.
(c)Even Rav Mesharshaya will agree however, that one cup after the meal will not rectify the two cups that one drank during the meal - this we know from the episode brought in ha'Socher es ha'Po'alim, where they had to bring the table back for Rabah bar Nachmeini to drink a third cup, to dispel the danger of Zugos, implying that, had they not done so, the third cup would have been ineffective (since it was drunk after the meal).
(a)According to Rav Yehudah Amar Rav, a cup of diluted beverage will combine with one or two cups of diluted wine (for better or for worse). How about diluted water?
(b)What is diluted water?
(c)What does Rebbi Yochanan say about this?
(d)In which case will even Rebbi Yochanan agree that water will not combine?
(a)According to Rav Yehudah Amar Rav, a cup of any diluted drink will combine with one or two cups of diluted wine (for better or for worse) - except for water.
(b)Diluted water means a mixture of hot and cold water.
(c)Rebbi Yochanan says that even diluted water combines with other diluted drinks.
(d)Rebbi Yochanan agrees that pouring hot water into hot or cold water into cold, is not called diluted in this regard.