The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at http://www.dafyomi.co.il/midos/mids-charts.htm), is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
[79a - 52 lines; 79b - 35 lines]
1)[line 26]דוקין שבעיןDOKIN SHEB'AYIN
(a)See Background to Menachos 78:38.
(b)"Dokin sheb'Ayin" (lit. eye's web, O.F. teile) refers to a thin film (cataract?) that develops due to an eye-disease, which is considered to be a blemish, or, alternatively, a cut on the eyelids, that disqualifies an animal from being brought as a Korban, as the Torah states in Vayikra 21:20.
2)[line 27]ואליבא דר' עקיבא דאמר אם עלו לא ירדוV'ALIBA D'REBBI AKIVA D'AMAR IM ALU LO YERDU- and according to Rebbi Akiva, who rules (Zevachim 84a, 85b) that if an animal that has the blemish of "Dokin sheb'Ayin" is sacrificed, the Kohanim may not take it off the Mizbe'ach
3)[line 33]הדר ביה רבה לגביה דרבאHADAR BEI RABAH L'GABEI D'RAVA- Rabah retracted his opinion in favor of Rava's opinion
4)[line 41]שבק תנא דידן איל נזיר דשכיח ונקיט איל המילואים?SHAVAK TANA DIDAN EIL NAZIR D'SHECHI'ACH V'NAKIT EIL HA'MILU'IM?- Has our Tana left out the ram of the Nazir, which is common (i.e. a commandment l'Doros, for all generations) and written (lit. taken) the ram of the Milu'im (which is a commandment only l'Sha'ah, for that time of the generation of the desert)?
5)[line 42]ותנא דידן עיקר מילתא נקטV'TANA DIDAN IKAR MILSA NAKAT- but our Tana has [written the Eil ha'Milu'im since (a) it is the first instance of this type of Korban (where a sacrifice sanctifies loaves - RASHI, RABEINU GERSHOM); (b) it is similar to the Kivsei Atzeres, which is also mentioned in the Mishnah, in that they are both Korbenos Tzibur, communal sacrifices (the Eil Nazir is a Korban Yachid) (RASHI KSAV YAD, 2nd explanation)
6)[line 43]הנסכים שקדשו בכליHA'NESACHIM SHE'KIDSHU BI'CHLI- the Minchas Nesachim (see Background to Menachos 57:11) that became sanctified when they were placed into a Keli Shares
7)[line 43]ונמצא זבח פסולV'NIMTZA ZEVACH PASUL- and the sacrifice was afterwards found to be Pasul, disqualified
8)[line 44]אם יש זבח אחר יקריבו עמוIM YESH ZEVACH ACHER YAKRIVO IMO- if there is another sacrifice that needs Nesachim, it should be offered with that one
9)[line 45]יפסלו בלינהYIPASLU B'LINAH (PESULEI KORBAN: LINAH)
Linah is the term used when any parts of the Korbanos were not placed on the Mizbe'ach until the following morning. They become disqualified and may never be placed on the Mizbe'ach. Our Sugya states that if there is no other sacrifice for which to use the Nesachim, they should be left overnight to become disqualified by Linah.
10)[line 45]אין הנסכים מתקדשין אלא בשחיטת הזבחEIN HA'NESACHIM MISKADSHIN ELA BI'SHECHITAS HA'ZEVACH- the Nesachim only become sanctified when the sacrifice it slaughtered
11)[line 47]"[אֵלֶּה מוֹעֲדֵי ה' אֲשֶׁר תִּקְרְאוּ אֹתָם מִקְרָאֵי קֹדֶשׁ לְהַקְרִיב אִשֶּׁה לַה'; עֹלָה, וּמִנְחָה,] זֶבַח, וּנְסָכִים [דְּבַר יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ.]""ZEVACH U'NESACHIM"- "[These are the feasts of HaSh-m which you shall proclaim to be holy gatherings in order to offer a fire-offering to HaSh-m; a burnt offering, a flour offering,] a sacrifice, and libation offerings, [every one on its day.]" (Vayikra 23:37)
12a)[line 50]דאיפסיל בשחיטהD'IFSIL B'SHECHITAH- that the sacrifice was disqualified at the time of its slaughter. As such, the Halachah of Ze'iri is difficult, since he rules that the Nesachim become sanctified when the sacrifice it slaughtered, while (a) our Mishnah rules that the Nesachim of a sacrifice that was disqualified at the time of its slaughter may be used for another sacrifice. According to Ze'iri, they should be disqualified for further use (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) our Mishnah rules that if there is no other sacrifice for which to use the Nesachim, they should be left overnight to become disqualified by Linah. According to Ze'iri, they should never have become sanctified and should not require Linah, since the slaughter of the sacrifice was Pasul. (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
b)[line 50]דאיפסיל בזריקהD'IFSIL B'ZERIKAH- the sacrifice became disqualified at the time of the Zerikas ha'Dam, in which case it has no bearing on the Halachah of Ze'iri
13)[line 51]כרבי דאמר שני דברים המתירין מעלין זה בלא זה / ר' אלעזר בר' שמעוןK'REBBI D'AMAR SHNEI DEVARIM HA'MATIRIN MA'ALIN ZEH V'LO ZEH / REBBI ELAZAR B'REBBI SHIMON
(a)A Matir is something that must be done in order to permit something else. For example, the Shechitah and Zerikas ha'Dam of the Kivsei Atzeres are considered Matirim because they permit the Shtei ha'Lechem that are brought with them to be eaten. The Shtei ha'Lechem are only permitted if both Matirin are carried out properly.
(b)According to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, if only one Matir was preformed properly, it has no effect (Menachos 47a). According to Rebbi, if only one Matir was performed correctly, it has an effect; e.g. if the Shechitah was done properly but not the Zerikah, the Shtei ha'Lechem are Kadosh v'Eino Kadosh (see Background to Menachos 47:3a-b, 4, 5).
14)[last line]כגון שקיבל דמן בכוס ונשפךKEGON SHE'KIBEL DAMAN B'CHOS V'NISHPACH- where the Kohen performed Kabalas ha'Dam into a Keli Shares, and the blood spilled onto the floor of the Azarah (i.e. that there was no disqualification in the Zerikas ha'Dam. Rather, it was not performed for a technical reason) (RASHI, KSAV YAD)
15)[line 1]ור' אלעזר בר' שמעון סבר לה כוותיה דאבוהV'REBBI ELAZAR B'REBBI SHIMON SAVAR LAH KAVASEI D'AVUHA- and Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon rules like his father Rebbi Shimon, that as long as the blood was fit to be cast on the Mizbe'ach, even if ultimately it was not cast there, it is not considered a disqualified Zerikah, and the Nesachim are not disqualified. (However, this does not permit the sacrifice to be eaten; it only permits the Nesachim to be used for another sacrifice.)
16)[line 6]לב בית דין מתנה עליהםLEV BEIS DIN MASNEH ALEIHEM- (lit. the intention of Beis Din is to make a stipulation about them) the Korbenos Tzibur were consecrated with the stipulation that Beis Din could designate them for whatever it wants. (Therefore it was stipulated that the Nesachim of a sacrifice that was disqualified could be used for another sacrifice under certain circumstances.)
17)[line 8]שמן גופה דמנחה הואSHEMEN GUFAH D'MINCHAH HU- the oil is the main part of the Minchah (since it is used for kneading the dough - RASHI KSAV YAD) [and it is not possible for Beis Din to make a stipulation that the main part of one Minchah should be used for another Minchah. Nesachim, however, are not considered the main part of the Korban, and as such, it is possible for Beis Din to make a stipulation about them]
18)[line 8]וליתנו עליהן דניפקו לחוליןV'LISNU ALEIHEN D'NEIFKU L'CHULIN- perhaps Beis din should make a stipulation that if there is no other Korban with which to use the Nesachim, they should become Chulin (i.e. they should loose their sanctity)
19a)[line 21]תמידין שלא הוצרכו לציבורTEMIDIN SHE'LO HUTZRECHU LA'TZIBUR- [animals that were allocated as] Tamid offerings (see next entry) but [subsequently] were not needed for the public service. (The Amora'im argue whether or not there is a Machlokes Tana'im concerning whether these animals may be redeemed even though they are unblemished.)
b)[line 21]תמידיןTEMIDIN (KORBAN TAMID)
(a)The Korban Tamid, a communal offering (Korban Tzibur) consists of two male sheep that were less than one year old. One sheep was offered at dawn and the second sheep was offered in the afternoon, ideally 2 1/2 Halachic hours before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of flour was brought with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering), which was mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approximately 0.9, 1.04 or 1.8 liters) of hand pressed olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep was brought as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b)To insure that at least two sheep would be available for the Korban Tamid each day, six sheep were kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the Chamber of Lambs (TY # 43, also known as the Lishkas ha'Korban or Lishkas Tela'ei Korban). The lambs were checked to ensure that they had no Mum (blemish). Normally, on the last day of the month of Adar, four sheep were left over from the previous year's Terumas ha'Lishkah (see Background to Menachos 52:6). Rebbi Yochanan claims that Rebbi Shimon rules that these sheep may not be redeemed from Hekdesh, even though they are unblemished (Shevuos 11b, Zevachim 6b).
b)[line 23]נפדין תמימיםNIFDIN TEMIMIM- may be redeemed even though they are unblemished
20)[line 23]אית להו תקנתא ברעייהIS LEI TAKANTA BI'RE'IYAH- there is a way to "fix" them, i.e. to redeem them from Hekdesh without redeeming unblemished animals. Rebbi Shimon rules that they may be put out to pasture to develop a blemish; as such it is possible that Rebbi Shimon indeed rules that Lev Beis din Masneh Aleihen.
21a)[line 23]ולד תודהVLAD TODAH- the offspring of a Korban Todah (where a person set aside a pregnant animal as a Korban Todah, and it gave birth)
b)[line 24]תמורתהTEUMARASAH (TEMURAH)
(a)The Torah prohibits making a Temurah, which is a Chulin animal exchanged for an animal designated as a Korban in an attempt to transfer the Kedushas ha'Guf of the Korban onto a replacement Korban. The verse states, "Do not transfer or exchange it (an animal that has been designated as a Korban) [for another animal], neither a good animal for a bad one nor a bad one for a good one. If you do exchange an animal [of Kodesh] for another animal [that is not], both the original animal and the one given in exchange for it, will be Kodesh." (Vayikra 27:10). The CHINUCH explains that the reason for the prohibition of Temurah is to teach us the proper reverence that we must have for objects of Kedushah (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #351, #352). (For a definition of Kedushas ha'Guf as opposed to Kedushas Damim, see Background to Avodah Zarah 13:16:c-e.)
(b)For example, the Mishnah (Temurah 26b) teaches that a person can make a Temurah by taking two animals, one of which was designated as a Korban, and saying "Zo Tachas Zo" - "This [animal] is instead of this [animal]" or "Zo Temuras Zo" - "This is in place of this" or "Zo Chalifas Zo" - "This is in exchange for this." The second animal, or the Temurah, is usually a valid Korban. If it has no Mum (blemish that invalidates it), it must also be offered on the Mizbe'ach (unless the original Korban was a Chatas or an Asham).
(c)A person who intentionally makes a Temurah receives Malkus (lashes). Sometimes, even if a person makes a Temurah b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he receives Malkus (see Chart to Temurah 17a). (For a discussion of the difference between Temurah and Chilul (redemption), see Background to Bava Metzia 57:2.)
22)[line 25]"... וְהִקְרִיב עַל זֶבַח הַתּוֹדָה [חַלּוֹת מַצּוֹת ...]""... V'HIKRIV AL ZEVACH HA'TODAH [CHALOS MATZOS ...]"- "... and you shall offer along with the Todah sacrifice [loaves of Matzah ...]" (Vayikra 7:12)
23)[line 25]חילופהCHILUFAH- the animal designated in place of an animal that was lost (RASHI)
24)[line 26]מהו אומר תודה "יקריב"?MAHU OMER "TODAH YAKRIV"?- Why does the verse add the word "Yakrivenu" (it is sufficient to write "Im Al Todah, v'Hikriv Al Zevach ha'Todah Chalos Matzos..." - RASHI KSAV YAD; the Gemara is using two parts of this word for separate teachings. As such, it first asks about the word "Yakriv," which is part of the word "Yakrivenu." The Gemara will shortly bring the teaching for the end of the word.)
25)[line 34]לאחר כפרהL'ACHAR KAPARAH- after one Korban Todah was sacrificed with forty loaves
26)[line 34]אבל לפני כפרה טעונין לחםAVAL LIFNEI KAPARAH TE'UNIN LECHEM- but before an animal was sacrificed as a Korban Todah, he may choose either animal, and even the replacement of the Todah must be offered with the forty loaves
27)[line 34]הוי בה רב עמרםHAVI VAH RAV AMRAM- Rev Amram asked a question about it (Rebbi Yochanan's statement)
28)[last line]תודת חובהTODAS CHOVAH- (lit. an obligatory Todah) (a) where the person said, "Harei Alai Todah" - "It is incumbent upon me to bring a Korban Todah" (in which case he must bring another animal if the first one he designates gets lost) (RASHI KSAV YAD, 1st explanation); (b) where the person was saved from one of the situations about which Rav states (Berachos 54b) "Arba'ah Tzrichin l'Hodos" - "There are four people who are required to bring a Korban Todah." They are: 1. One who sails overseas; 2. One who travels in a caravan through the desert; 3. A deathly ill person who recovers from his illness; 4. A prisoner who is freed from prison (RASHI KSAV YAD, 2nd explanation).