[86a - 45 lines; 86b - 38 lines]
1)[line 2]שרףSERAF- a thin secretion of the olive
2)[line 4]מטבל [ביה]MATBAL BEI- he dips [his bread] into it
3)[line 4]וסימניך עשירים מקמציןV'SIMANACH ASHIRIM MEKAMTZIN- and the mnemonic device that you may use to remember which sage considers the Anpaktan oil and which sage does not, is "The rich squeeze [these undeveloped olives for oil]," indicating that Rebbi Shimon b'Rebbi, who was very wealthy, used the Anpaktan as oil. (This is actually a play on words, since the phrase may be interpreted as, "The rich are frugal," indicating that the rich may even make due with inexpensive substitutes such as the Anpaktan oil.)
4)[line 5]"[ובהגיע תר נערה ונערה לבא אל המלך אחשורוש מקץ היות לה כדת הנשים שנים עשר חדש כי כן ימלאו ימי מרוקיהן] ששה חדשים בשמן המור [וששה חדשים בבשמים ובתמרוקי הנשים]""[UV'HAGI'A TOR NA'ARAH V'NA'ARAH LA'VO EL HA'MELECH ACHASHVEROSH, MI'KETZ HEYOS LAH K'DAS HA'NASHIM SHENEIM ASAR CHODESH, KI CHEN YIMLE'U YEMEI MERUKEIHEN], SHISHAH CHODASHIM B'SHEMEN HA'MOR [V'SHISHAH CHODASHIM BA'BESAMIM UV'SAMRUKEI HA'NASHIM]." - "[Now when the turn of each maiden arrived to come to King Achashverosh, after she had completed her twelve-month make-up period that the women were allotted, for so were the days of her make-up period spent] six months with myrrh oil [and six months with perfumes and with women's cosmetics.]" (Esther 2:12) (The Maidens Prepare for their Interview with Achashverosh)
After Achashverosh's anger against Vashti abated, he remembered her beauty and longed for her. His courtiers therefore suggested that he appoint officers to gather all of the beautiful maidens in his kingdom to the palace, where they were to be placed in the royal harem under the care of Heigei. They were to be given all the perfumery they wanted, and to await their turn to be called before the king after a year's preparation.
5)[line 7]סטכתאSATACHTA- (O.F. balsme) balsam oil
6)[line 7]שמן זית שלא הביא שלישSHEMEN ZAYIS SHE'LO HEVI SHELISH- olive oil made from olives that have grown to only one third of their estimated final size
7)[line 9]אנפקנוןANPEKINON- this is Anpaktan of the Mishnah (RASHI, RASHI KESAV YAD). According to Rebbi Yehudah, it is olive oil made from olives that have grown to only one third of their estimated final size. The Mishnah (Menachos 85b) states that l'Chatchilah it may not be used for Menachos.
8)[line 10]שמשיר את השיערMESHIR ES HA'SEI'AR- it removes hair
9)[line 11]ומעדן את הבשרME'ADEN ES HA'BASAR- it rejuvenates the flesh
10)[line 13]שרויSHARUY- (a) olives that fell into water and remained there for a long time (RASHI to the Mishnah 85b, 1st explanation); (b) that were soaked in water in order to make them fit for extracting oil (RASHI ibid., 2nd explanation)
11)[line 13]ושל שמריםSHEL SHEMARIM- (O.F. bufet) oil extracted from the dregs of olives
12)[line 17]שלשה זיתים הןSHELOSHAH ZEISIM HEN- there are three qualities of olives
13)[line 19]מגרגרו בראש הזיתMEGARGERO B'ROSH HA'ZAYIS- (a) one who waits to pick the best olives at the top of his trees until they become fully ripe. "Megargero" refers to the Gargerim, "berries" of olives, the fully-ripe fruit (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) one who picks the olives at the top of his trees, which ripen first since the sun shines on them constantly. "Megargero" means to pick [olives berries] (RASHI, 2nd explanation, RASHI KESAV YAD)
14)[line 19]וכותשKOSESH- he crushes the olives
15a)[line 19]ונותן לתוך הסלNOSEN L'SOCH HA'SAL- he puts them into the straining basket
b)[line 20]סביבות הסלSEVIVOS HA'SAL- around [the sides, higher up on the walls of] the basket
16)[line 21]וטוען בקורהTO'EN B'KORAH- he places a beam upon them
17)[line 22]וטחןTACHAN- he grinds them
18)[line 23]מגרגרו בראש הגגMEGARGERO B'ROSH HA'GAG- (a) one who picks olives and lays them out on his roof to ripen and soften in the sun (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) one who picks the olives in the middle of his trees, which do not ripen as fast as the ones at the top of his trees. The words "b'Rosh ha'Gag" just indicate the height of the olives, in a case where the average olive tree grows higher than the average roof (RASHI, 2nd explanation, RASHI KESAV YAD).
19)[line 25]עוטנו בבית הבדOTNO B'VEIS HA'BAD- one who picks the olives at the bottom of his trees, which ripen last, and places them into a vat in the olive pressing room, where they are squeezed together
20)[line 25]עד שילקהAD SHE'YILKEH- (O.F. blecier - to smack, smash) until their skin softens and their color changes
21)[line 26]ומעלהו ומנגבו בראש הגגMA'ALEHU U'MENAGVO B'ROSH HA'GAG- and he brings them up onto his roof (to dry the secretions that exude from them)
22)[line 29]מגלגלוMEGALGELO- one who waits to pick the best olives at the top of his trees until they become fully ripe. "Megalgelo" means fully-ripe, such as a Beitzah Megulgeles, a hard-boiled egg (RASHI)
23)[line 29]שמן זית מזיתוSHEMEN ZAYIS MI'ZEISO- olive oil from the olive, i.e. the verse instructs us to wait until the olives on the trees are fully ripe and full of oil
24)[line 30]וכונסו לבית הבדKONSO L'VEIS HA'BAD- and he collects them into the olive-pressing room
25)[line 30]וטוחנו בריחיםTOCHANO B'REICHAYIM- he grinds them in a mill
26)[line 32]ופרקPARAK- he unloaded [the olives from the press]
27)[line 34]כמין תמרהK'MIN TEMARAH- (a) like dates that are being spread out to dry (RASHI); (b) like a pile of dates, wide at its base and tapered off at the top (RASHI KESAV YAD)
28)[line 34]עד שיזובו מימיוAD SHE'YAZUVU MEIMAV- until the thin secretions flow off
29)[line 37]לא היה טוחנו בריחיםLO HAYAH TOCHANO B'REICHAYIM- he would not grind it in a mill [to extract the first oil of the first Zayis]
30)[line 37]כותשו במכתשתKOSESHO B'MACHTESHES- crush it in a mortar
31)[line 44]לאכילהL'ACHILAH- for "eating" (i.e. burning the Kometz on the Mizbe'ach)
32)[last line]זך כתית למאור"ZACH KASIS LA'MA'OR"- "pure, pressed for lighting" (Shemos 27:20)
33)[line 4]נקיNAKI- pure, clean [of dregs]
34)[line 5]יכול יהא זך כתית פסולYACHOL YEHEI (ZACH) KASIS PASUL L'MENACHOS- since the Mishnah states "Zach Kasis la'Ma'or" and not "Zach Kasis l'Menachos," one might have thought that the top quality oil (Kasis or Kasush, i.e. oil before the second pressing) must be reserved for Ma'or; for Menachos only oil from olives that were ground should be used
35)[line 6]ועשרון סולת בלול בשמן כתית"V'ISARON SOLES BALUL B'SHEMEN KASIS"- "And one Isaron of fine flour mixed with pressed [olive] oil" (Shemos 29:40)
36)[line 7]מפני החיסכוןMIPNEI HA'CHISACHON- because of savings, economy. Since many Menachos may be offered each day, using Shemen Zach Kasis would be a tremendous expense, as opposed to the Menorah, which needs only three and one half Lugin per day. (RASHI KESAV YAD)
37)[line 8]מאי חיסכוןMAI CHISACHON?- Who is concerned with savings? (RASHI KESAV YAD)
38)[line 9]התורה חסה על ממונן של ישראלHA'TORAH CHASAH AL MAMONAN SHEL YISRAEL- HaSh-m (lit. the Torah) cares for the money of Yisrael
39)[line 14]ויעש לבית חלוני שקופים אטומים"VA'YA'AS LA'BAYIS CHALONEI SHEKUFIM ATUMIM."- "And for the house he made windows wide outside and narrow inside." (Melachim I 6:4)
40)[line 15]שקופין [מבפנים] ואטומים [מבחוץ]SHEKUFIN MI'BIFNIM VA'ATUMIM MI'BACHUTZ- narrow inside and wide outside
41)[line 16]מחוץ לפרכת העדות באהל מועד"MI'CHUTZ L'FAROCHES HA'EDUS B'OHEL MO'ED"- "outside of the curtain [which was the partition for the Aron] of testimony in the Tent of the Meeting" (Shemos 24:3)
42)[line 21]לאורוL'ORO- (a) by His (HaSh-m's) light; (b) by its (the cloud pillar's) light (TOSFOS to Shabbos 22b DH v'Chi)
43)[line 23]נר מערביNER MA'ARAVI- the western lamp: (a) according to the opinion that the Menorah's lamps were placed on the north-south axis, this refers to the middle lamp, the wick of which was pulled out towards the west (RASHI KESAV YAD); (b) according to the opinion that the Menorah's lamps were placed on the east-west axis, this refers to the second lamp from the east, which is just west of the eastern-most lamp (RASHI)
44)[line 24]כנגד חברותיה(KENEGED) [K'MIDAS] CHAVROSEHA- the same measure as the other lamps
45a)[line 24]וממנה היה מדליקMIMENAH HAYAH MADLIK- The Ner ha'Ma'aravi remained lit during the time that Bnei Yisrael wandered in the desert. The other lamps were lit in the evening from the existing Ner ha'Ma'aravi.
b)[line 25]ובה היה מסייםU'VAH HAYAH MESAYEM
(a)According to RASHI (Shabbos 22b), this refers to the Hatavah (preparation) of the lamps. The Kohen cleaned out the ashes and the leftover oil (the process called "Dishun") from the lamps in the morning after they went out. He replaced them with fresh oil and wicks. Since the Ner ha'Ma'aravi remained burning all day, its Hatavah was done last, in the evening, before the lamps were lit again. The Kohen would lift the burning wick or place it in a bowl until he replaced the oil and wick, which he lit from the still-burning wick. He then lit the other lamps from it.
(b)TOSFOS (Shabbos ibid. DH u'Vah, citing Riva) asks that if it was possible to light the other lamps from the existing Ner ha'Ma'aravi by removing the burning wick from its lamp, the Gemara has no question on Rav. The Mitzvah is neither slighted nor diminished. Tosfos claims that it was impossible to remove the wick without it becoming extinguished. The Kohen would light the other candles from the still-burning Ner ha'Ma'aravi. It was then extinguished, its oil and wick were replaced, and it was lit from the other lamps. Tosfos concludes that the phrase "u'Vah Hayah Mesayem" means that the Ner ha'Ma'aravi was the last lamp of Hadlakah (to be lit).
46)[line 26]קדוחים ועטוליןKEDUCHIM VA'ATULIN- places in Eretz Yisrael known for their wine production. Keduchim (or Keruchayim or Kerusim) is identified with the Arab village Keru'ah on the border of Yehudah and Shomron, on a line that runs from Antipras to the Yerushalayim-Shechem road. Atulin (or Hatulin or Chatulin) is probably in Yehudah in the Chevron hills, which are well-known for their wine-grape production (ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Rav Y.A. Devorkas (ed.), Yerushalayim 5739, pp. 74, 171).
47)[line 27]בית רימה ובית לבן בהרBEIS RIMAH U'VEIS LAVAN BA'HAR- places in Eretz Yisrael known for their wine production. Beis Rimah was in the hills of Yehudah (there is still an Arab village by that name). Beis Lavan is identified with the Arab village Luban, which is situated on a hill near the ancient Roman road to Antipras, east of Lod (ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Rav Y.A. Devorkas (ed.), Yerushalayim 5739, pp. 39, 46).
48)[line 27]כפר סיגנא בבקעהKEFAR SIGNA BA'BIK'AH- a place in Eretz Yisrael known for its wine production. There was an Arab village north of Kefar Saba called Sujin, which is near Beis Rimah and Beis Lavan (see previous entry). There were many Jewish settlements in this area during the time of the Mishnah, including Kefar Saba, Antipras, Kefar Ono, Lod and others (ha'Ge'ografiyah ba'Mishnah, B.Z. Segal, Rav Y.A. Devorkas (ed.), Yerushalayim 5739, pp. 115-116).
49)[line 31]הליסטיוןHALISTIYON- (a) wine made from grapes that became overripe in the sun (RASHI); (b) very sweet wine made from grapes that were intentionally hung in the sun (RASHI KESAV YAD)
50a)[line 32]ישןYASHAN- last year's wine (RASHI KESAV YAD)
b)[line 33]מתוקMASOK- (a) naturally sweet (not sun-sweetened) (RASHI and RASHI KESAV YAD, 1st explanation); (b) grape juice or wine that is not yet forty days old (RASHI and RASHI KESAV YAD, 2nd explanation)
c)[line 33]מעושן מבושלME'USHAN, MEVUSHAL- wine made from sour grapes that were sweetened by smoking or boiling them (RASHI)
51a)[line 35]הדליותDALIYOS- (O.F. treilles, trellises, the lattice-work or poles upon which grapes grow) [the grapes of] the vine-arbors
b)[line 35]הרגליותRAGLIYOS- (a) grapes that grow on vines that have low supports (RASHI); (b) grapes that grow on vines that lie on the ground (RASHI KESAV YAD)
52)[line 35]הכרמים העבודיןHA'KERAMIM HA'AVUDIN- vineyards upon which work has been done
53)[line 36]לא כונסין אותוLO [HAYU] KONSIN OSO- they did not store the wine
54a)[line 36]בחצביןCHATZAVIN- [earthenware] barrels
b)[line 37]בחביותCHAVIYOS- [earthenware] jugs
55)[last line]כדי שיהא ריחו נודףKEDEI SHE'YEHEI REICHO NODEF- in order to enhance its bouquet (lit. so that its fragrance wafts [into the air])