ARE SHIRAYIM OF A KORBAN ME'AKEV?
Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): If "veha'Nish'ar" means if blood remains (but it is not Me'akev), we should say the same about "veha'Noseres" (regarding Shirayim of a Minchah. They should not be Me'akev)!
Suggestion: Perhaps this is true!
Rejection (Beraisa): "Mi'Saltah umi'Shamnah Al Kol Levonasah" -- if any of the flour, oil or frankincense is missing, the Minchah is Pasul.
Answer: There, "veha'Noseres" is extra (to teach that it is Me'akev. Rashi - it says twice "veha'Noseres". Pirush Kadmon (B) - a Kemitzah is less than the Isaron of flour. We know that flour must remain after Kemitzah. The "Hei" is extra).
Question (Shmuel's father, against Rav Huna - Mishnah): Regarding Chatas and Olas ha'Of, if Melikah or Mitzuy was with intent Chutz li'Mkomo, the Korban is Pasul, and there is no Kares (for eating it);
If the intent was Chutz li'Zmano, the Korban is Pigul, and there is Kares.
It says that intent in Mitzuy is Mefagel. (It must be an essential Avodah!)
Answer (Shmuel's father): The Mishnah discusses Melikah of either (Chatas or Olas ha'Of), but Mitzuy refers only to Olas ha'Of. (It is Me'akev, for Haza'ah is not done.)
(Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael - Beraisa #1): (Mitzuy is done) if blood remains. (It is not Me'akev.)
Contradiction (Tana d'Vei R. Yishmael - Beraisa #2): Shirayim are Me'akev. (The next teaching shows that this is a contradiction);
(Rav Papa): They (R. Yishmael and R. Akiva) argue about Mitzuy of Chatas ha'Of.
Resolution: Tana'im argue about the opinion of R. Yishmael.
WHEN ME'ILAH TAKES EFFECT
(Mishnah): Me'ilah applies to Olas ha'Of from when it is (verbally) Hukdash;
After Melikah, it can become Pasul through a Tevul Yom, Mechusar Kipurim, or Linah. After Mitzuy, Pigul, Nosar and Tamei can apply;
Me'ilah applies until it (is burned to ashes and) goes to Beis ha'Deshen (the place where the ashes are put).
Me'ilah applies to Parim and Se'irim ha'Nisrafim (Chata'os that atone for mistaken rulings of the Sanhedrin. The meat is burned outside Yerushalayim) from when they are Hukdash;
After Shechitah, they can become Pasul through a Tevul Yom, Mechusar Kipurim, or Linah. Affter Haza'ah, Pigul, Nosar and Tamei can apply;
Me'ilah applies to them in Beis ha'Deshen (where they are burned), until the meat is Nitach (Rashi - consumed, it becomes ashes; Bartenura - it becomes coals; Rambam - it is Yutach, i.e. thoroughly burned, and it becomes hollow).
Me'ilah applies to Olah from when it is Hukdash;
After Shechitah, it can become Pasul through a Tevul Yom, Mechusar Kipurim, or Linah. After Zerikah, Pigul, Nosar and Tamei can apply;
Me'ilah does not apply to the skin, but it applies to the meat until it goes to Beis ha'Deshen;
Me'ilah applies to Chatas, Asham, and Shalmei Tzibur (lambs offered with Shtei ha'Lechem) from the time of Hekdesh;
After Shechitah, they can become Pasul through a Tevul Yom, Mechusar Kipurim, or Linah; after Zerikah, Pigul, Nosar and Tamei can apply;
Me'ilah does not apply to the meat, but it applies to the Eimurim until they go to Beis ha'Deshen.
Me'ilah applies to Shtei ha'Lechem from the time of Hekdesh;
When a crust forms on them in the oven, they can become Pasul through a Tevul Yom or Mechusar Kipurim (or Linah), and allow Shechitah of the accompanying lambs. (Rashi deletes "or Linah," for it does not apply. Shtei ha'Lechem may not be baked on Yom Tov. They are baked (at least) a day before. Tosfos (8a) defends the text. Our Tana holds that they may be baked on Yom Tov.)
After Zerikah of the lambs' blood, Pigul, Nosar and Tamei can apply to the bread. Me'ilah does not apply.
Me'ilah applies to Lechem ha'Panim from the time of Hekdesh;
When a crust forms on them in the oven, they can become Pasul through a Tevul Yom, or Mechusar Kipurim, and may be put on the Shulchan;
After Haktarah (burning) of the Levonah, Pigul, Nosar or Tamei can apply. Me'ilah does not apply.
Me'ilah applies to Menachos from the time of Hekdesh;
After Kidush in a Kli Shares, they can become Pasul through a Tevul Yom, Mechusar Kipurim, or Linah;
After Haktarah of the Kometz, one can be liable for the Shirayim for Pigul, Nosar and Tamei. Me'ilah does not apply to the Shirayim;
Me'ilah applies to the Kometz until it goes to Beis ha'Deshen.
DOES ME'ILAH APPLY TO ASHES?
(Gemara - Rav): Me'ilah does not apply to ashes of the Tapu'ach (the heap on top of the Mizbe'ach);
(R. Yochanan): Me'ilah applies to them.
All agree that Me'ilah applies before Terumas ha'Deshen is performed (taking ashes from the Mizbe'ach). They argue about after Terumas ha'Deshen:
Rav says that Me'ilah does not apply, for the Mitzvah has been finished;
R. Yochanan holds that since "v'Lavash ha'Kohen" obligates wearing Bigdei Kehunah, this shows that the ashes retain their Kedushah, and Me'ilah still applies. (R. Akiva Eiger - perhaps the Gemara should say "v'Lavash Begadim Acherim," which is the verse that requires Bigdei Kehunah for Hotza'as ha'Deshen. The verse cited in our text refers to Terumas ha'Deshen. Me'il Shmuel - according to the opinion that inferior Bigdei Kehunah are used for Terumas ha'Deshen (just like for Hotza'as ha'Deshen), "v'Lavash ha'Kohen" applies to both of them.)
Question (against Rav - Mishnah): Me'ilah applies until they (ashes of Olas ha'Of) go to Beis ha'Deshen.
Answer (Rav): It means, until they may be taken to Beis ha'Deshen (i.e. Terumas ha'Deshen was done).
Question (Mishnah): If any of these (things brought on the Mizbe'ach, even though they were not supposed to be brought) flew off the Mizbe'ach, we do not return it;
Similarly, if a coal (Rashi - of wood; Tosfos - of Eimurim) flew off the Mizbe'ach, we do not return it.
Inference: Had it flown to a different part of the Mizbe'ach, we would return it!
Version #1: This is fine for R. Yochanan, and difficult for Rav! (This shows that the Mitzvah is not finished and Me'ilah still applies.)
Answer: A coal is returned, for it has substance. Ashes need not be returned.
Version #2 (Inference): A coal is returned, for it has substance (Tosfos - it can burn). Ashes need not be returned!;
This is fine for Rav, and difficult for R. Yochanan!
Answer: Even ashes (that flew to a different part of the Mizbe'ach) must be returned. The Mishnah discusses a coal to teach that even though it has substance, if it flies off the Mizbe'ach it need not be returned.
COMPENSATION FOR ME'ILAH
(Rav): If one benefited from meat of Kodshei Kodashim before Zerikah, or Eimurei Kodshim Kalim after Zerikah, he must give the value of his benefit to Nedavah (Olos Tzibur. In this discussion, the Gemara mentions Me'ilah, i.e. what he benefited. It is understood that a Chomesh is added and an Asham Me'ilah is brought.)
(Levi): He must bring something which is totally for the Mizbe'ach (just like what he ate was never permitted to people; he may not bring an Olah, for Kohanim receive its skin).
Support (for Levi - Beraisa) Question: What is done with the (payment for) Me'ilah?
Answer (those who learn in front of Chachamim (Rashi - Levi in front of Rebbi; Tosfos - here, this cannot refer to Levi)): He brings something that is totally for the Mizbe'ach.
Question: What is this?
Answer: It is Ketores. (Tosfos Menachos 50a - he must give it as a gift to the Tzibur, for an individual may not offer Ketores.)
Support (for Rav - Beraisa): If one benefited from money Hukdash to buy a Chatas or Asham: (Tosfos - in the coming cases, he realized that he was Mo'el before Hakravah (when the Korban was offered. We discuss when he comes to pay. Rashi - we discuss when he found out. "Hakravah" refers to when he bought the Chatas or Asham.)
Before Hakravah, he adds (Keren and Chomesh) to the remaining money and buys an animal with all of it;
After Hakravah, if it was a Chatas, he throws the money to Yam ha'Melach;
If it was an Asham, the money goes to Nedavah.
If one benefited from Kodshei Kodashim before Zerikah, or Eimurei Kodshim Kalim after Zerikah, the money goes to Nedavah.
(If he benefited from) any Korban (of the) Mizbe'ach, the money goes for Korbanos (Nedavos for the) Mizbe'ach;
(If he benefited from) Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis, the money goes for Bedek ha'Bayis;
(If he benefited from) Korbanos Tzibur, the money goes for Nidvos Tzibur.
Question: The Beraisa contradicts itself!
The Reisha says if he benefited before Hakravah of a Chatas, the money is (added to what remained and) used for a Chatas. If it was after Hakravah, the money goes to Yam ha'Melach;
The Seifa says that for any Korban Mizbe'ach, the money goes for (Nidvos) Mizbe'ach, without distinguishing between before and after Kaparah!
Answer: The Reisha is like R. Shimon, who says that every Chatas she'Kipru Ba'aleha (its owner already received atonement) must die (even if it was found before Kaparah).
Question: Is the Reisha R. Shimon, and the Seifa is Chachamim?!