ARE COMMONERS SUSPECTED OF SWITCHING?
(Beraisa - R. Yosi ben ha'Meshulam): A Chaver kneader may not separate b'Taharah the Chalah from a commoner's dough, but he may knead a dough for him b'Taharah and separate Chalah, and put the Chalah in a Kli that cannot become Tamei;
When the commoner comes, he takes the dough and the Chalah. We are not concerned.
A Chaver may not separate b'Taharah Terumah from a commoner's olives, but he may harvest his olives for him b'Taharah (i.e. in a way that they do not become Huchshar) and separate Terumah. The Chaver puts the Terumah in his own Kli;
When the commoner comes, he takes the olives and the Terumah. We are not concerned.
Question: Why are we not concerned?
Answer (R. Yochanan): This is an enactment to support the livelihood of kneaders and olive-pressers.
It is necessary to teach both cases:
Had it taught only about a kneader, we would think that we are lenient for him because he receives a small wage, but we are stringent about an olive-presser;
Had it taught only about an olive-presser, we would have thought that we are lenient for him because he is not employed frequently, but we are stringent about a kneader.
(Beraisa): He puts the Chalah in a special Kli that cannot become Tamei. When the commoner comes, he takes the dough and the Chalah. We are not concerned.
Question: We should be concerned lest the commoner touch the Chalah!
Answer: We tell him that if he touches it, it will revert to Tevel.
Question: We should be concerned that he does not care, and will touch it anyway!
Answer: This commoner hired a Chaver to separate Chalah properly. This shows that he cares!
(Beraisa): He separates Terumah, and puts it in his own Chaver Kli. When the commoner comes, he takes the olives and the Terumah. We are not concerned.
Question: We should be concerned lest he touch it!
Granted, a kneader puts it in a special Kli, so the commoner will remember not to touch it;
Here, there is no reminder!
Answer: He puts it in a Kli of dung, stone or earth (which cannot become Tamei).
Question: If so, why must it be the Chaver's Kli? It could even be the commoner's Kli!
Answer: Indeed, it means a Kli of a commoner that a Chaver can use.
FRIENDLY RELATIONS WITH NOCHRIM
(Mishnah): We support Nochrim working in Shemitah.
Question: Rav Dimi bar Shishna taught that we may not dig with Nochrim (in Shemitah), and we do not say 'Shalom' to them twice!
Answer: The Mishnah does not mean that we help them. We merely wish them that they should prosper.
(Rav Dimi bar Shishna): We do not say 'Shalom' to them twice.
Rav Chisda would greet them first. (Maharsha - Derech Eretz obligates one who receives 'Shalom' to return it and double it, and this is forbidden.)
Rav Kahana would say 'Shalom to my master', intending to bless his Rebbi with Shalom.
(Mishnah): We may greet them with 'Shalom'
Question: If we may wish them prosperity, all the more so we can greet them with 'Shalom'!
Answer (Rav Yevo): The Mishnah permits greeting them on their holiday.
(Beraisa): One may not enter a Nochri's house on his holiday and greet him with 'Shalom'. This is permitted if he meets a Nochri in the market; it must be in a serious tone.
Rav Huna and Rav Chisda were sitting; Geneiva passed by. One suggested that they stand for him, for he is learned. The other said that they should not, since he is quarrelsome.
Geneiva: Shalom to you kings, Shalom to you kings!
Rav Huna and Rav Chisda: What is the source that Chachamim are called kings?
Geneiva: "In me (the Torah), kings will reign."
Rav Huna and Rav Chisda: What is the source that we say 'Shalom' twice to a king?
Geneiva: Rav Yehudah learns this from "with you, Ben Yishai, Shalom, Shalom."
Rav Huna and Rav Chisda: Please taste something.
Geneiva: Rav Yehudah taught that one may not taste anything before giving food to his animal;
It says "I will give grass in your field for your animals", then it says "you will eat and be satiated."
A SHALI'ACH TO RECEIVE A GET
(Mishnah): If Reuven told Shimon 'receive this Get for my wife' or 'take this Get for my wife' (and gave it to him), Reuven can retract.
If Reuven's wife told Levi 'receive my Get for me' (and Reuven gave it to him), Reuven cannot retract.
Therefore, if Reuven told Levi 'I don't want you to receive it for her. Rather, take it and give it to her' (and he gave it to him), he can retract;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, even if she said 'take my Get for me', Reuven cannot retract.
(Gemara - Rav Acha brei d'Rav Avya): In the Reisha, Reuven can retract only because his wife did not make Shimon a Shali'ach to receive the Get. Had she done this, Reuven could not retract (even though he said 'take').
(Inference): When a man says 'take', it is as if he says 'acquire (on behalf of).'
Rejection: Really, it is not as if he says 'acquire'. He can retract even if his wife made Shimon a Shali'ach to receive;
The Mishnah needed to teach about when he says 'receive this Get for my wife.' One might have thought that since he cannot appoint a Shali'ach to receive a Get, even when she receives it, it is Pasul;
The Mishnah teaches that this is not so. When he says 'receive', he means 'receive and take.'
(Mishnah): If Reuven's wife told Levi 'receive my Get for me' (and Reuven gave it to him), Reuven cannot retract.
Suggestion: This applies to both cases (above), whether Reuven said 'receive' or 'take.'
Rejection: No, it is only when he said 'receive.'
(Mishnah): Therefore, if Reuven told Levi 'I don't want you to receive it for her. Rather, take it and give it to her' (and he gave it to him), he can retract.
(Inference): This is only because Reuven said 'I don't want...' If not, he could not retract!
This teaches that saying 'take' is like saying 'receive'!
Rejection: Perhaps he said 'Heilach' (here it is, which connotes 'take it like she said').
Clearly, a man can be a Shali'ach to give a Get. He is in place of the husband;
Clearly, a woman can be a Shali'ach to receive a Get. She is in place of the wife;
Question: Can a man be a Shali'ach to receive a Get, and can a woman be a Shali'ach to give a Get?
Answer #1 (Mishnah): If Reuven told a Shali'ach 'receive this Get for my wife' or 'take this Get for my wife', he can retract;
If Reuven's wife told a Shali'ach 'receive my Get for me', he cannot retract.
Suggestion: The same person can be a Shali'ach in both cases. This shows that a Shali'ach to give a Get can receive a Get.
Rejection: No, they must be different people. (Since only a man can give a Get, only a woman can receive it.)
Answer #2 (Mishnah): Therefore, if Reuven told the Shali'ach 'I don't want you to receive it for her, rather take it and give it to her' (and he gave it to the Shali'ach), he can retract.
This shows that one person can be a Shali'ach for either.
At least we will say that a man can be a Shali'ach for either, since a father can receive his daughter's Get when she is a minor.
The question remains, can a woman be a Shali'ach to give a Get?
Answer #3 (Rav Mari - Mishnah): Five female relatives of Leah (are suspected to hate her, e.g. her co-wife, her Yevamah... and) are not believed to say that Leah's husband died. They are believed to bring her Get.
There, the women are Sheluchim to give the Get!
Answer #4 (Rav Ashi): We can also learn this from the Reisha.
(Mishnah): A woman may bring her own Get. She must say 'it was written and signed in front of me.'
The case is, she is a Shali'ach to give her own Get.
A SHALI'ACH WHO CHANGED HIS MISSION
(Rav Nachman): If Leah asked Shimon to bring her Get, and he told Reuven (her husband) that he was asked to receive it, and Reuven said 'Heilach (here you have it; take it) like she said', even when Shimon gives it to Leah, she is not divorced.
(Inference): He holds that Reuven relies on what Shimon told him (that he was a Shali'ach to receive. Therefore, Reuven did not make Shimon a Shali'ach to give the Get);
If he held that Reuven relies on what Leah said, since she asked Shimon to bring the Get, and Reuven told him to do as she said, he would be a Shali'ach to bring it, and she would be divorced when she gets it.