1)

(a)Rav Nachman too, cites Shmuel like Rav Yehudah did (with regard to 'Pesach Pasu'ach'). What do we mean when we ask 'Im Ken, Mah Ho'ilu Chachamim b'Takanasan'?

(b)What does Rava reply to that?

1)

(a)Rav Nachman too, cites Shmuel like Rav Yehudah did (with regard to 'Pesach Pasu'ach'). When we ask 'Im Ken, Mah Ho'ilu Chachamim b'Takanasan', we mean to ask - how Chazal could simply permit the Takanah of Kesubah to be over-ridden.

(b)Rava answers - that we have no choice but to believe him, since he has the backing of a Chazakah ('Ein Adam Tore'ach bi'Seudah u'Mafsidah').

2)

(a)The Tana Kama in the Beraisa ascribes the fact that a woman may only claim her Kesuvah from Ziburis to the fact it is merely a Kenas Chachamim. What is 'Ziburis'?

(b)How do we amend the Beraisa to read?

(c)What does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel say?

2)

(a)The Tana Kama in the Beraisa ascribes the fact that a woman may only claim her Kesuvah from Ziburis - (inferior quality property) to the fact that it is a Kenas Chachamim.

(b)We amend the Beraisa to - Takanas Chachamim, instead of Kenas Chachamim.

(c)Raban Shimon ben Gamliel says - that Kesuvah is d'Oraisa.

3)

(a)What does the Torah mean when it writes in Mishpatim (in connection with a man who seduces a woman) "Kesef Yishkol k'Mohar ha'Besulos"?

(b)What does the Tana Kama of another Beraisa learn from the fact that the Torah uses the word "Mohar"?

(c)What does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel say?

(d)To resolve the contradiction between the two statements of Raban Gamliel, we switch the opinions in the second Beraisa. How do we know to switch the opinions in the second Beraisa, and not the first?

3)

(a)When the Torah writes (in connection with a man who seduces a woman) "Kesef Yishkol k'Mohar ha'Besulos" - it means to compare the Din of a Besulah who was seduced to one who was raped (to obligate the seducer to pay fifty Shekalim).

(b)The Tana Kama of another Beraisa learns from the fact that the Torah uses the word "Mohar" (a reference to Kesuvah) - that Kesuvah is d'Oraisa.

(c)Raban Shimon ben Gamliel says - that Kesuvah is only a Takanas Chachamim.

(d)To resolve the contradiction between the two statements of Raban Gamliel, we switch the opinions in the second Beraisa, rather than the first - because it is evident from a Mishnah in the last Perek, where Raban Gamliel is more stringent with regard to the payment of the Kesuvah (as we shall now see).

4)

(a)The Tana Kama in the Mishnah in 'Shnei Dainei' maintains that, whether a man married his wife in Eretz Yisrael and divorced her in Keputki (where the value of the same coins is higher) or vice-versa, he has to pay her according to the value of the coins of Eretz Yisrael. What does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel say?

(b)What is the basis of their Machlokes?

(c)Alternatively, we avoid switching opinions by establishing the second Beraisa all like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel. What do we add to the Beraisa to achieve this?

4)

(a)The Tana Kama in the Mishnah in 'Shnei Dainei' maintains that, whether a man married his wife in Eretz Yisrael and divorced her in Keputki (where the value of the same coins is higher) or vice-versa, he has to pay her according to the value of the coins of Eretz Yisrael (because he holds Kesuvah d'Rabanan). According to Raban Shimon ben Gamliel - he has to pay according to the value of the coins in Keputki ...

(b)... because in his opinion, Kesuvah is d'Oraisa); whereas the Tana Kama holds that it is d'Rabanan.

(c)Alternatively, we avoid switching opinions by amending the second Beraisa, establishing it all like Raban Shimon ben Gamliel - by adding the Din of Almanah, which the Tana describes as a Takanas Chachamim, and it is in that connection that that Raban Shimon ben Gamliel name is mentioned (though in reality, he is the author of the entire Mishnah).

5)

(a)How did Rav Nachman react to that man who claimed 'Pesach Pasu'ach Matzasi'?

(b)What is 'Kufri'?

(c)If, as Rav Nachman himself maintains, 'Pesach Pasu'ach' is believed, why did he sentence that man to Malkus?

(d)How does Rav Achai resolve the apparent contradiction in his two statements? Then why did Rav Nachman give him Malkus?

5)

(a)Rav Nachman reacted to that man who claimed 'Pesach Pasu'ach Matzasi' - by ordering him to receive Makas Mardus (de'Rabanan) with 'Kufri'.

(b)... (palm-branches, which have sharp spikes).

(c)Even though Rav Nachman himself maintains, 'Pesach Pesu'ach' is believed, he nevertheless sentenced that man to Malkus - because the fact that he was an expert in these matters indicated that he was a man of loose morals, for which he deserved Makas Mardus.

(d)According to Rav Achai - Rav Nachman would only believe someone who was married, but not a Bachur (which that man was), and the reason that he gave him Malkus was because he had the Chutzpah to make such a claim in Beis-Din.

6)

(a)What did Raban Gamliel mean when he responded to that man who claimed 'Pesach Pasu'ach Matzasi', 'Shema Hitisa'?

(b)What did he say to him, according to the second Lashon?

(c)And how did Raban Gamliel uphold a certain woman's claim that she was a Besulah, despite the lack of bloodstains, which seemed to substantiate the man's claim that she was not?

(d)Huna Mar Brei d'Rava asked Rav Ashi why they did not employ that method in Bavel. What was Rav Ashi's reply?

6)

(a)When Raban Gamliel responded to that man who claimed 'Pesach Pasu'ach Matzasi', with 'Shema Hitisa' - he meant that perhaps, during the Bi'ah, he had inadvertently turned to the side in an effort to find the Pesach, and had managed to break her Besulim without realizing it.

(b)According to the second Lashon - he asked him whether he had not perhaps done so deliberately (because it is unusual to do so inadvertently).

(c)Raban Gamliel upheld a certain woman's claim that she was a Besulah, despite the lack of bloodstains, which seemed to substantiate the man's claim that she was not a Besulah - by soaking the cloth in water and washing it (thereby washing away the Zera that and exposing the bloodstains).

(d)Huna Mar Brei d'Rava asked Rav Ashi why they did not apply that method in Bavel - to which Rav Ashi replied that, seeing as washing clothes in Bavel required rubbing them with a stone, they would inevitably remove the bloodstains as well, rendering its application impractical.

10b----------------------------------------10b

7)

(a)Using a barrel of wine, how did Raban Gamliel bar Rebbi uphold a certain woman's claim that she was a Besulah, in spite of the fact that there was no Dam Besulim?

(b)Why did he not place the woman on the barrel immediately?

7)

(a)Using a barrel of wine, Raban Gamliel bar Rebbi upheld a certain woman's claim that she was a Besulah, in spite of the fact that there was no Dam Besulim - by sitting first a Shifchah who was a Besulah on a barrel of wine and then, a Be'ulah. When the smell of the wine passed through the body of the latter, but not of the former, he did the same to the woman in question to prove that she was still a Besulah.

(b)He did not place the woman on the barrel immediately - because, although he had heard of that method, he had not tried it out before, and did want to degrade a Jewish woman by using her as a guinea-pig for a such a test.

8)

(a)In another incident involving Raban Gamliel ha'Zaken, the woman was a Besulah, even there was no Dam Besulim. How did Raban Gamliel ascertain that?

(b)What is the acronym of 'Durteki'?

(c)What did Rebbi Chanina comment with regard to Raban Gamliel's statement (expressing how fortunate the man was to get a woman from such a family)?

(d)How did Rebbi Chiya compare Dam Besulim to yeast? Which Tana agrees with this principle?

8)

(a)In another incident involving Raban Gamliel ha'Zaken, the woman was a Besulah despite of their being no Dam Besulim. Raban Gamliel ascertained that - by substantiating her claim that she belonged to the family called Durteki (by confirming it with other members of her family), who were known to have no Dam Besulim.

(b)The acronym of 'Durteki' is - 'Dor Ketia' (cut-off generation).

(c)With regard to Raban Gamliel's statement (expressing how fortunate the man was to get a woman from such a family) - Rebbi Chanina commented that this was really a futile consolation, since we have a principle 'the less blood, the less children' (as is borne out by the acronym).

(d)Rebbi Chiya compared Dam Besulim to yeast, inasmuch as - it is to a woman (to make her succeed in her role of child-bearer), like yeast is to dough (to bring it to perfection). Rebbi Meir agrees with this principle.

9)

(a)There are two opinions as to whether Raban Gamliel ha'Zaken considered marrying such a woman a merit or a liability. He might consider it a Chov, because of Rebbi Chiya's statement. But in which regard would he consider it a Zechus?

(b)What did Rebbi do when a certain woman claimed she was still a Besulah, and that the lack of Dam Besulim was due to starvation?

(c)What did he mean when he quoted the Pasuk in Eichah "Tzafad Oram al Besaram, Yavesh Hayah k'Etz"?

9)

(a)There are two opinions as to whether Raban Gamliel ha'Zaken considered marrying such a woman a 'Zechus' or a 'Chov'. He would consider it a liability, because of Rebbi Chiya's statement. And he might consider it a merit - seeing as the husband will never have the aggravating problem of Safek Nidah.

(b)When a certain woman claimed that she was still a Besulah, and that the lack of Dam Besulim was due to starvation - he noted that both of their faces were black from hunger, so he ordered baths to be prepared for them and, after they had bathed, he fed them and gave them to drink. Then he led them into a private room, and after they had been intimate, they found the required bloodstains.

(c)When he quoted the Pasuk "Tzafad Oram al Besaram, Yavesh Hayah k'Etz" - he was referring to their situation, which shows that hunger affects the body, causing the skin to stick to the flesh or simply, that it turns black.

10)

(a)Our Mishnah now discusses the value of the various Kesuvos. How much is the Kesubah of ...

1. ... a Besulah?

2. ... an Almanah?

3. ... an Almanah or a Gerushah from the Erusin, should she marry again?

(b)What happens in the latter case, should her second husband claim a Ta'anas Besulim?

10)

(a)Our Mishnah now discusses the value of the various Kesuvos. The Kesubah of ...

1. ... a Besulah is - two hundred Zuz.

2. ... an Almanah is - one hundred Zuz.

3. ... an Almanah or a Gerushah from the Erusin, if she marries again - is two hundred Zuz (because she is still a Besulah).

(b)In the latter case, should her second husband claim a Ta'anas Besulim - he is believed and she loses her entire Kesuvah (because it is 'a false sale').

11)

(a)How does Rav Chana Bagdesa'ah explain the word 'Almanah'?

(b)How about ...

1. ... an Almanah from the Erusin (whose Kesuvah is two hundred Zuz)?

2. ... the Almanah about which the Torah speaks (seeing as the Kesuvah is a Takanas Chachamim)?

(c)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Bereishis "v'Shem ha'Nahar ha'Shelishi Chidekel, Hu ha'Holech Kidmas Ashur"?

11)

(a)Rav Chana Bagdesa'ah explains - that the word 'Almanah' is a derivative of Manah (a hundred Zuz [which is the amount of her Kesuvah]).

(b)And the same applies to ...

1. ... an Almanah from the Erusin (despite the fact that her Kesuvah is two hundred Zuz) - because Chazal did not want to differentiate between them.

2. ... the Almanah about which the Torah speaks (despite the fact that a Kesubah is a Takanas Chachamim) - because sometimes, even the Torah hints to the Takanos of Chazal.

(c)We learn from the Pasuk "v'Shem ha'Nahar Shelishi Chidekel, Hu ha'Holech Kidmas Ashur" - that the Torah sometimes refers to place-names and events of the future (such as the name 'Ashur', which was called after Ashur, who only came into the world close to two thousand years later).

12)

(a)What did Rav Chana Bagdesa'ah describe as 'something that waters, fertilizes, makes the fruit delicious and brings it out'?

(b)How does Rava bar Rebbi Yishmael or Rav Yeisar bar Shalmaya learn all of these from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Telamehah Ravei Nacheis Gedudehah bi'Revivim Temogagnah, Tzimchah Tevarech"?

(c)And what did Rebbi Elazar describe as something that 'removes (Mezi'ach), feeds, endears and removes sins (Mechaper - atones)?

(d)What is the difference between 'Mezi'ach' and 'Mechaper', seeing as both mean to remove?

12)

(a)When Rav Chana Bagdesa'ah described 'something that waters and saturates, fertilizes, makes the fruit delicious and brings it out' - he was describing the rain.

(b)Rava bar Rebbi Yishmael or Rav Yeisar bar Shalmaya learns all of these from the Pasuk "Telamehah Ravei Nacheis Gedudehah bi'Revivim Temogagnah, Tzimchah Tevarech" - because "Ravei" means waters and saturates, "Temogagnah" means fertilizes and " Tzimchah Tevarech" means makes the fruit delicious and brings it out'.

(c)And when Rebbi Elazar described something that 'removes (Mezi'ach), feeds, endears and removes sins (Mechaper - atones) - he was referring to the Mizbe'ach.

(d)The difference between 'Mezi'ach' and 'Mechaper' - is that the latter removes sin (atones), whereas the former removes evil decrees.

13)

(a)What was Rav Chana Bagdesa'ah referring to when he described something that 'heats the body, satisfies, causes diarrhea, strengthens and prevents finickiness'?

(b)According to Rav, what may one not do after eating dates?

(c)We query Rav however, from a Beraisa, which declares dates healthy in the morning and in the evening, but bad in the late afternoon. Why is that?

(d)Why are they better the early afternoon (after lunch) than in the evening (after supper)?

13)

(a)When Rav Chana Bagdesa'ah described something that 'heats the body, satisfies, loosens the bowels, strengthens and prevents finickiness' - he was referring to dates.

(b)According to Rav - issue rulings after eating dates.

(c)We query Rav however, from a Beraisa, which declares dates healthy in the morning and in the evening, but bad in the late afternoon (during Minchah Ketanah) - because they are only healthy when they are eaten after meals (breakfast and supper), but not before meals.

(d)They are better in the early afternoon (after lunch) than in the evening (after supper) - because it is preferable to go out to the fields during the day than at night..

14)

(a)The Beraisa concludes by listing three unpleasant things that dates prevent; two of them are worries and stomach- sickness. What is the third?

(b)How do we initially reconcile Rav, who ruled that one should not issue rulings after having eaten dates (implying that dates are bad after a meal), with the above-mentioned Beraisa, which clearly maintains that dates are healthy after a meal?

(c)To what are dates similar in this regard?

(d)Alternatively, it is only before the meal that dates are unhealthy and when they intoxicate, but not after it. To what did Abaye's foster-mother compare dates ...

1. ... before the meal?

2. ... after the meal?

14)

(a)The Beraisa concludes by listing three unpleasant things that dates prevent; worries and stomach-sickness - and piles.

(b)We initially reconcile Rav, who ruled that one should not issue rulings after having eaten dates (implying that dates are bad after a meal), with the above-mentioned Beraisa, which clearly maintains that dates are healthy after a meal - by pointing out that in fact, Rav said nothing about dates being unhealthy after a meal, only that they intoxicate.

(c)Dates, in this regard, are similar to - wine, which also intoxicates, even though it is healthy.

(d)Alternatively, it is only before the meal that dates intoxicate (when they are also unhealthy), but not after it. Abaye's foster-mother said that dates ...

1. ... before the meal - are as harmful to the body as a bolt in a palm-tree, whereas ...

2. ... after the meal - they strengthen the body like a bolt strengthens a door.

15)

(a)Having just referred to 'Dasha' (door), Rava and Rav Papa now explain the acronyms of 'Dasha' and of 'Darga' (a ladder) and 'Puriah' (a bed). What is the acronym of ...

1. ... Dasha ...

2. ... Darga ...

3. ... Puriah ...

(b)Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak adds Aylonis. What is the acronym of Aylonis?

15)

(a)Having just referred to 'Dasha' (door), Rava and Rav Papa now explain the acronyms of 'Dasha' and of 'Darga' (a ladder) and 'Puriah' (a bed). The acronym of ...

1. ... Dasha is - 'Derech Sham'.

2. ... Darga is - 'Derech Gag'

3. ... Puriah is - 'Parin v'Ravin Alehah'.

(b)Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak adds Aylonis - which is the acronym of 'Ayil d'Lo Yaldah' (because she is like a male who cannot bear children).

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