1)

(a)How many Berachos does Rav Yehudah spell out?

(b)Which one does he omit?

1)

(a)Rav Yehudah spells out - six Berachos ('she'ha'Kol Bara li'Chvodo', 'Yotzer ha'Adam', 'Asher Yatzar es ha'Adam b'Tzalmo ...', 'Sos Tasis ... ', 'Same'ach Tesamach ... ' & 'Asher Bara ... '.

(b)He omits 'Borei Pri ha'Gafen', which we will discuss shortly.

2)

(a)What is the significance of 'Asher Yatzar es ha'Adam b'Tzalmo, and 'v'Hiskin Lo Mimenu Binyan Adei Ad' in the third Berachah?

(b)In the order of the Sheva Berachos, what is the significance of the Berachah ...

1. ... 'Sos Tasis'?

2. ... 'Same'ach Tesamach Re'im ha'Ahuvim'?

3. ... 'Asher Bara'?

(c)The first two Berachos are not really an intrinsic part of the Sheva Berachos. Then what is the significance of ...

1. ... the first Berachah ('she'ha'Kol Bara li'Chvodo')? Why is it not said as soon as the people gather?

2. ... the second Berachah ('Yotzer ha'Adam')?

(d)Seeing as it does not really belong here, why is it added?

(e)Who are the 'Re'im ha'Ahuvim' mentioned in the fifth Berachah?

2)

(a)In the third Berachah - 'Asher Yatzar es ha'Adam b'Tzalmo' refers to the creation of Adam, and 'v'Hiskin Lo Mimenu Binyan Adei Ad' - to the creation of Chavah.

(b)In the order of the Sheva Berachos, the Berachah of ...

1. ... 'Sos Tasis' - is to remember Yerushalayim (as the Pasuk says in Tehilim "im Lo E'eleh es Yerushalayim al Rosh Simchasi".

2. ... 'Same'ach Tesamach' - is a Berachah for the Chasan and Kalah, wishing them every success in their forthcoming lives together

3. ... 'Asher Bara' - is a Berachah for the whole of Yisrael.

(c)The first two Berachos are not really an intrinsic part of the Sheva Berachos. The significance of ...

1. ... the first Berachah ('she'ha'Kol Bara li'Chvodo') - is in honor of all the people who gathered together to perform Chesed with the Chasan and Kalah, just like Hash-m did in Gan Eden, when he acted as Adam's groomsman. It is not said as soon as the people gather, because it is better to recite it over a cup of wine together with the other Berachos (like we do with the Berachah over the Besamim and the Ner when we recite Havdalah).

2. ... the second Berachah ('Yotzer ha'Adam') - is to commemorate the creation of Adam.

(d)Despite the fact that this Berachah does not really belong here, it is added - because, seeing as we are about to discuss the creation of Chavah from Adam, it makes sense to insert a Berachah that deals with the creation of Adam, who was an intrinsic part of the initial creation.

(e)The 'Re'im ha'Ahuvim' mentioned in the fifth Berachah - are the Chasan and the Kalah.

3)

(a)Why does the third Berachah ('Asher Yatzar es ha'Adam b'Tzalmo ... ' begin and end with a Berachah, but not the two subsequent Berachos 'Sos Tasis' and 'Same'ach Tesamach'?

(b)Then why does the sixth Berachah 'Asher Bara' begin and end with a Berachah?

(c)Why is Birchas Chasanim referred to as 'Sheva Berachos', when we only discuss six?

(d)Why is it that, the Berachah Same'ach Tesamach ends with the words 'Mesame'ach Chasan v'Chalah', whereas that of Asher Bara ends 'Mesame'ach Chasan im ha'Kalah'?

3)

(a)The third Berachah ('Asher Yatzar es ha'Adam b'Tzalmo ... ' begins and end with a Berachah - since it is the first of the intrinsic group of Sheva Berachos; but not the two subsequent Berachos 'Sos Tasis' and 'Same'ach Tesamach', seeing as they are 'Berachos ha'Semuchos la'Chavertan'.

(b)The sixth Berachah 'Asher Bara' nevertheless begins and ends with a Berachah - since it is sometimes said on its own (i.e. when there is no Panim Chadashos).

(c)Birchas Chasanim is referred to as 'Sheva Berachos', despite the fact that the Gemara only discusses six - because they are made over a cup of wine, whose Berachah constitutes the seventh one.

(d)The Berachah 'Same'ach Tesamach' ends with the words 'Mesame'ach Chasan v'Chalah', whereas 'Asher Bara' ends 'Mesame'ach Chasan im ha'Kalah' - because the former refers, not to the marriage, but to general success in all their endeavors, whereas the latter refers to success in their marital relations.

4)

(a)Rav Asi recited six Berachos (excluding 'Borei Pri ha'Gafen') at the wedding of Mar Brei d'Rav Ashi; whereas at the wedding of Rebbi Shimon Brei d'Rebbi, Levi recited only five. Which Berachah did he omit?

(b)There are two opinions as to whether Adam and Chavah were created together ('Chada Yetzirah Havai') or separately ('Shtei Yetziros Havai'). What is the meaning of ...

1. ... 'Chada Yetzirah Havai'?

2. ... 'Shtei Yetziros Havai'?

(c)How do we initially link the Machlokes between Rav Asi and Levi with the current Machlokes? With which opinion does each of them conform?

4)

(a)Rav Asi recited six Berachos (excluding 'Borei Pri ha'Gafen') at the wedding of Mar Brei d'Rav Ashi. At the wedding of Rebbi Shimon Brei d'Rebbi, Levi recited only five - omitting that of 'Yotzer ha'Adam'.

(b)There are two opinions as to whether Adam and Chavah were created ...

1. ... together ('Chada Yetzirah Havai'), meaning - that Hash-m incorporated Chavah into the creation of Adam, by creating Adam with two sides (one side Adam, the other side Chavah).

2. ... or independently ('Shtei Yetziros Havai'), meaning - that He created Adam with a tail, and it was from that tail that He created Chavah.

(c)Initially, we link Levi, who omitted 'Yotzer ha'Adam with those who say that - Adam and Chavah were created together, and Rav Asi with those who maintain that they were created independently (and therefore require independent Berachos).

5)

(a)How do we ultimately explain Rav Asi, even according to those who hold that they were created together?

(b)The basis of their Machlokes is based in turn on a statement of Rav Yehudah. How did Rav Yehudah resolve the seemingly contradictory Pesukim in Bereishis "va'Yivra Elokim es ha'Adam b'Tzalmo (and not Chavah) and "Zachar u'Nekeivah Bera'am"?

(c)How does that help us define the Machlokes between Levi and Rav Asi?

5)

(a)We ultimately explain Rav Asi even according to those who hold that they were created together - because already at that stage, Hash-m had in mind (for the sake of peace) to separate them into two independent creations.

(b)The basis of their Machlokes is based in turn on a statement of Rav Yehudah, who resolved the seemingly contradictory Pesukim in Bereishis "va'Yivra Elokim es ha'Adam b'Tzalmo (and not Chavah) and "Zachar u'Nekevah Bera'am" - by establishing the first Pasuk after what Hash-m actually did, and the second, according to what He intended to do.

(c)Likewise, Levi goes after what Hash-m actually did (Ma'aseh), whereas Rav Asi goes after what He intended to do (Machshavah).

6)

(a)When Rav Ashi arrived at Bei Rav Kahana, he recited all the Birchos Chasanim on the first day. On what condition did he change the procedure on the subsequent days?

(b)Why is that?

(c)Which two items did he nevertheless recite?

6)

(a)When Rav Ashi arrived at Bei Rav Kahana, he recited all the Birchos Chasanim on the first day. He changed the procedure on the subsequent days - if there were no Panim Chadashos ...

(b)... because then it is merely of increasing the Simchah that has already taken place.

(c)He nevertheless recited 'she'ha'Simchah bi'Me'ono' (during Birchas ha'Zimun) and the Berachah of 'Asher Bara'.

7)

(a)What did Rav Ashi say about continuing to insert 'she'ha'Simchah bi'Me'ono' ...

1. ... until the end of thirty days?

2. ... after thirty days?

(b)Until when does one continue to insert it, according to Rav Papi Amar Rava?

(c)And when does one begin inserting it, according to Rav Papa?

(d)So why did ...

1. ... Rav Papa begin saying it already from the betrothal of his son Aba Mar?

2. ... Ravina begin saying it from the time that he betrothed his son to the daughter of Rav Chaviva?

(e)Was the latter's optimism justified?

7)

(a)He ruled that one continues to insert 'she'ha'Simchah bi'Me'ono' ...

1. ... until the end of thirty days - irrespective of whether the guests have been invited specifically in honor of the Chasan and Kalah or not ...

2. ... but from thirty days and onwards - only if they have.

(b)According to Rav Papi Amar Rava, one continues to insert it - up to twelve months.

(c)One begins inserting it, according to Rav Papa - from the moment that one first soaks the barley in a dish of water, in order to make the beer for the wedding (or from the time that one plants barley in a pot as a Siman Tov that they should have many children).

(d)Nevertheless ...

1. ... Rav Papa began saying it already from the betrothal of his son Aba Mar - because all the wedding preparations were already completed at that stage.

2. ... Ravina began saying it from the time that he betrothed his son to the daughter of Rav Chaviva - because he was certain that Rav Chaviva would not retract.

(e)Unfortunately however, the latter's optimism was not justified, because Rav Chaviva broke off the engagement.

8)

(a)What did Rav Tachlifa bar Ma'arva used to do when reciting the Sheva Berachos?

(b)Is that the Halachah?

(c)Why is the Halachah not like Rav Chaviva, who used to insert 'she'ha'Simchah bi'Me'ono' in the Birchas ha'Mazon by a Bris?

(d)According to Rav Nachman Amar Rav, a Chasan can be included in the Minyan for Birchas Chasanim, whereas an Avel is included for Birchas Avelim. What does the Beraisa say?

(e)How do we reconcile Rav Nachman Amar Rav with the Beraisa?

8)

(a)When reciting the Sheva Berachos - Rav Tachlifa bar Ma'arva used to add to the text of the short Berachos, turning them all into long ones.

(b)It is not Halachah however - seeing as we do not agree with him.

(c)Nor is the Halachah like Rav Chaviva, who used to insert 'she'ha'Simchah bi'Me'ono' in Birchas ha'Mazon by a Bris Milah - because how it is insensitive to talk about Simchah, when the baby is in pain.

(d)According to Rav Nachman Amar Rav, a Chasan can be included in the Minyan for Birchas Chasanim, whereas by Birchas Avelim, an Avel cannot. The Beraisa says - that both Chasanim and Avelim are included in their respective Minyanim!

(e)We reconcile Rav with the Beraisa - by ascribing to Rav the status of a Tana, in which case he has the authority to argue with a Beraisa.

8b----------------------------------------8b

9)

(a)To reconcile Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Yochanan (who, like Rav, ruled that a Chasan can be included in the Minyan for Birchas Chasanim, whereas an Avel cannot be included in the Minyan for Birchas Avelim), with the Beraisa, how do we initially establish ...

1. ... the Beraisa?

2. ... Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Yochanan?

(b)How do we refute that answer on the basis of another statement of Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Yochanan (' ... 'u'Birchas Avelim ba'Asarah v'Ein Avelim min ha'Minyan')?

(c)So to which Berachah of an Avel is Rebbi Yochanan then referring in his first statement?

(d)What is Birchas Rechavah? How does it conclude?

(e)But Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Yochanan also said in the same connection, that Birchas Avelim applies all seven days. Since when does Birchas Rechavah apply after the first day?

9)

(a)To reconcile Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Yochanan (who, like Rav, ruled that a Chasan can be included in the Minyan for Birchas Chasanim, whereas an Avel cannot be included in the Minyan for Birchas Avelim), with the Beraisa, how do we initially establish ...

1. ... the Beraisa by Birchas ha'Mazon, and ...

2. ... Rebbi Yochanan, by the Shurah (that one makes for the mourner after the burial).

(b)We refute this answer however, on the basis of another statement of Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Yochanan(' ... u'Birchas Avelim ba'Asarah v'Ein Avelim min ha'Minyan') - because the Shurah does not require a Berachah.

(c)We therefore conclude that, in his first statement - Rebbi Yochanan was referring to Birchas Rechavah ...

(d)... the Berachah they used to recite when they brought the Avel his first meal after the burial, in the street, which concludes 'Baruch Menachem Avelim'.

(e)Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Yochanan also said in the same connection, that Birchas Avelim applies all seven days. Even though Birchas Rechavah is normally confined to the first day, it nevertheless extends to the entire seven days - whenever there are Panim Chadashos present.

10)

(a)A child of Rav Chiya bar Aba died. Who was Rav Chiya bar Aba?

(b)How do we prove from there that it is possible to recite Birchas Rechavah again (as we just explained), even after the first day (as we just explained)?

(c)Why did Resh Lakish bring Yehudah bar Nachmeni with him? Who was Yehudah bar Nachmeni?

10)

(a)A child of Rav Chiya bar Aba - (the Rebbe who taught Resh Lakish's children Chumash or Mishnah), died.

(b)We prove from there that it is possible to recite Birchas Rechavah again (as we just explained) - because Resh Lakish recited Birchas Rechavah, even though he only went to visit Rav Chiya bar Aba on the second day.

(c)Resh Lakish brought Yehudah bar Nachmeni (his translator) with him - to eulogize the deceased child.

11)

(a)What message was the latter coming to convey, when he cited the Pasuk in Ha'azinu "va'Yar Hash-m va'Yin'atz, mi'Ka'as Banav u'Benosav"?

(b)According to others, he was a Bachur, and Resh Lakish quoted a Pasuk in Yeshayah, which deals among other things, with immoral speech. How does Rav Chanan bar Rav explain the Navi's concluding words "v'Od Yado Netuyah"?

(c)Seeing as Yehudah bar Nechemyah came to console Rav Chiya bar Aba, why did he speak so harshly of him?

11)

(a)When the latter cited the Pasuk in Ha'azinu "va'Yar Hash-m va'Yin'atz, mi'Ka'as Banav u'Benosav" - he was conveying the message that Rebbi Chiya bar Aba's child died because of his father (R. Chiya bar Aba)'s sins.

(b)According to others, Rebbi Chiya bar Aba's child was a Bachur, and Resh Lakish quoted a Pasuk in Yeshayah, which deals among other things, with immoral speech. Rav Chanan bar Rav explains the Navi's concluding words "v'Od Yado Netuyah" - he was referring to someone who merely expresses why a Kalah goes under the Chupah (even though everyone knows why). Even a Divine lease of seventy years will be torn-up for such speech.

(c)Although Yehudah bar Nechemyah came to console Rav Chiya bar Aba, Resh Lakish nevertheless spoke harshly of him - because what he really meant to say was that he was fit to atone for the entire world through his own death or that of his young children (like Chazal have said about great Tzadikim).

12)

(a)Resh Lakish then instructed Yehudah bar Nechemyah to recite a series of Berachos, which he proceeded to do. How did he conclude ...

1. ... the first Berachah, which concerned the greatness of Hash-m?

2. ... the second Berachah ('Birchas Rechavah') which concerned the mourners?

3. ... the third Berachah, which concerned the comforters?

(b)The fourth Berachah concluded 'Baruch ... Otzer ha'Magefah'. Whom did it concern? What is the gist of the Berachah?

(c)Why did Yehudah bar Nechemyah mention the covenant of Avraham Avinu in the third Berachah?

(d)What was the basic difference between the first of the above Berachos and the other Berachos?

12)

(a)Resh Lakish then instructed Yehudah bar Nechemyah to recite a series of Berachos, which he proceeded to do. He concluded ...

1. ... the first Berachah, which concerned the greatness of Hash-m - 'Baruch ... Mechayeh ha'Meisim'.

2. ... the second Berachah ('Birchas Rechavah') which concerned the mourners - 'Baruch ... Menachem Avelim'.

3. ... the third Berachah, which concerned the Menachamim (the comforters) - 'Baruch ... Meshalem ha'Gemul'.

(b)The fourth Berachah concluded 'Baruch ... Otzer ha'Magefah'. It concerned - the whole of Klal Yisrael, and the gist of the Berachah was a request for Hash-m to deliver them from all sorts of Tzaros.

(c)Yehudah bar Nechemyah mentioned the covenant of Avraham Avinu in the third Berachah - because he was the great performer of Chesed (and the essence of this Berachah is kindness performed by the Menachamim on behalf of the Avelim).

(d)The basic difference between the first of the above Berachos and the other Berachos is - that the first Berachah began 'Baruch Atah Hash-m Elokeinu Melech ha'Olam ... ", whereas all the others did not, because they were Berachos ha'Semuchos la'Chavertan.

13)

(a)What do Resh Lakish and the Tana in the name of Rebbi Yosi say about minding what one says?

(b)Rav Yosef learns it from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ki'Sdom Hayinu, ka'Amora Daminu". Who said that? What did Hash-m reply?

(c)What did Yehudah bar Nechemyah mean when, in the second of the above Berachos, he inserted the consolation 'Many have drank, many will drink; Just as those before drank, so too will those afterwards drink'?

(d)When was this decree instituted?

(e)Based on Resh Lakish's Derashah, what was Abaye objection to these words? What ought Yehudah ben Nechemyah have said?

13)

(a)Resh Lakish and the Tana in the name of Rebbi Yosi warn - about 'opening one's mouth to the Satan'.

(b)Rav Yosef learns it from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ki'Sedom Hayinu, ka'Amora Daminu" - which Yisrael said and to which Hash-m replied - "Shim'u Devar Hash-m Ketzinei Sedom ... Am Amora".

(c)When, in the second of the above Berachos, Yehudah bar Nechemyah inserted the consolation 'Many have drank, many will drink; Just as those before drank, so too will those afterwards drink', he meant to say - that 'the cup of mourning' is one of those things that everybody has to drink from at one time or another', and just as it happened in the past, so too will it happen in future.

(d)This decree was instituted - from the six days of the creation.

(e)Based on Resh Lakish's Derashah, however, Abaye object to these words. Yehudah bar Nechemyah ought not to have mentioned the future at all (because of 'Al Yiftach Adam es Piv l'Satan') and to have confined his statement to the past.

14)

(a)How many cups of wine does Ula (or a Beraisa) say the Chachamim necessitated in the house of an Avel?

(b)On which Pasuk in Mishlei are these cups based?

(c)What is the purpose of the three cups ...

1. ... before the meal?

2. ... after the meal?

(d)When did they drink the last four cups?

(e)To what did these four cups correspond (see Hagahos ha'Gra)?

14)

(a)Ula (or a Beraisa) state that the Chachamim instituted ten cups of wine in the house of an Avel ...

(b)... on the basis of the Pasuk in Mishlei "Tenu Shechar l'Oveid, v'Yayin l'Marei Nefesh".

(c)The purpose of the three cups ...

1. ... before the meal - is to stimulate the appetite.

2. ... after the meal - is to wash down the food.

(d)They drank the last four cups - during Birchas ha'Mazon, one after each Berachah.

(e)According to the Hagahos ha'Gra, these four cups may well have corresponded to the four Berachos (in honor of Hash-m, of the Avel, of the Menachamim and of all Yisrael, that we cited earlier (see also Agados Maharsha).

15)

(a)They later instituted another four cups; two of them corresponding to the Chazanei ha'Ir and the Parnesei ha'Ir. What, in this regard, was the significance of the ...

1. ... Chazanei ha'Ir?

2. ... Parnesei ha'Ir?

(b)The third cup served as a consolation for the destroyed Beis Hamikdash, and the fourth, corresponded to Raban Gamliel. What did Raban Gamliel do to earn him this distinction?

(c)What does Rav Papa say about the current Minhag?

(d)Why did the Chachamim revoke the Takanah of the final four cups to be drunk after Birchas ha'Mazon in a Beis Avel?

15)

(a)They later instituted another four cups; two of them corresponding to the Chazanei ha'Ir and the Parnesei ha'Ir. The significance here, of the ...

1. ... Chazanei ha'Ir is - that, in their capacity as high-ranking town officials, they were, among their manifold duties, in charge of looking after the town's dead.

2. ... Parnesei ha'Ir is - that being wealthy, they would pay for the burial of the town's poor.

(b)The third cup served as a consolation for the destroyed Beis Hamikdash, and the fourth, corresponded to Raban Gamliel - who set a precedent ordering that, when he died, they should bury him in cheap linen shrouds. Prior to that, people were being buried in expensive ones, causing those who could not afford it to run away in embarrassment, leaving their dead unburied.

(c)According to Rav Papa, the Minhag is - to bury the dead in cheap canvas shrouds, worth no more than a Zuz.

(d)The Chachamim revoked the Takanah of the four final cups to be drunk after Birchas ha'Mazon in a Beis Avel - because they saw that people were beginning to get drunk.

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