[4a - 45 lines; 4b - 35 lines]

1)[line 3]רשותRESHUS- that which is [by definition] voluntary

2)[line 3]יצא קציר העומרYATZA KETZIR HA'OMER (KORBAN HA'OMER)

(a)It is a Mitzvah to offer the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall following the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is then baked and offered as a Korban Minchah on the sixteenth of Nisan, which is also known as the Yom ha'Nef (the day of waving). This is because Tenufah - waving in the four directions of the compass as well as up and down - is performed with this Minchah. (This Korban is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim - Vayikra 2:14-16). A lamb is offered as an Olah along with the Minchah (Vayikra 23:12).

(b)Chadash refers to grain that begins to take root after the Korban ha'Omer is brought on the second day of Pesach. This grain may not be eaten until the following year's Korban ha'Omer is offered, as the Torah states in Vayikra 23:14. When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, Chadash may not be eaten until after the second day of Pesach, which is when the Korban Omer would have been offered.

(c)Rebbi Yishmael maintains that the verse in question teaches us that harvesting on Shabbos is similar to plowing; just as the type of plowing prohibited on Shabbos is, by definition, not obligatory, so, too, is the harvesting prohibited on Shabbos. This excludes the barley harvest for the Korban ha'Omer, which may be accomplished on Shabbos.

3)[line 5]ילדהYALDAH- young [trees]; saplings

4)[line 9]מדאורייתא בטיל להוMID'ORAISA BATIL LEHU- nullified [the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai] based upon a Biblical source


(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of these is Gezeirah Shavah, through which two identical words (or two words that share the same root) appearing in two different sections of the Torah teach us that Halachos of one apply to the other and vice versa.

(b)One may apply a Gezeirah Shavah only if he has received a tradition from his teachers that the connection between the two words exists. Once the connection is established, however, then one may apply it to derive Halachos that one did not necessarily receive a tradition for.

(c)A Gezeirah Shavah is unlimited; one may not pick and choose which Halachos he would like to apply to the other connected subject. This facet of a Gezeirah Shavah is termed "Ein Gezeirah Shavah l'Mechetzah." This rule is waived in the case of an explicit teaching that precludes the application of a specific Halachah.

(d)There are three possible configurations for a Gezeirah Shavah:

1.MUFNEH MI'SHNEI TZEDADIM - If both words are seemingly unnecessary and are not used in the derivation of any other teaching, then all of the rules described above apply.

2.MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If the word in only one of the sections is available, some maintain that such a Gezeirah Shavah is no more limited than one that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim. Others rule that Halachos may be derived from such a Gezeirah Shavah only if there is no argument against them. This status is known as "Lemedin u'Meshivin."

3.EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If neither word is free, then those opinions who maintain that a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Tzad Echad is unlimited grant such a Gezeirah Shavah the status of Lemedin u'Meshivin. Those who applied Lemedin u'Meshivin to a Gezeirah Shavah that is Mufneh mi'Shnei Tzedadim rule that this one may not be used to determine any Halachos whatsoever.

(e)Our Gemara suggests that the source for Rebbi Yochanan's assertion that Raban Gamliel was able to repeal the law of Tosefes Shevi'is is a Gezeirah Shavah that he drew between the Shemitah year, which is referred to as "Shabbos" (Vayikra 25:4), and the Shabbos that occurs every week.

6)[line 10]משבת בראשיתSHABBOS BEREISHIS- the Shabbos of Creation; i.e., that which it is forbidden to perform Melachah every seventh day

7)[line 13]אתיא גזרה שוה עקרה הלכתא גזרה שוהASYA GEZEIRAH SHAVAH, AKRAH HILCHESAH?- Can a Gezeirah Shavah come and uproot a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai? [One may not originate a Gezeirah Shavah! (See above, entry #5:b)]

8)[line 24]מי גשמים גופייהו לידי מי קילון אתוMEI GESHAMIM GUFAIHU L'YEDEI MEI KILON ASU- drawing from pools of rainwater directly leads to [strenuous] drawing of water with a bucket [when the level of stored water falls]

9)[line 27]האגמיםAGAMIM- swamps

10)[line 28]מר אית ליה דרבי זיראMAR IS LEI D'REBBI ZEIRA- (a) Rav Ashi agrees with Rebbi Zeira (RASHI, RITVA, and others); (b) Rebbi Yochanan agrees with Rebbi Zeira (RABEINU CHANANEL) (see Insights)

11)[line 32]פסקיPASKEI- cease [to flow]

12a)[line 32]הפסיקותPESIKOS- pools of [collected rain]water

b)[line 32]והבריכותBEREICHOS- pools of [collected rain] water

13)[line 33]אמת המיםAMAS HA'MAYIM- a water channel

14)[line 33]מותרMUTAR- it is permitted [to irrigate the field from the pools of collected rainwater, since even should they run dry one has the option of continuing to irrigate from the water channel, which does not involve strenuous work

15)[line 14]שותה מאותה אמת המיםSHOSEH ME'OSAH AMAS HA'MAYIM- can be irrigated from that water channel [at once before it dries up]

16)[line 35]דקא משכא ואתיאKA MASHCHA V'ASYA- they continuously flow

17)[line 36]בריכה שנוטפת מים משדה בית השלחין זוBEREICHAH SHE'NOTEFES MAYIM MI'SADEH BEIS HA'SHELACHIN ZU- a pool into which water drips from a [spring-watered] field requiring irrigation [situated above it]

18)[line 37]בית השלחין אחרתBEIS HA'SHELACHIN ACHERES- another field requiring irrigation [situated below the upper one, next to the pool]

19)[line 38]עבידאAVIDA- it is fashioned such

20)[line 38]והוא שלא פסק מעיין ראשוןV'HU SHE'LO PASAK MA'AYAN RISHON- and [additionally] the upper spring must not have ceased [to flow]

21)[line 39]ערוגותARUGOS- garden plots

22)[line 39]לא ידלהLO YIDLEH- one may not draw (lit. lift) [water on Chol ha'Mo'ed, since it requires a strenuous effort]

23)[line 41]נמוךNAMUCH- [situated on] low [ground]

24)[line 42]לייפותןL'YAPOSAN- to improve their quality

25)[line 44]ליתי מר לשמתיה!LEISI MAR L'SHAMTEI!- Mar (a third-person term of respect) should excommunicate him!


26)[line 1]שלופיSHELUFEI- thinning [crowded vegetables growing together]

27)[line 1]המידל בגפניםHA'MEIDEL B'GEFANIM- one who reduces the number of grapevines [growing in the same spot]

28)[line 7]בשל ענייםSHEL ANIYIM - those [grapes] belonging to the poor. This refers to either Pe'ah or Olelos:

(a)PE'AH - The "corner" of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor (Vayikra 19:9-10). This means that one must leave some of his produce unharvested. Mid'Oraisa one may leave any amount; however, the Rabanan fixed the minimal Shi'ur at one sixtieth of the field. It is praiseworthy to leave even more than this (Pe'ah 1:2). Pe'ah applies not only to produce grown in a field such as wheat, but also to fruit that grows on trees (Devarim 24:20). The laws of Pe'ah apply to any food item that grows from the ground, one wishes to retain for himself, is harvested all at once, and is kept in storage (Pe'ah 1:4).

(b)OLELOS - Olelos are incomplete grape clusters, upon which no grapes grow on the tip of the central stem, and the grapes growing from the stems branching off of the central stem do not lie upon one another. Such clusters must remain on the vine for the poor (Vayikra 19:10).

29)[line 7]בנכיBANKEI- circular irrigation ditches dug around the base of a grapevine or olive tree

30)[line 8]בדידיןBEDIDIN- circular irrigation ditches dug around the base of a grapevine or olive tree

31)[line 8]שבעיקריIKAREI- roots

32)[line 9]שראSHARA- permitted

33)[line 10]בר ציתאיBAR TZISA'EI- a town in Bavel. In many early printings, the Girsa read BEI BARTZISA (see Dikdukei Sofrim #70). This may possibly refer to the town of Borsif (see Shabbos 36a et. al.; also known as Borsippa), at that time at the edge of the Jewish settlement in Bavel. It was located some twenty miles south of the city of Bavel on the Euphrates River.

34a)[line 11]הא בחדתיHA B'CHADTEI- that [which it is forbidden to dig irrigation ditches] is referring to [digging] new ones

b)[line 11]הא בעתיקיHA B'ATIKEI- that [which it is permitted to dig irrigation ditches] is referring to [re-digging] old ones (which requires less effort)

35)[line 15]שמכשיר אגפיה לזריעהMACHSHIR AGAFEHA L'ZERI'AH- he has readied its banks for planting [by piling loose earth upon them]

36a)[line 18]דקא שקיל מיניהKA SHAKIL MINEI- he takes [earth] from it

b)[line 19]ושדי לבראיV'SHADI L'VERA'I- and throws [it far] outside

37)[line 21]בדוכתיה מנח ליהB'DUCHTEI MANACH LEI- he leaves it in place [since his intention is only to loosen it; therefore, one who throws earth he has dug up far from where he is digging is clearly not performing Idur)

38)[line 23]עושה אדם את זבלו אוצרOSEH ADAM ES ZIVLO OTZAR- one may gather his [animals'] dung [in a heap in his field] so as to store it [and he need not be concerned that it appears as if he is fertilizing his field on Shemitah

39)[line 24]שיעמיק שלשה טפחיםYA'AMIK SHELOSHAH TEFACHIM- he digs a three-Tefach-deep trench [to hold it, in which case it is obvious that it is not being used as fertilizer]

40)[line 25]דבר מועטDAVAR MU'AT- a small amount [of dung already in place]

41)[line 26]עד שיעמיק שלשהAD SHE'YA'AMIK SHELOSHAH- From the fact that Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah allows one to dig a trench for dung on Shemitah, it seems that he is not concerned that it appears as if he is hoeing. Why, then, does he not allow one to dig a water channel on Shemitah?

42)[line 27]שהעמיקHE'EMIK- he had [previously] dug [a trench before Shemitah began]

43)[line 27]זיבלו מוכיח עליוZIVLO MOCHI'ACH ALAV- [that which the trench is filled with] dung demonstrates [that it was not dug so as to loosen earth]

44)[line 28]שאם היתה עמוקה טפחIM HAYESAH AMUKAH TEFACH- if [the channel had originally been six Tefachim deep and then became clogged to the point that] it was [only] one Tefach deep

45)[line 29]חצי טפח על שלשה טפחיםCHATZI TEFACH AL SHELOSHAH TEFACHIM- [a channel that is now only] one half-Tefach [deep that originally measured] three Tefachim [deep before it became clogged]

46)[line 30]דלא עבר מיאLO AVAR MAYA- water did not pass through [easily even when it was unclogged]

47)[line 30]טפחייםTEFACHAYIM- two Tefachim

48)[line 32]דאיכא טפח יתיראIKA TIRCHA TEFEI- there is more effort [required to remove earth from seven Tefachim below ground level]

49)[line 32]תיקוTEIKU- (a) [this question shall remain] sealed in its container (ARUCH, Erech Tik); (b) let [the question] stand ("Tehei Ka'I"; MUSAF HA'ARUCH); (c) Tishbi Yetaretz Kushyos v'Ibayos - Eliyahu ha'Navi will answer difficulties and questions (TOSFOS YOM TOV, end of Eduyos) (all explanations cited by Pri Megadim, Igeres preceding his introduction to Orach Chaim, #9)

50)[line 33]בר (המדך) [המרך]BAR (HAMADACH) [HAREMACH]- a town in Bavel near Pumbedisa, on the delta of the Euphrates River

51)[line 33]לשחופי נהראSHACHUFEI NAHARA- (a) uproot tree branches growing in the river (RASHI); (b) deepen the river bed so that its waters flow more swiftly (NIMUKEI YOSEF

52)[line 33]סכותאSACHUSA- lit. lookout; a town in Eretz Yisrael. This may possibly refer to Mitzpah (see Background to Ta'anis 15:26).

53)[line 33]למיכרא נהרא טמימאMICHRA NAHARA TEMIMA- dig out the mouth of a spring that had become obstructed

54)[line 34]מתא מחסיאMASA MECHASYA- the city of Mechasya (probably a suburb of Sura)

55)[line 34]לאקדוחי נהר בורניץAKDUCHEI NAHAR BURNITZ- remove silt (thin mud) [that had formed a bank] from [the middle of] the Burnitz Canal (located in Bavel)