PRECEDENCE AMONG KORBANOS
(Mishnah): If the Par of the Kohen Gadol and the Par of the Tzibur... (we offer the Kohen's Par first).
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Beraisa) Question: He will burn (the Par of the Tzibur) like he burned the first Par" - what does this mean?
Answer: The first Par mentioned in the Parshah (of a Mashu'ach) is entirely offered before the Tzibur's Par.
(Beraisa #1): If the Par of the Kohen Gadol and the Par of the Tzibur are waiting to be offered, the Kohen Gadol offers his Par first, because he atones, and the Tzibur gets atonement;
It is proper that the atoner should get atonement before the ones he atones for - "(the Kohen Gadol) will atone for himself and his household and the whole congregation of Yisrael."
If the Tzibur sinned due to Hora'ah in idolatry and another Mitzvah, the Par for the other Mitzvah is offered first.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: The Par for the other Mitzvah is a Chatas, and the Par for idolatry is an Olah;
(Beraisa) Question: What do we learn from "he will offer the Chatas first"?
It need not teach that the Chatas is offered first. It already says "he will offer the second for an Olah"!
Answer: Rather, it teaches a general rule. A Chatas always precedes an Olah that accompanies it.
The Halachah is, even Chatas ha'Of (a bird) precedes an Olas Behemah.
The Par offered for idolatry precedes the Sa'ir for idolatry.
Question: The Par is an Olah and the Sa'ir is a Chatas! (The Chatas should be first!)
Answer #1 (Rabah bar Mari): "Chatas" is written missing an 'Aleph' to hint that it is not first.
Answer #2 (Rava): It says "like its law", i.e. like the order in which the Torah writes them. (The Par is mentioned first.)
The Tzibur's Sa'ir for idolatry precedes the Nasi's Sa'ir (Chatas).
A Korban of the Tzibur precedes the Korban of an individual.
The Nasi's Sa'ir precedes the Se'irah (Chatas) of a commoner.
The Korban of the king precedes that of a commoner.
The Se'irah of a commoner precedes the Kisvah of a commoner.
Contradiction (Beraisa #2): The Kisvah of a commoner precedes the Se'irah of a commoner.
Answer (Abaye): Tana'im argue which is offered first.
The Tana of Beraisa #1 holds that a Se'irah has precedence, for a commoner must bring it for idolatry;
The Tana of Beraisa #2 holds that a Kisvah has precedence, because its tail is offered.
The Omer (the barley Minchah brought on the second day of Pesach) precedes the lamb brought with it. Shtei ha'Lechem (the Minchah brought on Shavu'os) precedes the lambs brought with it;
The rule is, a Korban due to the day precedes a Korban that accompanies a Minchah.
PRECEDENCES AMONG PEOPLE
(Mishnah): A man precedes a woman regarding sustaining their lives and returning a lost object;
A woman precedes a man regarding clothing and to be redeemed from captivity;
If both are destined for sexual exploitation, we redeem the man first.
(Gemara - Beraisa): If Reuven, his father and his Rebbi are all in captivity, Reuven first redeems himself, then his Rebbi, then his father.
If his mother was captured, he redeems her first.
A Chacham precedes Melech Yisrael;
This is because not everyone is qualified to be a Chacham, but everyone is qualified to reign.
A king precedes the Kohen Gadol - "the Melech said (to the Kohen Gadol... ) 'of your master (i.e. myself)'."
A Kohen Gadol precedes a prophet - "Tzadok ha'Kohen and Noson ha'Navi" - Tzadok is mentioned first.
Also, it says "Yehoshua ha'Kohen ha'Gadol, you and your colleagues."
Suggestion: Perhaps his colleagues are commoners.
Rejection: "They are Anshei Mofes";
"Mofes" denotes a prophet - "he will show you a sign or Mofes (wonder)."
The hierarchy of Kohanim (from top down) is a Mashu'ach; a Merubah Begadim; a Mashu'ach she'Avar; a Mashu'ach who became blemished; Mashu'ach Milchamah; the Segan (the Kohen prepared to substitute, in case the Kohen Gadol becomes disqualified); and the Amarkal;
Question: Who is the Amarkal?
Answer (Rav Chisda): It is the one who Amar Kula (says everything, i.e. the Kohen appointed over everyone, i.e. all Gizbarim (treasurers of Hekdesh)).
After the Amarkal are a Gizbar; a head of a Mishmar (one of the 24 divisions of Kohanim; the Mishmaros alternated serving in the Mikdash); a head of a Beis Av (one of six subdivisions of a Mishmar; each served one day of the week); and a regular Kohen.
Question: If the Segan or the Mashu'ach Milchamah must become Tamei, which has precedence (to remain Tahor)?
Answer (Mar Zutra brei d'Rav Nachman - Beraisa): If the Segan and Mashu'ach Milchamah encountered an unattended corpse, the Mashu'ach Milchamah should bury it, for if the Kohen Gadol will be disqualified, the Segan will substitute for him.
Contradiction (Beraisa): The Mashu'ach Milchamah is above the Segan.
Answer (Ravina): The Mashu'ach Milchamah has precedence regarding sustenance (but regarding Tum'ah, the Segan has precedence).
PRECEDENCE AMONG LINEAGES
(Mishnah): The hierarchy of lineages (from top down) - Kohen; Levi; Yisrael; Mamzer; Nasin (a descendant of the Giv'onim, who converted through trickery; Chachamim decreed that they are like slaves); convert; freed slave.
This is when they are equal in Chachmah, but a Mamzer who is a Chacham precedes a Kohen Gadol that is an ignoramus!
(Gemara): Kohen precedes Levi - "(Hash-m) separated Aharon to be Kodesh Kodoshim."
Levi precedes Yisrael - "Hash-m separated the Shevet of Levi."
Yisrael precedes Mamzer, because a Yisrael has (proper) lineage, but a Mamzer does not;
Mamzer precedes Nasin, because a Mamzer comes from a Yisrael, but a Nasin does not;
A Nasin precedes a convert, because a Nasin grew up in Kedushah, but a convert did not;
A convert precedes a freed slave, because a convert is not cursed. A slave is cursed. (The greatest curse that No'ach found to curse Kena'an was that his descendants would be slaves. The Gemara does not mean that Stam slaves are from Kena'an. Yisrael were commanded to kill the Kena'anim - see Rashi on Vayikra 25:44.)
(Mishnah): This is when they are equal in Chachmah, but a Mamzer Chacham precedes an ignoramus Kohen Gadol.
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Rav Acha b'Rebbi Chanina): "(Torah) is dearer than Peninim (pearls)" it is dearer than a Kohen Gadol who enters LiFNaI v'LifNIM (the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim).
(Beraisa - R. Shimon): A freed slave should precede a convert, because a freed slave grew up in Kedushah, and a convert did not;
A convert comes first, because a convert is not cursed, but a slave is cursed.
Question: Why are men more eager to marry a convert than a freed slave?
Answer #1 (R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok): A convert is not cursed. A slave is cursed;
Answer #2: Also, a convert guarded herself (from wanton relations, because she planned to convert). A freed slave did not guard herself (she did not know that she would be freed).
THINGS GOOD AND BAD FOR MEMORY
Question: Why does a dog recognize his owner, but a cat does not?
Answer (R. Eliezer): One who eats from what a mouse ate from, he forgets. Cats eat mice, so all the more so they forget!
Question: Why are mice constantly chased?
Answer (R. Eliezer): They conduct wickedly.
Question: How is this?
Answer (Rava): They bite even garments (even though they get no benefit from this).
(Rav Papa): They bite even the handle of a shovel!
(Beraisa): Five things make one forget his learning:
Eating from what a mouse ate from;
Eating the heart of an animal;
Eating olives frequently;
Drinking water left over from washing;
Washing one foot over the other.
Some say, also sleeping with his head on his clothing.
Five things restore one's learning:
Eating bread baked on coals (and all the more so, the coals themselves);
Eating a scrambled egg without salt;
Frequent consumption of olive oil;
Frequently drinking wine and smelling spices;
Drinking water left over from kneading a dough;
Some say, also sticking one's finger in salt and using that finger to eat.
The Beraisa said that regular consumption of olive oil restores learning. This supports R. Yochanan.
(R. Yochanan): Just like eating olives makes one forget the Torah he knew for 70 years, olive oil restores the Torah he knew for 70 years
(Beraisa): Frequently drinking wine and smelling spices (restore one's learning).
This supports Rava.
(Rava): Wine and fragrances sharpen one's mind.
(Beraisa - Some say): Also sticking one's finger in salt (restores one's learning).
(Reish Lakish): This is when he eats with that one finger.
Tana'im argue about this.
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Eating with one finger (helps restore learning), but not eating with two;
R. Yosi says, with two fingers helps, but not with three.
A sign to remember the (proper number to use according to the two) opinions is the ring finger. (One finger stands on one side of it, two fingers stand (together) on the other side).
Ten things cause difficulty in learning;
Passing under the reins of a camel, and all the more so under a camel itself;
Passing between two camels; passing between two women; and a woman who passes between two men (causes difficulties for the men);
Passing where one can smell a carcass; passing under a bridge which has not had water under it for 40 days;
Eating bread that was not fully baked; eating the froth that accumulates on the spoon used to stir cooking meat; drinking from a stream that passes through a cemetery;
Looking at the face of a corpse;
Some say, also reading what is written on a tombstone.
HONORING THE NASI
(Beraisa): When the Nasi enters, all rise. They do not sit until he tells them.
When the Av Beis Din enters, everyone stands in two lines, on two sides. They do not sit until he sits.
When a Chacham enters, each person stands (when the Chacham enters within four Amos of the person) and sits (when the Chacham leaves his four Amos), until the Chacham sits in his place.
The children of Chachamim and budding Chachamim - if the Tzibur needs them, they may walk (amidst people, even if they appear to walk) on the people's heads;
If one left for a need, he may return to his place;
The children of Parnesim, i.e. Chachamim who are leaders of the Tzibur, if they understand what is taught, they sit in front, with their backs to the Tzibur;
If they do not understand, they sit in front of their fathers, facing the Tzibur.
R. Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok says, even in a banquet hall, they sit by their fathers.
(Beraisa): If one left for a need, he may return to his place.
(Rav Papa): That is only if he left to urinate. If he left to relieve himself (move his bowels), he was negligent (for not checking himself earlier if he needs to go), so he may not return to his place.
(Rav Yehudah): One should relieve himself morning and evening, so he will not have to distance himself during the day (to find a suitable place).
Nowadays, people are weaker, and even to relieve oneself is not negligence, so he may return.
(Beraisa - R. Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok): Even in a banquet hall, they sit by their fathers.
(Rava): If their fathers are not there, they do not sit in a place of honor.
(R. Yochanan): This Beraisa (about standing for the Nasi) was taught in the days of R. Shimon ben Gamliel.
R. Shimon ben Gamliel was the Nasi, R. Meir was a great Chacham, and R. Noson was the Av Beis Din. When any of them would enter, all would stand. R. Shimon ben Gamliel felt that the Nasi should be distinguished. He enacted the law of the Beraisa (which gives the greatest honor to the Nasi, then to the Av Beis Din, and then to a Chacham).
R. Meir and R. Noson were not present when the enactment was made. When they heard about it, R. Meir suggested to R. Noson that they ask R. Shimon ben Gamliel to teach Uktzim (a tractate that R. Shimon did not know).
This would be grounds to depose him. R. Noson would become the Nasi, and R. Meir would become the Av Beis Din.
R. Yakov ben Kodshi heard this. He was concerned lest R. Shimon be shamed. He hinted to him that he should learn Uktzim. R. Shimon did so, and he was able to teach it when R. Meir asked.
R. Shimon expelled R. Meir and R. Noson from the Beis Medrash. Questions that could not be answered in the Beis Medrash were sent outside to them.
R. Yosi: We should be in the place of Torah, outside with them!
R. Shimon: They may re-enter the Beis Medrash, but they will be fined. Their teachings will not be said in their own names.
R. Meir's teachings (from then on) were recorded as "Others say"; R. Noson's teachings were recorded as "Some say."
R. Meir and R. Noson each had a dream in which he was shown that he should appease R. Shimon.
R. Noson did so. R. Meir did not, for we do not act based on dreams.
R. Shimon (to R. Noson): The golden belt of your father (who was Av Beis Din) helped you to become Av Beis Din. Should it make you the Nasi?!