A BURNING KNIFE
(R. Zeira): If one slaughtered with a glowing hot knife, the animal is Kosher. The blade cuts the Simanim (of Shechitah, the windpipe and esophagus) before the heat is able to burn a hole through them.
Question: The sides of the blade burns holes in the Simanim gns on the sides of the cut!
Answer: When the Simanim are cut, the two sides of each Siman move apart, and the sides of the blade do not touch them.
Question: If one was hit with a glowing hot spit, is the scar considered a wound or a burn (regarding Tzara'as)?
Question: What difference does it make? (In either case, if a plague appears on it, the law is the same.)
Answer (Beraisa): If one has a (plague on a) wound or burn, he is a (quarantined) Metzora for at most seven days. If it spreads, or if a white hair appears in it, he becomes a Muchlat (absolute) Metzora.
Question: Why did the Torah teach the laws of a plague on a wound or burn separately?
Answer: This teaches that they do not join to each other (if neither is the size of a bean. Only a bean-sized plague makes one a Metzora.)
(Beraisa): A wound results from a blow from wood, stone, (hot) residue of olives, hot spring water of Tiverya, and anything that is not hot due to fire.
The last clause comes to include molten lead the way it is found in the ground.
A burn results when he is scalded by a coal, hot ashes, burning limestone, or anything heated by fire.
This last clause comes to include water heated by fire.
(Beraisa): If a wound and burn are in the same place, if the wound came first, it is considered a burn. If the burn came first, it is considered a wound.
Reiteration of question (d:1): When does it make a difference whether the scar is called a wound or burn?
Answer: It matters when the person already had a wound half the size of a bean, and received another half-bean scar (from a glowing hot spit) next to the burn.
If the wound comes first (on the new scar), the new scar is considered a burn, and a plague on it does not join to a plague on the original wound;
If the burn comes first, it is considered a wound, and it joins to the original wound.
Answer #1: We can learn from R. Zeira's law. Shechitah with a glowing hot knife is Kosher, for the blade cuts before the heat burns.
This shows that the wound precedes the burn!
Rejection: Perhaps that case is different. A knife is sharp, therefore the wound comes first.
Answer #2 (Beraisa): If one was hit with a glowing hot spit, the scar is considered a burn.
Rejection: One cannot learn from this. Here also, the spit is sharp, therefore the wound comes first (Rashba; it seems that Rashi's text did not say 'it is sharp.' He explains that we cannot learn from here, for perhaps the Beraisa discusses one who was merely poked (and there is only a burn).
SHECHITAH WITH A FORBIDDEN KNIFE
(Rav Nachman): If a knife was used for idolatry, one may slaughter with it, but he may not cut meat with it;
One may slaughter with it, for this is not benefit (the animal was worth more alive)!
He may not cut meat with it, for this improves the meat.
(Rava) Sometimes one may not slaughter with it. If the animal might die soon, he benefits by slaughtering it;
One may cut this with the knife a nice section of a slaughtered animal, since it is worth more when it is whole, for one can honor an important person with it.
Question: Even if the knife was not used for idolatry (but just for cutting any forbidden meat) one may not cut or slaughter with it in any case, because it absorbed forbidden fat!
Answer #1: Rav Nachman teaches about a new knife. (It was merely designated to use for idolatry.)
Objection: R. Yishmael and R. Akiva both agree that the knife is not idolatry itself. It is merely something used for idolatry. It is permitted until it is used!
Answer #2: The knife was used to serve idolatry by cutting wood. (It never absorbed fat.)
Answer #3: The knife was purged of absorbed fat by making it glowing hot.
(Rav): If one slaughtered with a Nochri's knife, he must peel off a layer from the areas cut;
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): It suffices to rinse them.
Suggestion: They argue about whether the place of Shechitah is Rose'ach (hot enough to cause absorbed taste in a knife to enter the meat).
Version #1 - Rejection: No. All agree that it is Rose'ach;
It is clear why Rav says that one must peel off a layer.
Rabah bar bar Chanah says that it suffices to rinse. Since the Simanim are busy exuding blood, they are unable to absorb tastes exuding from the knife.
Version #2 - Rejection: No. All agree that it is not Rose'ach;
We understand why Rabah bar bar Chanah says that it suffices to rinse.
Rav says that one must peel off a layer. The pressure of the knife causes its absorbed tastes to enter the meat.
(Rav Acha or Ravina): If a knife was used to slaughter a Treifah (a mortally damaged animal), one must immerse the knife in boiling water to permit using it;
(The other of Rav Acha bar Yakov and Ravina): It suffices to wash it in cold water.
The Halachah is, cold water suffices;
If one has a hard, worn out garment, it suffices to clean it with the garment.
Question: The stringent opinion obligates hot water, for he holds that the knife absorbed forbidden taste (of a Treifah);
Even a knife used to slaughter a Kosher animal absorbs forbidden taste. The meat is forbidden due to Ever Min ha'Chai (a limb of a living animal) until the Shechitah is completed!
Answer: It absorbs only when it gets warm, which is when the Shechitah finishes. Then, the meat is permitted!
SEPARATIONS BETWEEN MEAT AND CHELEV
(Rav Yehudah): A butcher needs three knives - one to slaughter, one to cut meat, and one to cut Chelev (forbidden fat).
Question: The same knife may be used for meat and Chelev. He can cut the meat first!
Answer: We decree, lest he cut meat after cutting Chelev.
Question: Even if he has separate knives, he may come to use the wrong knife!
Answer: Since he must have separate knives, he makes a Siman (sign) to distinguish them, so he will not confuse them.
(Rav Yehudah): A butcher needs two Kelim of water - one to rinse meat, and one to rinse Chelev.
Question: The same Kli may be used for meat and Chelev. He can rinse the meat first!
Answer: This is a decree, lest he rinse meat after rinsing Chelev.
Question: Even if he has separate Kelim, he may come to use the wrong one!
Answer: Since he must have separate Kelim, he makes a Siman to distinguish them, so he will not confuse them.
(Ameimar): One should not fold (the place where the Chelev of the kidney is in) a flank of meat onto the meat, for the Chelev will flow and be absorbed by the meat.
Question: If so, this is a problem even without folding! (The Chelev will flow into the meat.)
Answer: A membrane holds the Chelev in.