[39a - 53 lines; 39b - 46 lines]

1)[line 1]אין אדם מוציא דבריו לבטלהEIN ADAM MOTZI DEVARAV L'VATALAH

Rebbi Meir is of the opinion that a person does not utter words for no purpose; therefore, when a person's statement seems to be nonsensical, we "read into" his words a more plausible explanation.

2)[line 7]אין מועלין בוEIN MO'ALIN BO (ME'ILAH)

(a)It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is Hekdesh, as the Torah states, "Lo Suchal l'Echol b'Sha'arecha... u'Nedarecha Asher Tidor" - "You may not eat in your settlements... and your pledges [to Hekdesh] that you will pledge" (Devarim 12:17) (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 1:1-3). The minimum amount for which one transgresses this prohibition is a Perutah's worth of benefit.

(b)If someone benefited from Hekdesh intentionally, he receives Malkus and must pay to Hekdesh the amount that he benefited. However, the object from which he benefited remains Hekdesh.

(c)If someone benefited from Hekdesh unintentionally, the object loses its Kedushah. He must bring a Korban Me'ilah and repay Hekdesh the value of his benefit plus an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). This is true of any object that has Kedushas Damim (i.e. its value is consecrated to Hekdesh). An object that has Kedushas ha'Guf (i.e. an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is") does not lose its Kedushah under any circumstances (Rosh Hashanah 28a).

3)[line 13]כמטלטליK'METALTELEI- [slaves are considered] like chattels

4)[line 16]כגזוז דמיK'GAZUZ DAMI- hair that is about to be cut ("Mechubar" - that is still attached to the head) is equated to hair that has already been cut ("Talush" - not attached to the head any more), with regard to the Halachos that apply to items that depend on their status as Mechubar or Talush.

5)[line 20]עשר גפנים טעונותESER GEFANIM TE'UNOS- ten vines loaded with grapes

6)[line 21]רבי מאיר מחייבREBBI MEIR MECHAYEV (MODEH B'MIKTZAS HA'TA'ANAH, YISHAVA)

If a person admits that he owes part of a claim, the Torah suspects that the person wants to temporarily postpone part of the payment but does not have the audacity to completely deny the claim. He is therefore required to take an oath, mid'Oraisa, on the part he denies (Shemos 22:8).

7)[line 23]ליבצרLIBATZER- to be harvested

8)[line 27]דכמה דקיימיןD'CHAMAH D'KAIMIN- the longer they stay on the vine

9a)[line 27]מיכחש כחישיMIKCHASH KECHISHEI- [the more] they deteriorate, wither

b)[line 28]אשבוחי משבחASHBUCHEI MASHBACH- [the more] it (the hair) grows

10)[line 28]כי סליק רבי חייא בר יוסףKI SALIK REBBI CHIYA BAR YOSEF- when Rebbi Chiya bar Yosef went up to Eretz Yisrael [from Bavel]

11)[line 39]גר שמתGER SHE'MES (NICHSEI HA'GER SHE'MES)

(a)When a Jew dies, his closest relatives inherit his estate (according to the hierarchy established by the Torah as recorded in Bamidbar 27:8-11). Since all of the Jews are related to each other (at least through Yaakov Avinu and his sons), every Jew must have at least one heir. A convert, however, may have no heirs (since his Nochri relatives do not inherit his estate). When a convert dies without heirs, his estate becomes Hefker (ownerless). The first person who takes possession of his belongings becomes their owner.

(b)In order to take possession of the estate of a convert who dies without any heirs, one must make a Ma'aseh Kinyan (a formal Halachically-binding act of possession), as in all cases of taking possession of items that are Hefker. The forms of Ma'aseh Kinyan that may be used are: for Metaltelin (mobile items) - 1. Hagbahah, i.e. lifting an item; 2. Meshichah (lit. pulling), i.e. causing an item to move; 3. Chatzer, i.e. bringing the item into one's domain; for Mekarka'in (immobile items) - Chazakah, i.e. performing an act that is normally performed by an owner.

(c)Examples of Chazakah are Na'al (locking), Gadar (fencing in) and Paratz (making a breach in a fence to create an entrance) or any act that is done to enhance the land, such as digging to improve a field and the like (MISHNAH Bava Basra 42a).

12)[line 39]ובזבזוBIZBEZU- he divided among themselves

13)[line 43]דמי האי מדרבנן כדלא גמרי אינשי שמעתאDAMI HAI MID'RABANAN KED'LO GAMREI INSHEI SHEMA'ATA- this Chacham [is speaking] like people who have never learned before

14)[line 48]"והתנחלתם אתם לבניכם אחריכם לרשת אחזה [לעלם בהם תעבדו ובאחיכם בני ישראל איש באחיו לא תרדה בו בפרך]""V'HISNACHALTEM OSAM LI'VNEICHEM ACHAREICHEM LA'RESHES ACHUZAH, [L'OLAM BAHEM TA'AVODU; UV'ACHEICHEM BNEI YISRAEL, ISH B'ACHIV LO SIRDEH VO B'FARECH.]"- "And you shall hold onto them as a heritage for your children after you, to give to your heirs as a possession; [you shall work with them forever; but your brothers, the people of Yisrael, you shall not subjugate with hard labor.]" (Vayikra 25:46)

39b----------------------------------------39b

15a)[line 1]בפירוש שמיע לךB'FEIRUSH SHEMI'A LACH...- Did you hear it [from him] explicitly...

b)[line 1]או מכללא שמיע לךOMI'KELALA SHEMI'A LACH?- or did you derive it from a general rule [that Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi stated]?

16)[line 5]גמר לה לה מאשהGAMAR LAH LAH MI'ISHAH- he learns it through [a Gezeirah Shavah (see Background to Gitin 41:13) comparing the word] "Lah" [that appears in the verse dealing with Shifchah Charufah (the betrothed maidservant (Vayikra 19:20) - see next entry) with the word] "Lah" [that appears in the verse dealing with divorce (Devarim 24:1)] of an ordinary woman

17)[line 5]לה לה מאשהLAH LAH ME'ISHAH (SHIFCHAH CHARUFAH)

(a)According to Rebbi Akiva (Kerisus 11a), a Shifchah Charufah is a woman who is half Shifchah (maidservant) and half free (e.g. she was owned by two partners and freed by one of them) who is Mekudeshes (betrothed) to a Jewish slave. Since she is half Shifchah her Kidushin is not complete, and if a man has relations with her they do not incur the death penalty. Rather, the man brings a Korban "Asham Shifchah Charufah," whether he sinned b'Mezid or b'Shogeg, and the Shifchah is punished with Malkus (Vayikra 19:20-22).

(b)Other Tana'im (ibid.) define Shifchah Charufah as a full-fledged Shifchah who is married to either a Jewish slave (Rebbi Yishmael, see RASHI to Yevamos 55b) or a Nochri slave (Acherim).

18)[line 28]והאי פקע ליה כספיהV'HAI PAKA LEI KASPEI- his monetary value has ceased [to exist] (since he was declared ownerless)

19)[line 31]גומר בהGOMER BAH- (lit. finish her) complete her release (including the removal of the prohibition to marry into the Jewish people. As a result, if she does marry without a Get Shichrur, this Tana rules that she and an adulterer will not be liable to the death penalty.)

20)[line 32]"והפדה לא נפדתה [או חפשה לא נתן לה... כי לא חפשה]""... V'HAFDEH LO NIFDASAH [O CHUFSHAH LO NITAN LAH... KI LO CHUPASHAH.]"- "[And whoever has illicit relations with a woman, who is a slave betrothed to a man,] and not wholly redeemed, [nor freedom given her; inquiry shall be made; they shall not be put to death, because she was not free.]" (Vayikra 19:20) - The word Pediyah (from "v'Hafdeh Lo Nifdasah") refers to redemption through Kesef (paying money) or Shaveh Kesef (items of value). "Chufshah" and "Chupashah" refer to redemption through a Get Shichrur. Since the verse ends only with the word "Chupashah," this Tana rules that only a Get Shichrur will complete her release and not Kesef.

21)[line 32]אורעה כל הפרשה כולה ללא חופשהUR'AH KOL HA'PARSHAH KULAH L'LO CHUPASHAH- the entire subject [of hers and an adulterer's liability to the death penalty] was diminished [only to the case of a Get Shichrur and not to Kesef] due to [the verse ending with the words,] "Lo Chupashah"

22)[line 35]אשכחיהASHKECHEI- he found him

23)[line 37]ממחוזאMECHOZA- Mechoza, a large Jewish trading town on the Tigris River

24)[line 38]לסוראSURA- a town in Southern Babylonia between the canals, seat of the Yeshiva founded by Rav

25a)[line 39]אימא לי איזיEIMA LI EIZI- Tell me, my close friend (MAHARSHAL to Bava Metzia 70a)

b)[line 39]גופא דעובדא היכי הוה?GUFA D'UVDA HEICHI HAVAH?- what was the incident?

26)[line 39]דההיא אמתא דהוה מרה שכיב מרעD'HA'HI AMSA D'HAVAH MARAH SHECHIV MERA- there was [an incident of] a certain maidservant whose master lay on his deathbed

27)[line 41]שקל כומתיהSHAKAL KUMSEI- he took hold of his hat

28)[line 41]שדא בהSHADA BAH- he threw it to her

29)[line 43]משום דהוה ליה כליו של מקנהMISHUM D'HAVAH LEI KEILAV SHEL MAKNEH (KINYAN CHALIPIN)

(a)When a person buys or sells an object, he must make a Ma'aseh Kinyan (a formal Halachically-binding act denoting the change in status). The forms of Ma'aseh Kinyan that may be used are: for Metaltelin (mobile items) - 1. Hagbahah, i.e. lifting an item; 2. Meshichah (lit. pulling), i.e. causing an item to move; 3. Chatzer, i.e. bringing the item into one's domain; 4. Chalipin (barter); 5. Mesirah, i.e. handing over the reigns of an animal or the tie-lines of a boat; for Mekarka'in (immobile items) - Chazakah, i.e. performing an act that is normally performed by an owner.

(b)Kinyan Chalipin can be performed in two ways:

1.A true barter, in which two equally-valued items are exchanged;

2.A symbolic exchange, in which an object of little value is used to acquire an object of value. This Chalipin, which is usually performed using a scarf or piece of cloth (Sudar), involves taking possession momentarily of an object that belongs to the other party in order to make a Kinyan on another object that is being transferred. (The other object is not simply handed over to the buyer to make the Kinyan either because it is not present, or because it is too large or it is unfeasible to hand it over, e.g. land.) The Gemara records a Machlokes among the Amora'im as to whether the Sudar is given by the buyer (in exchange for the object that is being acquired) or by the seller (along with the object that is being acquired). The Halachic ruling is that the buyer gives the Sudar, and in return he acquires the object that is being transferred (Bava Metzia 47b). In our Gemara, the master (the "seller") provided his hat for the release of his maidservant ("the buyer"), and as such Rav Nachman ruled that the sale did not take effect and neither did her release.

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