BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
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The numbers that appear next to certain entries represent the number assigned to those items in the diagram of the Beis ha'Mikdash of the Tiferes Yisrael (e.g. TY #43). This diagram, which was included in a separate mailing and can be found on our site, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (in Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
[49a - 52 lines; 49b - 23 lines]
1) [line 1] TANA A"ZOS TORAS HA'OLAH" RIBAH SAMICH LEI - the Tana is relying upon the Derashah based upon the verse "Zos Toras ha'Olah" (Vayikra 6:2), which is effective in teaching that a part of a Korban that was taken outside of its permitted boundaries and then placed upon the Mizbe'ach ("Oleh Al ha'Mizbe'ach") may remain there (and we do not need to learn this Halachah from Bamah)
2) [line 3] V'LO ALU LI'VE'ALIM L'SHEM CHOVAH - and they do not fulfill the obligation of the owner (the "owner" of the Kivsei Atzeres is the entire congregation of Yisrael -- RASHI)
3) [line 4] ALU V'ALU - they certainly fulfill the obligation [of the people]s
4) [line 8] AKIRAH B'TA'US HAVYA AKIRAH - Offering one type of Korban as another type, due to a mistake in the identification of the Korban is termed an "Akirah"
(a) If one of the four Avodos (see Background to Menachos 2:18) of a Korban Pesach or Chatas are performed she'Lo Lishmo, these Korbanos are invalidated, since the original "name" or designation of the Korban was "uprooted" (Akirah). All other Korbanos that are offered she'Lo Lishman are Kosher and may be offered on the Mizbe'ach. However, if a person was obligated to bring a particular Korban and it was brought she'Lo Lishmo, he must bring another sacrifice in its stead to fulfill his obligation (Mishnah Zevachim 2a).
(b) The law of Akiras Shem applies when the name of the Korban was uprooted intentionally. For example, a person declares that he will bring as a Shelamim, an animal that he designated as a Pesach or as an Olah. If, however, he mistakenly thought that this animal was a Shelamim, and he brought it as a Shelamim, the Amora'im argue as to whether the original name was uprooted from the Korban and it is considered a Korban that was offered she'Lo Lishmo or not. According to the opinion that "Akirah b'Ta'us Havya Akirah," the name of this Korban has been uprooted. According to the opinion that "Lo Havya Akirah," the Korban is completely Kosher as if it was offered Lishmo, and the original name has not been uprooted.
5) [line 10] U'MOSVINAN A'SHEMA'ATIN - I ask an apparent contradiction to what I have taught
6) [line 19] UV'OMER MUTAR - (lit. and it is a case of "saying it is permitted") one who thinks it is permitted to perform a prohibited action, such as a person who thinks that it is permitted to change the designation of a Korban
7a) [line 22] MACHAVAS
(a) For a full description of Menachos, see Background to Menachos 2:1.
(b) The Minchas Machavas consists of ten Matzos baked in an oven on a pan called a Machavas, which has ten raised sections. The portions of dough lie on the elevated parts of the pan so that most of the olive oil drains off, causing the dough to bake into brittle Matzos. Levonah is added, Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah (see Background ibid.) are performed. The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:5).
b) [line 22] MARCHESHES
(a) For a full description of Menachos, see Background to Menachos 2:1.
(b) The Minchas Marcheshes consists of ten Matzos baked in an oven in a pan called a Marcheshes, which has ten deep sections filled with olive oil. The portions of dough lie in the deep parts of the pan and are baked in the olive oil, causing the dough to bake into soft Matzos. Levonah is added, and Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah (see Background ibid.) are performed. The Sheyarei ha'Minchah are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 2:7).
8) [line 22] ZEVACHIM - animal sacrifices
9) [line 23] MA'ASEHA MOCHICHIN ALEHA - performing the Kemitzah of a Minchas Machavas for the sake of a Minchas Marcheshes (in which case Rebbi Shimon rules that the Minchah is Kosher and fulfills the obligation of the person who offered it, since Ma'aseha Mochichin - it is obvious that the Kohen is using the incorrect terminology)
10a) [line 23] CHAREVAH - [a Korban Minchah that is] dry, i.e. not mixed with oil, e.g. the Minchas Chotei (see Background to Menachos 2:5) and the Minchas Kena'os (see Background to Menachos 2:6)
b) [line 24] BLEULAH - [a Korban Minchah that is] mixed [with oil], i.e. all other Menachos besides the Minchas Chotei and the Minchas Kena'os (see Background to Menachos 2:1)
11) [line 29] MAI HAVEI? - What does it matter?
12) [line 29] HA MI'AKAR KA AKIR LAH - he has uprooted the designation of the Minchah
13) [line 36] MACHSHAVAH D'LO MINKERA - a [change in] intention [with regard to the sacrifices] that is not self-evident
14a) [line 38] TEMIDIN (KORBAN TAMID)
(a) The Korban Tamid, a communal offering (Korban Tzibur) consists of two male sheep that were less than one year old. One sheep was offered at dawn and the second sheep was offered in the afternoon, ideally 2 1/2 Halachic hours before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of flour was brought with each sheep as a Minchah (flour offering), which was mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approximately 0.9, 1.04 or 1.8 liters) of hand pressed olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep was brought as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b) To insure that at least two sheep would be available for the Korban Tamid each day, six sheep were kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the Chamber of Lambs (TY # 43, also known as the Lishkas ha'Korban or Lishkas Tela'ei Korban). The lambs were checked to ensure that they had no Mum (blemish).
b) [line 38] MUSAFIN - "additional" Korbanos that are offered between the two Korbenos Tamid on special occasions, as specified in the verses (Bamidbar 28:9-29:39)
15) [line 44] EIN MECHANCHIN ES MIZBACH HA'ZAHAV - we only inaugurate the Mizbe'ach for the Ketores (the "Golden Mizbe'ach")
16) [line 47] EI ZEH ME'HEN KODEM? - Which one of them takes precedence?
17) [line 48] D'YOMEI - of that day (the Temidin and Musafin that are meant to be offered on that day)
18) [line 48] TADIR U'MEKUDASH - (a) [the Korban Tamid is] constant (frequent) and [the Korban Musaf is based upon the] sanctity [of the day] (and as such, the Korban Tamid takes precedence -- see Background to Zevachim 89:5) (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) [the Korban Tamid is] constant and current (and as such, takes precedence over the Musafim) (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
19) [line 49] D'HA'IDNA - of this time (day)
20) [line 51] D'IS LEI, VELIKADAM - that they are available (lit. "he has them," i.e. enough sheep for today's Musafin and tomorrow's Temidin) and [the Mishnah is discussing whether] one must come before the other (and the Mishnah rules that there is no preferrence)
21) [last line] "HA'OLAH" OLAH RISHONAH - when the verse states, "ha'Olah" (Vayikra 6:5), it refers to the first Olah that is offered every day, the Olas ha'Tamid (see above, entry #14a). Rava derives from this verse that the Tamid must be the first Olah brought every day.
22) [line 3] KI HADADEI NINHU - they are equal (neither takes preference over the other)
23) [line 5] MITZVAH B'ALMA HU - [the ruling of Rava, that the Korban Tamid is the first offering of the day, is] merely for a Mitzvah (and if other Korbanos are offered before it, it does not invalidate the service)
24a) [line 6] EIN POCHASIN MI'SHISHAH TELA'IM HA'MEVUKARIN B'LISHKAS HA'TELA'IM - there are never less than six checked lambs in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im (see above, entry #14a:b)
b) [line 7] KEDEI L'SHABBOS UL'SHENEI YAMIM TOVIM SHEL ROSH HA'SHANAH - for Shabbos and for the two holidays of Rosh ha'Shanah [that immediately precede or follow Shabbos] (the Gemara -- Daf 50a -- asserts that this phrase is only meant as a mnemonic device for remembering the number six)
25) [line 9] TUVA HAVU - there are many that are needed (six for the Korbenos Temidin of the three days, two for the Korban Musaf of Shabbos and fourteen for the Korbenos Musaf of one of the days of Rosh ha'Shanah; seven as specified for the Musaf of Rosh Chodesh and seven as specified for the Musaf of Rosh ha'Shanah. These Korbanos are only offered on one of the days of Rosh ha'Shanah, even though both days were kept as holidays -- RASHI; see SHITAH MEKUBETZES #1 and CHOK NASAN)
26) [line 14] SHE'TA'UN BIKUR ARBA'AH YAMIM KODEM SHECHITAH - that requires checking for four days prior to slaughtering, to determine whether it has any blemishes
27) [line 16] TISHMERU, L'HAKRIV LI B'MO'ADO." - "... you shall guard, in order to offer it to Me at its set time." (Bamidbar 28:2) - This verse refers to the Korban Tamid.
28) [line 17] "V'HAYAH LACHEM L'MISHMERES AD ARBA'AH ASAR YOM..." - "And it shall be for you to guard until the fourteenth day [of this month...]" - This verse refers to the Korban Pesach.
29) [line 21] D'HA IKA D'TZAFRA D'TELASA B'SHABATA - for there is [the Korban Tamid] of Tuesday morning (when the two days of Rosh ha'Shanah follow Shabbos; see RASHI, who is Gores "D'TZAFRA D'CHAD B'SHABATA" - [the Korban Tamid] of Sunday morning (when the two days of Rosh ha'Shanah precede Shabbos)). In either case, an extra sheep is needed to provide for the Korban Tamid on the morning after Rosh ha'Shanah (or Shabbos), since it will not be easy to procure a sheep on the night after Rosh ha'Shanah (or Shabbos).
30) [line 22] V'LIT'AMICH, TEMANYA HAVU - and according to your reasoning, there should be [a need for] eight [sheep]
31) [line 22] D'FANYA D'MA'ALEI SHABATA - of the afternoon of Erev Shabbos (when the two days of Rosh ha'Shanah follow Shabbos)
32) [last line] DEL'VASAR D'AKRIV - we are referring to after the offering [of the Korban Tamid of Erev Shabbos]
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