WAGES FOR TEACHING TORAH
Answer: He teaches that even where wages are paid both for teaching written Torah and Medrash, one may take only for written Torah, but not for Medrash.
Question: Why can't he take for Medrash?
Answer: Moshe said "Hash-m commanded me to teach you" and "I taught you statutes and laws like Hash-m commanded me";
Just like I taught you for free, you must teach for free.
Question: This should show that one must teach also written Torah for free!
Answer #1 (Rav): One may receive wages for guarding (young) Talmidim (who learn written Torah).
Answer #2 (R. Yochanan): One may receive wages for teaching the cantillation.
Question (Mishnah): Reuven may not teach to Simchah written Torah.
We understand this according to R. Yochanan,
But according to Rav, does one pay for watching an adult?!
Answer: The case is, Simchah is a minor.
Objection (Seifa): He may teach to Simchah's children written Torah.
If Simchah is a minor, he cannot have children!
Answer: The Mishnah is abbreviated. The full Mishnah says: Reuven may not teach to Simchah written Torah. This is when Simchah is a minor. If Simchah is an adult, Reuven may teach to him and his children.
Question (Beraisa): Children do not learn new things on Shabbos, but they may do (even) the first review of what they learned.
This is like the opinion that wages are taken for teaching the cantillation. (Therefore, only the first time is forbidden, for then the Rebbi is paid.)
But if wages are for guarding the children, why do we forbid new things and permit review? The same wages for guarding them apply when they review!
Counter-question: This is difficult even if wages are for the cantillation. One may receive wages for work done on Shabbos, together with wages for work done during the week!
(Beraisa): If one hired a worker to guard (for the needs of Hekdesh) a child, a red heifer, or crops, he does not receive wages for Shabbos. Therefore, if they were lost (or became Tamei, on Shabbos), he is exempt;
If he was hired by the week, month, year or Shemitah cycle, he receives wages for Shabbos. Therefore, he must pay if they are lost.
Answer #1 (to question and counter-question): Rather, they do not learn new things on Shabbos, so that their fathers can enjoy Shabbos with their children.
Answer #2: They do not learn new things on Shabbos because they are less alert, because they eat and drink more.
(Shmuel): Change in routine is the start of intestinal sickness.
COMPONENTS OF WRITTEN TORAH
Question: Why didn't R. Yochanan answer like Rav?
Answer: One need not watch girls (they do not normally go outside, nevertheless one may receive wages for teaching them. Some texts say 'one need not watch adults' (Ran).)
Question: Why didn't Rav answer like R. Yochanan?
Answer: Rav holds that the cantillation is also mid'Oraisa.
(Rav): "They read in the Sefer Torah of Hash-m" refers to the written Torah;
"Explicitly" refers to the (Aramaic) translation;
"They put their minds" refers to the divisions into verses;
"And they understood the written Torah" refers to the cantillation;
Some say that this refers to the tradition of extra or missing letters.
(R. Yitzchak): The following are traditions from Moshe from Sinai: vowelization; embellishments in the text; and words that are read but not written, or written but not read. The following are examples:
Vowelization - when "Eretz" has the cantillation Asnachta, it is pronounced "Aretz." We read "Shamayim", "Mitzrayim", not 'Shamim, Mitzrim'.
Embellishments in the text - "after(wards) you will pass", "After" is there only to beautify the wording.
Words which are read but not written - "Paras" (in "In his going...").
Words that are written but not read - "Na" (in "Forgive...").