THE MITZVOS OF WOMEN
(Mishnah): Any Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zman Gerama (it applies only at certain times)...
(Beraisa): The following Mitzvos are Zman Gerama: Sukah, Lulav, Shofar, Tzitzis and Tefilin;
The following Mitzvos are not Zman Gerama: building a railing around one's roof, returning an Aveidah, and sending away the mother bird.
Question: The Mishnah's law is not always true!
Simchah (on Yom Tov) and Hakhel (gathering in the Mikdash on Sukos to hear the king read the Torah) are Zman Gerama, yet women are obligated!
Also, learning Torah, Peru u'Revu (having children), and redemption of a firstborn son are not Zman Gerama, yet women are exempt!
Answer (R. Yochanan): We do not learn from general rules, even when the rule lists exceptions.
(Mishnah): Any food may be used for an Eruv (Chatzeiros) or Shituf (an Eruv for Mavo'os) except for water and salt.
Also mushrooms cannot be used! This shows that one cannot rely on a general rule, even if it lists exceptions.
THE SOURCE TO EXEMPT WOMEN
(Mishnah): Women are exempt from Mitzvos Aseh sheha'Zman Gerama.
Question: What is the source for this?
Answer: We learn from Tefilin:
Just like women are exempt from Tefilin, they are exempt from every Aseh sheha'Zman Gerama.
We learn Tefilin from Talmud Torah. Just like women are exempt from Talmud Torah, they are exempt from Tefilin.
Suggestion: We should rather equate Tefilin to Mezuzah (which is obligatory for women)!
Rejection: Tefilin is equated (written next to) Talmud Torah in the first two Parshiyos of Shema. It is equated to Mezuzah only in the first Parshah.
Suggestion: We should equate Mezuzah to Talmud Torah (and exempt women from Mezuzah)!
Rejection: We fulfill the Mitzvah of Mezuzah "in order that your days will be lengthened." Women also need this!
Question: Sukah is Zman Gerama. "Ha'Ezrach" exempts women. If not for the verse, they would be obligated (unlike the general rule)!
Answer #1 (Abaye): If not for the verse, we would have obligated them because it says "Teishvu", (sit in the Sukah) like you dwell, i.e. a man with his wife.
Answer #2 (Rava): If not for the verse, we would have obligated them from a Gezeirah Shavah "Chamesh Esreh-Chamesh Esreh" from Pesach. Just like women are commanded to eat Matzah on Pesach, they must dwell in Sukos;
"Ha'Ezrach" teaches that this is not so.
Question: Re'iyah (the Mitzvah to enter the Mikdash on each festival) is an Aseh sheha'Zman Gerama, and "your males" exempts women. If not for the verse, they would be obligated!
Answer: If not for the verse we would have obligated them from a Gezeirah Shavah "Re'iyah-Re'iyah" from Hakhel.
Question: Why do we learn from Tefilin that women are exempt from Mitzvas Aseh sheha'Zman Gerama? We should learn from the Mitzvah of Simchah (on Yom Tov) that they are obligated!
Answer (Abaye): A woman herself is not obligated in Simchah. Rather, her husband is obligated to be Mesame'ach her.
Question: A widow has no husband. The Mitzvah must be on her herself!
Answer: It is incumbent on her male neighbor.
Suggestion: We should learn from Hakhel that women are obligated (in Mitzvos Aseh sheha'Zman Gerama)!
Answer: Matzah and Hakhel are Shnei Kesuvim (two verses, and both obligate women in an Aseh sheha'Zman Gerama), so they do not teach about other things.
Question: Also Tefilin and Re'iyah are Shnei Kesuvim (exempting women from an Aseh sheha'Zman Gerama), so we should not learn from them!
Answer: Neither of them could be learned from the other (so they are not considered Shnei Kesuvim):
Had the Torah taught only (that women are exempt from) Tefilin, we would have obligated them in Re'iyah from the Gezeirah Shavah from Hakhel;
Had the Torah taught only Re'iyah, we would have obligated women in Tefilin, because it is equated to Mezuzah.
Question: Similarly, we could not have learned either Matzah or Hakhel from the other!
Answer: Granted, had the Torah taught only Hakhel, we would have exempted women from Matzah from the Gezeirah Shavah "Chamesh Esreh-Chamesh Esreh" from Sukos;
However, it could have taught only Matzah, and we would have known Hakhel!
Even infants are obligated in Hakhel, all the more so women!
Therefore, these are Shnei Kesuvim, so we do not learn to other places.
WOMEN ARE OBLIGATED IN MITZVOS ASEH SHE'LO HA'ZMAN GERAMA
Question #1: This answer is like the opinion that Shnei Kesuvim do not teach about other laws;
According to the opinion that Shnei Kesuvim do teach about other laws, how can we answer? (This question will be asked again, and answered, on 35a.)
Question #2: What is the source to obligate women in Mitzvos Aseh she'Lo ha'Zman Gerama?
Answer (to Question #2): We learn from fearing parents.
Question: We should learn from Talmud Torah that women are exempt!
Answer: Talmud Torah and Peru u'Revu are Shnei Kesuvim exempting women, one of which could have been learned from the other, so we do not learn from them.
Question: R. Yochanan ben Berokah says that "Hash-m said 'Peru u'Revu'" also to women (they are also commanded). How can he answer?
Answer: Learning Torah and Pidyon ha'Ben are Shnei Kesuvim exempting women, so we do not learn from them.
Question: According to R. Yochanan ben Berokah, fear of parents and having children are Shnei Kesuvim obligating women, so we should not learn from them!
Answer: We could not have learned one of them from the other:
Had the Torah written only fearing, one might have thought that since it says (about Peru u'Revu) "v'Kivshu'ha (and he will conquer (the land))", it is the way of a man to conquer, so only he is commanded to have children;
Had the Torah written only Peru u'Revu, one might have thought that since a man is able to honor his parents (but not a woman, for she must honor her husband), only he is commanded to fear his parents.