GIVING TO ONE WHO MAY NOT GET BENEFIT
Question (against Rava - Beraisa): If Levi asked Shimon 'Lend to me your cow (or axe)' and Shimon responded 'my cow (or axe, or my property) is forbidden to you if I own another one':
If it was found that Shimon owned another; his cow (or axe or property) is forbidden to Levi in Shimon's lifetime. If Shimon died or it was given to Levi for a gift, it is permitted.
Answer (Rav Acha brei d'Rav Ika): Shimon gave it to someone else, and that person to Levi.
Support (Rav Ashi): The Beraisa says 'Nitnu' (it was given) to him, not 'Nasno' (he gave it).
DOES ME'ILAH APPLY TO KONAMOS?
Question (Rava): If one transgressed a Konam (a vow forbidding an object like Hekdesh), did he transgress Me'ilah?
Answer #1 (Rav Nachman - Mishnah): In a place where people receive money for returning an Aveidah, this amount is given to Hekdesh.
(We do not say that the money should be thrown to the sea.) This suggests that Konamos are like Hekdesh. Just like Me'ilah applies to Hekdesh, it applies to Konamos.
Answer #2: Tana'im argue about this:
(Beraisa - R. Meir): If one said 'Konam, this loaf is Hekdesh', anyone who eats it transgresses Me'ilah. Therefore, the loaf can be redeemed;
If one said 'Konam, this loaf is to me Hekdesh' and he eats it, he transgresses Me'ilah. If anyone else eats it he does not transgresses Me'ilah, therefore it cannot be redeemed;
Chachamim say that in either case there is no Me'ilah. Me'ilah never applies to Konamos.
Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rav Avya): If Reuven said to Shimon 'my loaf is forbidden to you', and then Reuven gave it to Shimon (who did not know that it was forbidden), who transgresses Me'ilah?
Reuven does not, for it is not forbidden to him!
Shimon does not, for he can say that he accepted only what is permitted, not what is forbidden!
Answer (Rav Ashi): Shimon transgresses when he will give it to someone else.
Anyone who transfers ownership of Hekdesh, thinking that it is Chulin, transgresses Me'ilah. This applies to Shimon!
ARE KOHANIM SHLUCHIM OF YISRAEL?
(Mishnah): (If Simchah is Mudar Hana'ah from Reuven,) Reuven may separate Terumah and Ma'aser for Simchah with Simchah's knowledge. (If Reuven is a Kohen,) he may offer for Simchah bird-offerings of a Zav or Zavah or a woman who gave birth, Chata'os and Ashamos;
Reuven may teach to Simchah Medrash, laws and Agadeta (non-Halachic teachings), but not written Torah.
He may teach written Torah to Simchah's children.
(Gemara) Question: Are Kohanim (serving in the Mikdash) Sheluchim (agents) on behalf of us (Yisraelim), or on behalf of Hash-m?
This affects the law of a Yisrael who is Mudar Hana'ah from a Kohen:
If they are our Sheluchim, a Kohen may not offer Korbanos for the Yisrael;
If they are Hash-m's Sheluchim, the Kohen may offer the Yisrael's Korbanos.
Answer (Mishnah): Reuven may offer for him bird-offerings of a Zav...
If he is Simchah's Shali'ach, he benefits him!
Objection: If he is a Shali'ach of Hash-m, the Mishnah should have said that he can offer for him (all) Korbanos!
Rather, we must say that Mechusar Kipurim (Korbanos that certain Tamei people must bring before eating Kodshim) are different.
(R. Yochanan): Any Korban brought for Levi must be brought with Levi's consent. The only exceptions are Mechusar Kipurim, for a man brings them for his minor children (even though a child cannot bring for himself. We learn that the same applies to people who could bring for themselves);
"Zos Toras (this is the law of) ha'Zav" - (a Korban is required) whether he is an adult or minor.
Question: If so, R. Yochanan should also expound "Zos Toras ha'Yoledes" to apply whether she is an adult or minor. A minor cannot give birth!
(Rav Bivi - Beraisa): Three women use a wad to prevent pregnancy: a minor, a pregnant woman, and a nursing woman. (Rashi Yevamos 12b - they may use a contraceptive wad at the time of Bi'ah. Tosfos - this is forbidden! Rather, they must use a wad after Bi'ah to remove the semen.)
A minor does so, lest she become pregnant and die.
Answer: R. Yochanan expounds "Zos Toras ha'Yoledes" to include whether she is sane or insane.
A man brings Korbanos for his wife if she is insane, like R. Yehudah taught:
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): A (rich) man brings the Korban of a rich person on behalf of his wife. He brings all Korbanos she is obligated to bring;
In the Kesuvah, he obligated himself to do so - 'All obligations that you have from before are upon me.'