[139a - 48 lines; 139b - 44 lines]

1)[line 2]"ובערת הרע מקרבך""U'VI'ARTA HA'RA MI'KIRBECHA"- "so shall you purge the evil away from your midst" (Devarim 13:6)

2)[line 6]"איש כי יקדיש את ביתו קדש""ISH KI YAKDISH ES BEISO KODESH"- "[And] when a man shall sanctify his house to be holy [to HaSh-m, then the Kohen shall estimate it, whether it is good or bad; as the Kohen shall estimate it, so shall it stand.]" (Vayikra 27:14)

3)[line 8]מה ביתו ברשותMAH BEISO BI'RESHUSO- just like his house is owned by him (i.e. a person may only consecrate objects that belong to him)

4)[line 9]דאגבהינהוD'AGBEHINHU (KINYAN HAGBAHAH)

(a)When a person buys an object, he must make a Ma'aseh Kinyan, a formal Halachically-binding act denoting his acquisition of the object, in order for the sale to be irrevocably binding.

(b)One of the forms of Kinyan that may be used for the acquisition of Metaltelin (mobile items) is Hagbahah, i.e. lifting the item. Hagbahah is a form of Kinyan in which the buyer (or recipient of a gift) lifts up the item. The act of Kinyan Hagbahah is effective wherever it is performed, even in the domain of the seller.

(c)Our Gemara illustrates that if a person performs Hagbahah on the birds that he finds in the field, he acquires them as his own, and is no longer able to fulfill the Mitzvah of Shilu'ach ha'Ken with them.

5)[line 16]במקדיש פירות שובכו ומרדוB'MAKDISH PEIROS SHOVCHO U'MARDU- [the Mishnah refers to a case] where a person made the products (i.e. the doves) of his dovecote Hekdesh, and later the doves flew away to the wild


(a)Kodshei Mizbe'ach are objects dedicated to be offered on the Mizbe'ach as sacrifices, which have Kedushas ha'Guf. An object with Kedushas ha'Guf is an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5) or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is." An animal that has Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed without a Mum (blemish).

(b)An object with Kedushas Damim is an object the value of which is consecrated to Hekdesh; e.g. an animal that a person consecrated to be sold in order to buy another animal as a Korban with its value.

(c)Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis are objects dedicated to the property of the Mikdash, which have Kedushas Bedek ha'Bayis. An object with Kedushas Bedek ha'Bayis is an object the value of which is consecrated to Hekdesh so that it should be used for filling the day-to-day needs of the Beis ha'Mikdash, and not to be used for Korbanos.

7)[line 22]כיון דמרדה, פקעה קדושתייהוKEIVAN D'MARDAH, PAK'AH KEDUSHASAIHU- when birds fly off to the wild, they lose their Kedushah (since the owner has no hope of ever finding them again; see Insights to Chulin 139:1)

8)[line 23]כל היכא דאיתיה, בבי גזא דרחמנא איתאKOL HEICHA D'ISEI, B'VEI GAZA D'RACHAMANA ISA- wherever it may be, it is in HaSh-m's treasury. Therefore, (1) it is not considered to be lost to Hekdesh if it flies away; and (2) as soon as it is consecrated it is considered as if it were delivered to the hands of Hekdesh.

9)[line 23]"לה' הארץ ומלואה""LA'SH-M HA'ARETZ U'MELO'AH"- "To Hash-m does the earth belong, and all that fills it" (Tehilim 24:1)

10)[line 27]עד שיבואו לידי גזברAD SHE'YAVO'U LI'YEDEI GIZBAR- until it reaches the hands of the treasurer of Hekdesh (this is the opposite of Rebbi Yochanan's ruling from above; similarly with the statement of Reish Lakish that follows)

11)[line 31]הא מקמי דשמעיה מר' יוחנן רביהHA MI'KAMEI D'SHAM'EI ME'REBBI YOCHANAN RABEI- this [statement] was [made] before he heard it (the ruling) from Rebbi Yochanan, his teacher

12)[line 35]הרי זו / הרי עליHAREI ZO / HAREI ALAI (NEDER / NEDAVAH)

(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).

(b)When a person states, "I pledge an Olah" ("Harei Alai Olah"), without singling out a specific animal, his pledge is called a Neder. When he sets aside an animal with which to fulfill his pledge, and the animal gets lost or dies, he must bring another in its place. If he states, "This animal is an Olah" ("Harei Zo Olah"), his pledge is called a Nedavah. If the animal gets lost or dies, he has no obligation to bring another in its place.

13)[line 42]דליתנהוD'LEISNEHU- they no longer exist

14)[line 43]בערכיןB'ARACHIN (ERECH)

(a)An Erech (endowment valuation) refers to a special form of vow. If a person declares, "Erech Ploni Alai" - "I accept upon myself to give the endowment value of so-and-so [to Hekdesh]," he must give the specific value that the Torah designates for the person's gender and age group as stated in Vayikra 27:1-8 (see below, (b)). It makes no difference at all whether the person is healthy or sick, strong or weak.

(b)If one wishes to pledge the value of an individual - whether his own or that of someone else:

1.For ages 1 month to 5 years - the Erech for males is 5 Shekalim and for females is 3 Shekalim

2.For ages 5 years to 20 years - the Erech for males is 20 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim

3.For ages 20 yrs. to 60 years - the Erech for males is 50 Shekalim and for females is 30 Shekalim

4.For ages 60 years and older - the Erech for males is 15 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim

15)[line 44]דלא מיתמר ליה בלא "עלי"D'LO MITMAR LEI B'LO "ALAI"- since it (an Erech) cannot be formulated without using the word "Alai"

16)[line 46]"ונתן את הערכך ביום ההוא קדש לה'""V'NASAN ES HA'ERKECHA BA'YOM HA'HU KODESH LASH-M"- "and he shall give the estimation on that day, as a holy thing to HaSh-m." (Vayikra 27:23)

17)[line 47]הקדשותHEKDESHOS (PIDYON HEKDESH)

(a)If a person consecrates (is "Makdish") an object to the Beis ha'Mikdash and that object is of no benefit to the Mikdash in its present state, the object may be sold by the appointees of Hekdesh (Gizbarim), who determine its selling price based on the estimate of a group of experts. When a person buys the object from Hekdesh, he pays Ma'os, coins, and the object loses its Kedushah; its value becomes Kodesh in its stead. This is called "Pidyon Hekdesh," "redeeming from Hekdesh."

(b)If the object that is consecrated to Hekdesh is an object that can acquire intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is," it becomes Kadosh with Kedushas ha'Guf. An animal that has Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed without a Mum (blemish).

18)[line 47]מעשרותMA'ASROS (PIDYON MA'ASER SHENI)

(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption - see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.


19a)[line 13]בורותBOROS- round pits or wells that are dug in the ground; cisterns

b)[line 13]שיחיןSHICHIN- narrow elongated ditches

c)[line 14]מערותME'AROS- and caves (usually leading to a spring or water source)

20a)[line 17]יוני שובךYONEI SHOVACH- doves that nest in dove-cotes

b)[line 18]יוני עלייהYONEI ALIYAH- doves that nest in an attic

21)[line 18]שקננו בטפיחין ובבירותSHE'KANENU B'TEFICHIN UB'VIROS- (a) that nested in clay pots that are built into walls and used as pigeon nests and in large buildings or fortresses; (b) according to the Girsa "SHE'KANENU BI'TEFICHIN B'VIROS" - that nested in pitcher-shaped utensils set up for that purpose in the walls and cornices of large buildings and forts (Birah - a group of buildings forming one residence) (the Girsa and explanation is from RASHI to Beitzah 24a DH bi'Tefichin)

22)[line 25]"כה אמר ה', הנותן בים דרך וגו'""KOH AMAR HASH-M, HA'NOSEN BA'YAM DERECH ..."- "Thus says HaSh-m, Who makes a way in the sea, [and a path in the mighty waters.]" (Yeshayah 43:16)

23)[line 26]"דרך נשר בשמים""DERECH NESHER BA'SHAMAYIM"- "The way of a vulture in the sky" (Mishlei 30:19)

24)[line 28]"[ויהי דוד בא עד הראש אשר ישתחוה שם לאלקים, והנה לקראתו חושי הארכי קרוע כתנתו] ואדמה על ראשו""[VA'YEHI DAVID BA AD HA'ROSH ASHER YISHTACHAVEH SHAM LE'LOKIM, V'HINEI LIKRASO CHUSHAI HA'ARKI, KARU'A KUTANTO] V'ADAMAH AL ROSHO" - "[And when David came to the top (of Har ha'Zeisim), where he would prostrate himself before HaSh-m, behold coming to meet him was Chushai ha'Arki, his clothes torn] and with earth on his head." (Shmuel II 15:32) (Achitofel and Chushai ha'Arki)

(a)Following the rebellion of Avshalom, David was forced to flee from Yerushalayim. When David arrived at the outskirts of Yerushalayim, Chushai ha'Arki, the elderly servant of his deceased father Yishai, came to meet him. David told Chushai that should he, an elderly man, join him, he would only be a hindrance to the fleeing party of loyalists. David therefore suggested to Chushai that he return to Yerushalayim and act as a spy on his behalf. His job would be twofold: first, to wheedle his way into Avshalom's inner cabinet, and to foil any plan that Achitofel, Avshalom's chief advisor, would design (considering that Achitofel's plans were invariably successful); second, to pass on to Tzadok and Evyasar (the Kohanim) any major strategic developments that took place in Yerushalayim, who would then send their sons, the youthful Achima'atz and Yonasan, to give any important information to David. After a short prayer to HaSh-m to foil all of Achitofel's plans, David sent Chushai back to Yerushalayim.

(b)Chushai successfully executed his missions. When Achitofel suggested to Avshalom that David and his men, who had just fled from Yerushalayim, were bound to be exhausted, and that now was the time to catch them off-guard, Chushai countered that David was far too clever to be caught napping and that he certainly had prepared for such a contingency and had laid an ambush against such an attack. Achitofel, as always, was correct; had they attacked David at that time, they would have killed him, but miraculously Avshalom accepted Chushai's advice over Achitofel's and he did not attack, giving David and his men time to escape.

(c)When Achitofel saw that his advice was not accepted, he understood that this was a Divine sign that HaSh-m was not on Avshalom's side, but was with David. Achitofel realized that when David would prevail, the king would kill him, Achitofel, as a Mored b'Malchus, one who rebelled against the king. He thus chose to kill himself instead of waiting to be put to death by the king.

25)[line 29]"בשגם הוא בשר""BESHA'GAM HU VASAR"- "[And HaSh-m said, 'My spirit shall not always strive with man,] for he also is flesh; [yet his days shall be a hundred and twenty years.']" (Bereishis 6:3) - The Gematriya of "besha'Gam" is the same as the Gematriya of Moshe. (For the connection between the verses and the various people mentioned by the Gemara here, see Insights to Chulin 139:4.)

26)[line 29]"המן העץ""HA'MIN HA'ETZ"- "[And He said, 'Who told you that you were naked?] Have [you eaten] of the tree, [which I commanded you that you should not eat?']" (Bereishis 3:11) - The word "ha'Min" is spelled the same as "Haman."

27)[line 30]"ואנכי הסתר אסתיר""V'ANOCHI HASTER ASTIR"- "And I will surely hide [My face from them]" (Devarim 31:18) - "Astir" is reminiscent of "Esther." The period during which the miracle of Purim occurred was a period of Hester Panim, when HaSh-m, so to speak, "hid His face" from the Jewish people.

28)[line 31]"מר דרור" ומתרגמינן מירא דכיא"MOR DEROR" U'METARGEMINAN "MEIRA DACHYA"- "Mor Deror" (Shemos 30:23), which is translated by the Targum as "Meira Dachya," "pure myrrh," which sounds like "Mordechai"

29)[line 34]קיימן שיתסר דרי בפתי מילאKAIMAN SHITSAR DAREI B'PESEI MILA- they were standing in sixteen rows, each row a Mil (960 km) wide

30)[line 34]והוה קרא קירי קיריV'HAVAH KARA "KIRI KIRI"- and they were calling out "Kiri Kiri" ("master master")

31)[line 35]סומאSUMA- (lit. blind one) fool [who cannot see matters straight]

32)[line 36]קירי ביריKIRI BIRI- the one you call master (Herod) is a slave (his father Antipater was an Edomite servant of the Chashmona'i kings who, through his cunning, attained more and more power until eventually the Romans appointed his son Herod as king)

33)[line 37]מיליןMILIN- [idle] words

34)[line 37]במיליןB'MILIN- [it was done] through words. The Gemara explains that when Rav Kahana heard the talk of birds, he heard them talking "b'Milin." This means: (a) the birds had been taught to talk through the use of witchcraft (RASHI DH Ela b'Milin); (b) that Rav Kahana heard the birds talking "bird talk," and not any words in Hebrew or Aramaic. However, in his great wisdom he was able to understand the language of the birds (like Rav Ilish in Gitin 45a) (ARUCH, quoting RABEINU CHANANEL)

35)[line 40]"תבנית כל צפור כנף""TAVNIS KOL TZIPOR KANAF"- "[The likeness of any beast that is on the earth,] the likeness of any winged bird that flies in the air." (Devarim 4:17)

36)[line 40]חגביםCHAGAVIM- grasshoppers or locusts

37)[line 41]"החיה וכל בהמה, רמש וצפור כנף""HA'CHAYAH V'CHOL BEHEMAH, REMES V'TZIPOR KANAF"- "Wild beasts and all animals, crawling creatures and winged birds." (Tehilim 148:10)

38)[line 43]"כל צפור כל כנף""KOL TZIPOR KOL KANAF"- "[They, and every beast after its kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth after its kind, and every bird after its kind,] every winged bird." (Bereishis 7:14)

39)[line 43]כדמקשינןKED'MAKSHINAN- as we asked previously (that "Tzipor" must mean kosher and non-kosher birds and "Kanaf" is referring to locusts)

40)[line 43]כדמשנינןKED'MESHANINAN- as we answered previously (that "Tzipor" means only kosher birds and "Kanaf" is referring to both non-kosher birds and locusts)

41)[last line]"ואתה בן אדם, [כה אמר אדני ה',] 'אמור לצפור כל כנף, ...'""V'ATAH BEN ADAM, [KOH AMAR HASH-M ELOKIM,] 'EMOR LI'TZIPOR KOL KANAF, ...'"- "And you, son of man, [thus says HaSh-m G-d,] 'Speak to every winged bird, [and to every beast of the field, "Assemble yourselves, and come; gather yourselves on every side to My sacrificial feast that I prepare for you, a great sacrificial feast upon the mountains of Yisrael, that you may eat flesh and drink blood."']" (Yechezkel 39:17)