[25a - 48 lines; 25b - 47 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 25a [line 27]:
"d'Tanya, Ne'emar Machshir u'Mechaper" דתניא נאמר מכשיר ומכפר
Rashi's Girsa is "d'Tana d'Vei Rebbi Yishmael, Ne'emar Machshir u'Mechaper" דתנא דבי רבי ישמאעל נאמר מכשיר ומכפר
 Gemara [line 44]:
The words "Misyada Lei" מתיידע ליה
should be "l'Chi Misyada Lei" לכי מתיידע ליה (Rashi)
 Gemara [last line]:
The words "Tani Rebbi Chiya Kamei d'Rava" תני רבי חייא קמיה דרבא
should be "Tani Rav Chiya Kamei d'Rava" תני רב חייא קמיה דרבא (beause Rava never saw Rebbi Chiya, -Ya'avetz)
This is referring to Rav Chiya bar Avin רב חייא בר אבין (Rashash)
 Rashi 25a DH Af Machshir u'Mechaper ד"ה אף מכשיר ומכפר:
(a) The word "k'Mechaper" כמכפר is the beginning of a new Dibur
(b) The words "b'Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach" בשעיר המשתלח
should be "k'Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach" כשעיר המשתלח (Rashash)
 Gemara 25b [line 16]:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #6
 Gemara [line 19]:
The words "d'Chi Misyada Lei Maisi" דכי מתיידע ליה מייתי
should be "ul'Chi Misyada Lei Maisi" ולכי מתיידע ליה מייתי
 Gemara [line 21]:
"Chayavei Chata'os ... ka'Tani" חייבי חטאות ... קתני
These words are unnecessary; there should also be a colon following the word "Ashamos Teluyin Peturin" in the next line (line 23)
 Rashi 25b DH Min Reisha di'Kra ד"ה מן רישא דקרא:
Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #19
1)[line 1]ונסבין חברייא למימרV'NASVIN CHEVRAYA L'MEIMAR- and the colleagues of the Yeshiva are inclined to say
2)[line 2]נחל איתןNACHAL EISAN- (a) a swiftly flowing stream (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2); (b) a valley with tough soil (RASHI) (see Insights to Sotah 46:1)
3)[line 4]השוחט פרת חטאת ... רבי שמעון פוטר וחכמים מחייביןHA'SHOCHET PARAS CHATAS ... REBBI SHIMON POTER, VA'CHACHAMIM MECHAIVIN- this is referring to one who slaughters a Shor ha'Niskal or a Paras Chatas and its offspring on the same day, in violation of the verse "v'Shor O Seh, Oso v'Es Beno Lo Sishchatu b'Yom Echad" (Vayikra 22:28; see Background to Kerisus 15:1)
4a)[line 4]פרת חטאתPARAS CHATAS (PARAH ADUMAH)
(a)The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired cow, is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes (Bamidbar 19:1-22). Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah (Bamidbar 19:2).
(b)A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. Performing another action while slaughtering the Parah Adumah, such as cutting a gourd, invalidates the Parah (Chulin 32a, SIFREI Chukas 19:3).
(c)Sereifas ha'Parah (burning the cow) is also performed on Har ha'Zeisim. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool, are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning (Bamidbar 19:6).
(d)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a corpse or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah (Bamidbar 19:17-19).
5)[line 7]שחיטה שאינה ראויה לא שמה שחיטהSHECHITAH SHE'EINAH RE'UYAH LO SHMAH SHECHITAH
(a)A proper Shechitah (ritual slaughter) that does not permit the animal to be eaten is referred to as a "Shechitah she'Einah Re'uyah." The Shechitah of a Shor ha'Niskal (see Background to Kerisus 23:11) and the Shechitah of Chulin in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash (see Background to Chulin 85:10) are examples of Shechitah She'einah Re'uyah. (A Shechitah that was not performed properly is not a Shechitah she'Einah Re'uyah; it is not a Shechitah at all.) If an Eglah Arufah is forbidden during its lifetime, then its Shechitah is also a Shechitah she'Einah Re'uyah.
(b)There is a Machlokes Tana'im whether a Shechitah that does not permit the animal to be eaten has the title of "Shechitah" (for various Halachic purposes other than for eating, such as to obligate a Ganav — who slaughters an animal that is found to be a Tereifah — to pay Arba'ah v'Chamishah and such as for the prohibition of "Oso v'Es Beno" to apply).
(c)Rav Hamnuna claims that the argument between Rebbi Shimon and the Chachamim is whether or not one transgresses the Lav of Oso v'Es Beno with a Shechitah she'Einah Re'uyah.
6a)[line 28]נאמר מכשיר ומכפר בפניםNE'EMAR MACHSHIR U'MECHAPER BIFNIM- the Torah teaches about [bringing] animals that are Machshir — that make certain individuals fit to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and eat Kodshim (e.g. the Chatas and Asham brought by a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes and Metzora) — and animals that atone (e.g. the Chatas and Asham brought by sinners) inside the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, as sacrifices
b)[line 28]ונאמר מכשיר ומכפר בחוץV'NE'EMAR MACHSHIR U'MECHAPER BA'CHUTZ- the Torah teaches about [bringing] animals that are Machshir (e.g. the birds brought to purify the Metzora and enable him to enter a settlement) and animals that atone (e.g. the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach and Eglah Arufah) outside of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash
7)[line 36]המעוןהזהH A'MA'ON HA'ZEH- [I vow in the Name of the One Who resides in] this dwelling (the Beis ha'Mikdash)
8)[line 44][לכי] מתיידע ליה[L'CHI] MISYADA LEI- when it becomes known to him
9)[last line]אשם תלוי עיקר בחובה כתיבASHAM TALUY IKAR B'CHOVAH KESIV- that is, the verse that discusses Asham Taluy obligates a person to bring the Korban when he has possibly transgressed an Isur Kares, as the Chachamim learn from the Gezeirah Shavah of "Mitzvos-Mitzvos" (25b)
10)[line 4]מאי טעמא לא מתנית?MAI TAIMA LO MASNIS?- why did you not learn Mishnayos very well? (RASHI, according to the BACH #4)
11)[line 5]זימנין סגיאין תניתה קמימרZ IMNIN SAGI'IN TANISAH KAMEI MAR- I said it many times before Mar (a third-person term of respect)
12)[line 19]דכי מתיידע ליה מייתיD'CHI MISYADA LEI MAISI- he must bring the Korban when he eventually discovers that he sinned
13)[line 27]עבירות דמצוה ידועהAVEIROS D'MITZVAH YEDU'AH- transgressions of a Mitzvah that the transgressor knows about
14)[line 33]למימרא ... ומיעטיה קרא בשעיר המשתלחU'MI'ATEI KRA B'SA'IR HA'MISHTALE'ACH L'MEIMRA ...- that is, just like the Sa'ir is not Mechaper for Chayavei Chata'os, likewise, the day itself (which also atones for Sefeikos) is not Mechaper for Chayavei Chata'os
15)[line 34]איתמר נמיITMAR NAMI- these words are similar to "v'Chen"; that is, Reish Lakish also brought the same source for this law as Abaye did