THINGS THAT WARM THE EVER
(Abaye): Kohanim who ride on camels may not eat Terumah. (This heats the Ever. We are concerned lest they had emissions.)
Support (Beraisa): All men who ride on camels are Resha'im. All shipdrivers are Tzadikim. (Dangers at sea make them turn to Hash-m.) Donkey-drivers are mixed:
Version #1: Those who ride with saddles are Tzadikim. (The Ever is not warmed.) Those who ride without saddles are Resha'im.
Version #2: Those who ride with their legs apart are Resha'im (the Ever is warmed.) Those who ride with both legs to one side are Tzadikim.
R. Yehoshua ben Levi cursed one who sleeps Perakdan (Rashi - on his back, lest he have an erection and it will be noticeable. Alternatively, perhaps his hands (Rashbam - garment) will warm the Ever. Aruch - Perakdan is face down. This warms the Ever.)
Question: Rav Yosef taught, one should not recite (before sleeping) "Shma Yisrael... " in a position of Perakdan.
Inference: One should not recite Shma while Perakdan, but he may sleep Perakdan!
Answer: Rav Yosef forbids reciting Shma even when leaning slightly to the side, but one may sleep that way.
Question: R. Yochanan would recite Shma this way!
Answer: He was stout. (It was hard for him to turn totally onto his side, therefore he was permitted to lean slightly.)
IF BLOOD IS FOUND AFTER BI'AH
(Mishnah): Benos Yisrael prepare two cloths for Bedikos after Bi'ah, one for her, and one for him. (Perhaps she saw blood and it came on his Ever);
Tzenu'os prepare a third cloth to check themselves beforehand.
If blood is found on his cloth, they are both Teme'im. (Surely he was Bo'el Nidah.) Each must bring a Korban;
If she checked herself Osyom (immediately after Bi'ah) and found blood, they are both Teme'im and bring Korbanos;
If she did a Bedikah later and found blood, they do not bring a Korban. Their Tum'ah is Safek. (He is Safek Bo'el Nidah. She is surely Nidah now, but perhaps she was not during Bi'ah);
Later means after the time to get off the bed and clean the area (of her Ervah).
If blood is found on her cloth after this, the 24 hours apply to her, and he is not (even Safek) Bo'el Nidah;
R. Akiva says, he is (Safek) Bo'el Nidah.
Chachamim admit that if she finds a Kesem, he is a Bo'el Nidah.
(Gemara) Question: (If blood is found on her cloth Osyom), why are they definitely Tamei? Perhaps the blood came from a louse!
Version #1 - Answer (R. Zeira): The place (of Ervah) is (surely free of lice. It is as if it was) checked.
Version #2 - Answer (R. Zeira): The place is Dachuk (tight. It is hard for lice to enter. Therefore, we are not concerned.)
Question: What is the difference between these answers?
Answer: If a squashed louse was found on the cloth (away from the blood):
If the place is considered checked, we assume that the louse came from elsewhere (after Bi'ah. The blood must be from her);
If it is Dachuk, we assume that the Ever pushed the louse in (and it was mashed during Bi'ah. The blood is from it.)
IF THE CLOTH WAS NOT CHECKED IMMEDIATELY
(Rav): If a woman checked herself with a checked cloth (she knows that it was clean) and slapped it on her thigh, and the next day found blood on her thigh (our text, Rashi; R. Chananel - on the cloth), she is a Nidah.
Rav Simi bar Chiya: You told us that she only suspects lest she is a Nidah! (Perhaps other blood was on her thigh.)
(Shmuel and Rabanan of the Beis Medrash): She is a Nidah.
(Rav Yosef): If a woman checked herself with an unchecked cloth and put it in a box, and the next day found blood on it, R. Chiya used to say that she is Teme'ah. At the end of his days he said that she is Tehorah.
Question: Did he used to say that she is (definitely) Nidah, and at the end of his days he said that she is Teme'ah (like one who found a) Kesem (i.e. Safek Nidah)?
Or, did he used to say that she is Teme'ah Kesem, and at the end of his days he said that she is (definitely) Tehorah?
Answer (Beraisa - Rebbi): If a woman checked herself with an unchecked cloth and put it in a box, and the next day found blood on it, she is Nidah;
R. Chiya says, she is Teme'ah Kesem.
R. Chiya: Don't you agree that she is Teme'ah only if the blood covers the area of a bean (like the law of a Kesem)?
Rebbi: I agree.
R. Chiya: If so, you should agree that she is Teme'ah Kesem!
Rebbi holds that since more than the area of a bean was found, surely it came from her.
Summation of answer: This dialogue was at the end of R. Chiya's life (when he was Rebbi's colleague. Earlier, he would have addressed Rebbi with a title of respect, in place of 'you'.)
Rebbi told R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi that Rav Chama bar Bisa is a great Chacham.
R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi (to Rav Chama): Ask me something!
Question (Rav Chama): If a woman checked herself with an unchecked cloth and put it in a box, and the next day found blood on it, what is the law?
R. Yishmael: Should I tell you my father's opinion, or Rebbi's?
Rav Chama: Tell me Rebbi's.
R. Yishmael: A great Chacham would prefer to hear the opinion of the teacher (R. Yosi), and not of the Talmid (Rebbi)!
Rav Chama held that because Rebbi headed the academy, he was always around Chachamim, so he became a bigger Chacham than R. Yosi.
Question: What was the argument of R. Yosi and Rebbi?
Answer (Rav Ada bar Masnah): Rebbi is Metamei, and R. Yosi is Metaher.
(R. Zeira): Rebbi is Metamei like R. Meir, and R. Yosi is Metaher according to his own opinion;
(Beraisa - R. Meir): If a woman urinated and saw blood:
If she was standing, she is Teme'ah. (The urine passes by the Makor.) If she was sitting, she is Tehorah;
R. Yosi says, in either case she is Tehorah.
Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina said that R. Meir considers her Teme'ah Kesem, and Rebbi considers her a (proper) Nidah!
Answer (Rav Ashi): We hold that R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina says that R. Meir considers her a Nidah.
IF SHE FOUND BLOOD LATER
(Mishnah): If blood is found on her cloth Osyom, they are both Teme'im...
(Beraisa): Shi'ur Veses (Osyom) is the time needed for the Ever to leave the entrance, and for the cloth to enter immediately.
Within Shi'ur Veses, it is possible to do Kinu'ach, but not a Bedikah.
(Mishnah): If blood is found on her cloth later... (they are exempt from a Korban).
Contradiction (Beraisa): They must bring an Asham Taluy.
Resolution: The Tana of our Mishnah exempts, for he holds that Asham Taluy applies only when there were two objects (involved in the Safek. One is permitted, and the other is forbidden with Kares, and one ate (or had Bi'ah with... ) one of them.)
(Mishnah): "Later" (is after the time to get off the bed and clean the area).
Contradiction (Beraisa - R. Eliezer bar Tzadok): "Later" is the time to stretch her hand and take a cloth from under the pillow or blanket, and do a Bedikah.
Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): (The Mishnah said that if blood is found on her cloth after Osyom, they are Safek Teme'im.) It then teaches that the Safek Tum'ah of "later" is limited. If she delayed the time to get off the bed... , he is Tahor.
Question (a Beraisa explaining our Mishnah): If blood is found on her cloth later, they do not bring a Korban, and their Tum'ah is Safek;
"Later" means after the time to get off the bed and clean the area.
Answer: It means that "later" is the time to stretch her hand and take a cloth from under the pillow or blanket and do a Bedikah;
If she delayed the time to get off the bed and clean the area, R. Akiva and Chachamim argue (about his Tum'ah).
Question: The Mishnah says "after this"! (They argue about after the time to get off the bed and clean the area.)
Answer: It means that this is the later time that R. Akiva and Chachamim argue about (the time to get off the bed... )
Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Both of these refer to the same amount of time:
If the cloth is already in her hand, it is the time to get off the bed and clean the area;
If she is not holding a cloth, it is the time to stretch her hand and take a cloth from under the pillow or blanket and do a Bedikah.