A PESUL IN SOME OF THE Lachmei Todah [Todah: Lechem :Pasul]
Question: (R. Yochanan holds that) if a Minchah became Chaser (lacking) between Kemitzah and Haktarah, we are Maktir the Kometz, but the Shirayim may not be eaten. Does this Haktarah fix (make it considered as if the Matir was offered properly to make) Pigul, and uproot Me'ilah from the Shirayim?
Answer #1 (Rav Huna): Even R. Akiva msays that Zerikah uproots Me'ilah only from Yotzei (Kodshim that left the Azarah), for it is intact, and an external cause is Posel it. He would agree that Zerikah does not help Chaser.
Objection (and Answer #2 - Rava): Just the contrary! Even R. Eliezer says that Zerikah does not uproot Me'ilah only from Yotzei, for it is outside. He would agree that Zerikah helps Chaser, for it is in the Azarah.
Retraction (Rava): A Beraisa disproves me.
(Beraisa): "Kodesh Kodoshim Hu" - if one of the loaves became Chaser, they are all Pasul.
Inference: In the case of Yotzei (all was intact, but part left the Azarah), the loaves remaining inside would be Kesherim!
This is like R. Akiva, who holds that Zerikah takes effect on Yotzei, but it does not take effect on Chaser!
Rejection (Abaye): The Beraisa does not say that if part was Yotzei, the loaves remaining inside are Kesherim. Rather, we infer that if some became Tamei, the Tahor loaves are Kesherim;
The Tehorim are Kesherim because the Tzitz is Meratzeh.
Indeed, if part was Yotzei, all the loaves are Pesulim. This is like R. Eliezer, who says that Zerikah does not help for Yotzei.
Really, the Beraisa should have taught also Yotzei. It taught Chaser, for this is a bigger Chidush. Even though the loaves are in the Azarah, Haktarah does not permit them.
According to R. Akiva, who says that Zerikah helps for Yotzei, Haktarah would permit (the remaining loaves when some were) Chaser.
46a (Beraisa): If loaves of Lachmei Todah became Chaser before Shechitah, new loaves are brought and the Todah is slaughtered.
If they became Chaser after Shechitah (but before Zerikah), Zerikah is done (l'Shem Shelamim), and the Todah is Kosher. Its meat is eaten, but the owner did not fulfill his vow. The bread is forbidden. If they became Chaser after Zerikah, Terumah (the Kohen's portion, one loaf from each kind) must be taken from full loaves to exempt (all the others, including) the broken ones,
If loaves left (Yerushalayim) before Shechitah, they are returned, and the Todah is slaughtered. If they left after Shechitah, Zerikah is done. The Todah is Kosher, the meat is eaten, the vow was not fulfilled, and the bread is forbidden. If they left after Zerikah, Terumah must be taken from bread that did not leave to exempt what left.
If loaves became Teme'im before Shechitah, more loaves are brought, and the Todah is slaughtered. If they became Teme'im after Shechitah, Zerikah is done. The Todah is Kosher, the meat is eaten; the vow was fulfilled because the Tzitz is Meratzeh , but the bread is forbidden. If they became Teme'im after Zerikah, Terumah must be taken from Tahor bread to exempt the Tamei.
Rambam (Hilchos Pesulei ha'Mukdashim 12:14): If a loaf of Lachmei Todah became Chaser, all of them are Pasul. If a loaf left or became Tamei, the other loaves are Kosher. If the bread became Chaser or Tamei or left before the Todah was slaughtered, he brings another loaf and slaughters. If the bread became Chaser, Tamei or left after Shechitah, we throw the blood and eat the meat. All the bread is Pasul; he was not Yotzei his vow. If some of the bread became Chaser, Tamei or left after Zerikah, he takes Terumah from a whole loaf to exempt what became Chaser, from Tahor to exempt the Tamei, and from what is inside to exempt what left.
Ra'avad: What is the case? If a loaf became Chaser before Shechitah, why are all Pasul? He can bring another loaf from his house to complete the loaves! If it became Chaser after Zerikah, he takes Terumah from a whole loaf to exempt the Chaser! Rather, it was between Shechitah and Zerikah. All the loaves are Pasul, whether one loaf became Chaser, Tamei or left, for all of these were taught together. There is no remedy for the loaves.
Kesef Mishneh: Rava inferred that if some loaves left, the loaves remaining inside would be Kesherim, according to R. Akiva. Even though Abaye rejected this, and said that perhaps it is like R. Eliezer, this is a mere Dichuy. Also, we hold like Rava. Since he is Machshir Yotzei, all the more so he is Machshir Nitmeis, for the Tzitz is Meratzeh. The Rambam explains that this refers to Lachmei Todah. Even though the Gemara brings a verse regarding Lechem ha'Panim, we learn from it to Lachmei Todah. It says so also about a Minchah. The Gemara says 'Shechitah helps'; this refers to a Todah.
Kesef Mishneh: The Ra'avad learns from the Beraisa (46a) that Chaser, Tamei and Yotzei have the same law. Even though Rava and Abaye both say that Yotzei or Tamei is different than Chaser, perhaps they had not heard the Beraisa. The Rambam does not like this answer. Rather, they knew the Beraisa, but derived that the Beraisa discusses different cases.
Achiezer (2 YD 41:2): The Kesef Mishneh explains that the first law in the Rambam is when a (only one loaf became Chaser, Tamei or Yotzei. (Rava and Abaye discussed this.) Afterwards, he discusses when 'its bread', i.e. all the loaves became Chaser, Tamei or Yotzei. The end of the Rambam again discusses when 'some of the bread' became Chaser, Tamei or Yotzei. The Ra'avad asked that if this was between Shechitah and Zerikah, the Beraisa said that all the bread is Pasul. We do not take Terumah from what is still Kosher on what became Pasul. The Kesef Mishneh answers that 12b proves that not all the bread is Pasul. 'We take Terumah from a whole loaf' cannot discuss when all the bread became Chaser after Zerikah, for then there is no whole loaf! It cannot discuss before Shechitah, for then there is no bread! (Further, the bread did not get Kedushas ha'Guf. We would redeem it, so it was not disqualified through leaving!) The Beraisa discusses when all the bread became Pasul only in the case of a Pesul between Shechitah and Zerikah. Then, all the bread is Pasul.
Achiezer (ibid.): I say that also the Rambam explains that the Beraisa applies even when part of the bread became Pasul. However, the Rambam holds that the Beraisa is like R. Eliezer, who holds that Zerikah does not help for Yotzei, but we hold like R. Akiva, that it does. This is clear from 12b. What is still inside is Kosher. Why did the Kesef Mishneh say that the Ra'avad must hold that Abaye and Rava had not heard the Beraisa? They can say that it is like R. Eliezer! Even though the Beraisa equates Tamei to Chaser, this is not difficult for Rava. The Beraisa holds like the opinion that the Tzitz is not Meratzeh for eating, like Tosfos says. The Ra'avad holds like the Shitah Mekubetzes (46a 18), that R. Akiva agrees regarding Todah that Zerikah does not help for Yotzei. He said that Zerikah helps only for Eimurim, but not for Lachmei Todah, which are not part of the animal itself. Zevachim 90a says that R. Akiva agrees about Shtei ha'Lechem, for it is not part of the sheep offered with it. The Ra'avad explains like Rashi that 12b discusses Lechem ha'Panim. For it, if one loaf became Chaser, all are Pasul (12b), but not if one was Yotzei. Haktarah of the frankincense helps (for what is still inside) like Zerikas Dam, but for Todah, Zerikah does not help for what is still inside (even) according to R. Akiva. The Rambam holds like he ruled (17:19), that intent for Pigul in the lambs brought with Shtei ha'Lechem is Mefagel the bread even if the bread is outside, since Zerikah helps for Yotzei even while it is outside. Since the Rambam says that Zerikas Todah helps for bread (that was Yotzei), he must say that the Beraisa is like R. Eliezer. He rules like R. Akiva and Rava.
Rambam (Hilchos Me'ilah 2:7): If the Shirayim of a Minchah became Pasul or Chaser, and then they were Maktir the Kometz, the Shirayim may not be eaten. It is a Safek whether this uproots Me'ilah.
Question (Keren Orah 12b DH Hadar): What was the Pesul? Zerikah helps for Yotzei, and similarly Haktarah helps. If it totally left, Me'ilah still applies, like we say about meat that totally left (3:1)! In 3:9 he says that if the Shirayim left or became Tamei and they were Maktir the Kometz, one may not eat the Shirayim, but there is no Me'ilah. We must say that only part of them left, like the Ri Korkus says. Here, the Rambam says that there is Safek Me'ilah! In Hilchos Pesulei ha'Mukdashim (11:20), he says that if some of the Shirayim were Yotzei or became Tamei, one may not eat any of them. This implies that Yotzei and Tamei have the same law as Chaser, so the question about whether Haktarah fixes Pigul and uproots Me'ilah applies also if part became Yotzei or Tamei. However, we hold that Zerikah helps even for what was Yotzei, and all the more so for what stayed inside! We must say that the Rambam holds that only regarding Lachmei Todah, what was not Yotzei or Tamei is Kosher, but a partial Pesul of Shirei Menachos disqualifies all the Shirayim, like we say (9b) 'not what remains from what remains.'
Likutei Halachos (12b Zevach Todah DH v'Chen): Even though the Gemara wrote this law regarding Lechem ha'Panim, the Rambam holds that it applies also to Lachmei Todah. We hold like Rava, and not like Abaye's rejection, especially since Rav Huna holds like Rava. However, if so, this settles the above question about whether Haktarah fixes for Pigul and uproots Me'ilah! The Rambam rules that it is Safek Pigul and Safek Me'ilah! Rather, it seems that since that question was not settled, also here the Rambam says that all the bread is Pasul due to Safek, like the Kesef Mishneh said (16:11).